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GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1

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Curved earth and a flat map. Geographic Data Model ... Santa Barbara, California. How do we combine these data? Digital Elevation. Models. Watersheds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1


1
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map

2
Six Basic Course Elements
  • Lectures
  • Powerpoint slides
  • Video streaming
  • Readings
  • Arc Hydro GIS in Water Resources
  • Homework
  • Computer exercises
  • Hand exercises
  • Term Project
  • Oral presentation
  • HTML report
  • Class Interaction
  • Email
  • Discussion
  • Examinations
  • Midterm, final

3
Our Classroom
Dr David Tarboton Students at Utah State
University
Dr Ayse Irmak Students at University of Nebraska
- Lincoln
Dr David Maidment Students at UT Austin
4
University Without Walls
5
Learning Styles
  • Instructor-Centered Presentation
  • Community-Centered Presentation

Instructor
Student
We learn from the instructors and each other
6
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map

7
Geographic Data Model
  • Conceptual Model a set of concepts that
    describe a subject and allow reasoning about it
  • Mathematical Model a conceptual model expressed
    in symbols and equations
  • Data Model a conceptual model expressed in a
    data structure (e.g. ascii files, Excel tables,
    …..)
  • Geographic Data Model a conceptual model for
    describing and reasoning about the world
    expressed in a GIS database

8
Data Model based on Inventory of data layers
9
Spatial Data Vector format
Vector data are defined spatially
(x1,y1)
Point - a pair of x and y coordinates
vertex
Line - a sequence of points
Node
Polygon - a closed set of lines
10
Themes or Data Layers
Vector data point, line or polygon features
11
Kissimmee watershed, Florida
Themes
12
Attributes of a Selected Feature
13
Raster and Vector Data
Raster data are described by a cell grid, one
value per cell
Vector
Raster
Point
Line
Zone of cells
Polygon
14
Santa Barbara, California
http//srtm.usgs.gov/srtmimagegallery/index.html
15
How do we combine these data?
Digital Elevation Models
Streams
Watersheds
Waterbodies
16
An integrated raster-vector database
17
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map

18
What is CUAHSI?
UCAR
  • CUAHSI Consortium of Universities for the
    Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc
  • Formed in 2001 as a legal entity
  • Program office in Washington (5 staff)
  • NSF supports CUAHSI to develop infrastructure and
    services to advance hydrologic science in US
    universities

Unidata
Atmospheric Sciences
Ocean Sciences
Earth Sciences
CUAHSI
National Science Foundation Geosciences
Directorate
HIS
19
CUAHSI Member Institutions
122 Universities as of August 2008
20
Hydrologic Information System Goals
  • Data Access providing better access to a large
    volume of high quality hydrologic data
  • Hydrologic Observatories storing and
    synthesizing hydrologic data for a region
  • Hydrologic Science providing a stronger
    hydrologic information infrastructure
  • Hydrologic Education bringing more hydrologic
    data into the classroom.

21
HIS Overview Report
  • Summarizes the conceptual framework, methodology,
    and application tools for HIS version 1.1
  • Shows how to develop and publish a CUAHSI Water
    Data Service
  • Available at

http//his.cuahsi.org/documents/HISOverview.pdf
22
Water Data
Water quantity and quality
Rainfall Snow
Soil water
Modeling
Meteorology
Remote sensing
23
Point Observations Information Model
Utah State Univ
Data Source
Network
Little Bear River
GetSites
Sites
Little Bear River at Mendon Rd
GetSiteInfo
GetVariableInfo
Variables
Dissolved Oxygen
GetValues
Values
9.78 mg/L, 1 October 2007, 5PM
Value, Time, Metadata
  • A data source operates an observation network
  • A network is a set of observation sites
  • A site is a point location where one or more
    variables are measured
  • A variable is a property describing the flow or
    quality of water
  • A value is an observation of a variable at a
    particular time
  • A metadata quantity provides additional
    information about the value

24
WaterML and WaterOneFlow
Penn State
Data
GetSiteInfo GetVariableInfo GetValues
Utah State
Data
NWIS
Data
WaterML
WaterOneFlow Web Service
Data Repositories
Client
EXTRACT
TRANSFORM
LOAD
WaterML is an XML language for communicating
water data WaterOneFlow is a set of web services
based on WaterML
25
WaterOneFlow
  • Set of query functions
  • Returns data in WaterML

26
CUAHSI National Water Metadata Catalog
  • Indexes
  • 50 observation networks
  • 1.75 million sites
  • 8.38 million time series
  • 342 million data values

NWIS
STORET
TCEQ
27
Synthesis and communication of the nations water
data http//his.cuahsi.org
Government Water Data
Academic Water Data
National Water Metadata Catalog
Hydroseek
WaterML
28
Texas Water Data Services
Using CUAHSI technology for state and local data
sources (using state funding)
29
Linking Geographic Information Systems and Water
Resources
Water Resources
GIS
30
Arc Hydro GIS for Water Resources
  • Arc Hydro
  • An ArcGIS data model for water resources
  • Arc Hydro toolset for implementation
  • Framework for linking hydrologic simulation
    models

The Arc Hydro data model and application tools
are in the public domain
31
Arc Hydro Hydrography
The blue lines on maps
32
Arc Hydro Hydrology
The movement of water through the hydrologic
system
33
Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral
Model
Relationships between objects linked by tracing
path of water movement
34
Arc Hydro Components
35
Hydrologic Information System
A synthesis of geospatial and temporal data
supporting hydrologic analysis and modeling
36
GIS in Water Resources Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map

37
Origin of Geographic Coordinates
Equator
(0,0)
Prime Meridian
38
Latitude and Longitude
Longitude line (Meridian)
N
W
E
S
Range 180ºW - 0º - 180ºE
Latitude line (Parallel)
N
W
E
S
(0ºN, 0ºE) Equator, Prime Meridian
Range 90ºS - 0º - 90ºN
39
Latitude and Longitude in North America
40 50 59 96 45 0
Austin Logan Lincoln
(3018' 22" N, 9745' 3" W)
(4144' 24" N, 11150' 9" W)
(4050' 59" N, 9645' 0" W)
40
Map Projection
Flat Map Cartesian coordinates x,y (Easting
Northing)
Curved Earth Geographic coordinates f,
l (Latitude Longitude)
41
Earth to Globe to Map
Map Projection
Map Scale
Scale Factor
Map distance Globe distance

(e.g. 0.9996)
(e.g. 124,000)
42
Coordinate Systems
A planar coordinate system is defined by a
pair of orthogonal (x,y) axes drawn through an
origin
Y
X
Origin
(xo,yo)
(fo,lo)
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