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Cloning and Reproductive Control

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Title: Cloning and Reproductive Control


1
Cloning and Reproductive Control
  • Dr. Pattle Pun,
  • Dept. of Biology, Wheaton College,
  • Wheaton, IL 60187
  • Pattle.p.pun_at_wheaton.edu

2
From Clone to Man
3
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4
Technology of cloning
5
Mammalian (Non-human)Reproductive Cloning WHY?
  • Accomplish animal husbandry goals
  • Produce genetically identical animal strains
  • Replicate elite farm livestock
  • Animal conservation
  • To produce transgenic livestock
  • Pharming
  • Xenotransplantation
  • Disease-resistant livestock

6
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11
Polly and her sisters secrete human factor IX
in their milka drug needed by hemophiliacs
12
Targeted disruption of a key gene causing tissue
rejection A step closer to xenotransplants?
13
Developments in Human Cloning
  • Abnormal human embryos cloned by embryo
    splittingHall Stillman, 1993
  • Establishment of human ES cell lines first
    reported in 1998 from
  • BlastocystsThomson et al.
  • Germinal tissues of fetusesShamblott, et al.

14
Developments in Human Cloning
  • Several groups are trying to isolate ES cells
    from cloned human embryos
  • Advanced Cell TechnologyCibelli et al., 2001.
  • Roger Pedersenformerly of UCSF
  • Lu Guangxiu (China)isolated ES cells from human
    blastocysts? 2002
  • Advanced Cell Technologyfrom single
    blastomeresKlimanskaya et al., 2006
  • Several groups are reportedly trying to produce
    children from adult nuclear donors
  • Reproductive Cloning vs Therapeutic Cloning (Stem
    Cells)

15
Dr. Severino Antinori and Dr. Panos Zavos
16
Dr. Brigitte Boisselier with Rael
17
  • A human clone has no genetic contribution from
    the mother. If an infertile couple uses human
    cloning to obtain offspring, they will use the
    nucleus of the somatic cells of the husband for
    implantation into the enucleated egg of the
    mother. The resulting clone will always be a male
    who possesses only the characteristics of the
    father

18
  • In 2001, a few fertility researchers in the
    United States and in Italy have begun
    experimenting on human cloning. Many infertile
    couples have already volunteered their sex cells
    for these experiments. These scientists claim
    that they will have successful results in two
    years and predicted that the expenses of human
    cloning will be comparable to artificial
    insemination.

19
  • When the somatic cells from an adult individual
    are cultivated in the laboratory, they will only
    divide and develop into the same kind of somatic
    cells. However, when stem cells derived from
    human embryo are established as cell lines that
    can perpetually divide in the laboratory, they
    can develop into various kinds of human tissues.

20
  • These totipotent characteristics of the human
    stem cells are most promising for medical
    research since these cells can be exploited to
    become potential sources of human transplants to
    replace damaged tissues in many incurable
    diseases.

21
Technology of Stem Cell Research
22
  • Potential benefits of human cloning and stem cell
    research

23
  •  
  • One in 6 couples in developed countries on the
    average is infertile due to genetic or
    environmental causes. Artificial insemination and
    human cloning are amongst the techniques that can
    help these infertile couples to conceive and
    fulfill their desires for procreation.

24
  • In an animal study, Dr. McKay and his
    colleagues Lorenz Studer, M.D., and Viviane
    Tabar, M.D., took neural stem cells from the
    brains of rat embryos and grew them in culture
    dishes with a protein called basic fibroblast
    growth factor that helps the cells survive and
    divide. After the cells multiplied for 6 to 8
    days, the growth factor was removed and the cells
    were allowed to aggregate into free-floating
    spheres of neurons. The neurons in the spheres
    began to develop functioning connections with
    each other, producing dopamine as well as several
    other kinds of neurotransmitters. When the
    spheres were injected into the brains of rats
    that were missing the dopamine-producing region
    on one side of their brains, the rats
    Parkinsonian symptoms gradually diminished. Most
    showed about a 75 percent improvement in motor
    function 80 days after they received the
    transplants.
  •  

25
  • Stem cells can be one of the sources for human
    transplants. For example, scientists have
    successfully cultivated nerve cells that secret
    dopamine, a neurotransmitter, from embryonic stem
    cells. These cells are transplanted into the
    bodies of patients suffering from Parkinsons
    disease in whom the defective nervous system
    lacks dopamine. Their bodies then acquired the
    ability to secret dopamine and they are cured.
    Despite opposing results and side effects that
    are yet to be totally understood and controlled,
    embryonic stem cells seem to also pose promises
    for other incurable diseases such as diabetes.

26
  • Medical and Ethical Challenges

27
  • There are web sites offering human sex cells for
    sale. Sperms of Nobel laureates and eggs of
    beautiful models or female students of
    prestigious institutions of higher learning are
    collected and sold to the highest bidders

28
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29
Special Egg Donor Needed
  • Preferred donor will meet the following criteria
  • Height 5-6 or taller
  • Caucasian
  • High ACT or SAT score
  • College student or graduate under 30
  • No genetic medical issues
  • Extra compensation for gifted athlete,
    science/math student or musician

80,000
30
  • Molecular biologist Professor Lee Silver of
    Princeton University predicted that the 21st
    century will divide human societies into two
    groups according the cloning technology
  • The GeneRich
  • those who are able and/or willing to clone
    themselves,
  • The Naturals
  • those that are unable and/or unwilling to
    clone themselves

31
  • A brave new world envisioned by the eugenic
    movement will become a reality. Unscrupulous
    entrepreneurs and aggressive politicians will use
    reproductive technologies such as human cloning
    and genetic manipulation to control human
    populations and monopolize market economy. The
    net effect may be the polarization of the rich
    and the poor, the haves and the have-nots.
    Totalitarian regimes can exploit the eugenic
    movement to eliminate the unfit of human
    societies!

32
  • Are human clones really human?

33
  • When Dolly was born, she was not an infant sheep
    since she carries the genetic material of the
    nuclear donor. Adult body cells are known to
    gradually lose their telomers (the end sequences
    in the linear chromosomes of most eukaryotic
    cells) because of the lack of telomerase, an
    enzyme found in tumor or embryonic cells which
    can lengthen the telomers during cell division.

34
  • As a result, the life expectancy of Dolly is
    shorter than a newborn sheep. In addition, Dolly
    has obesity problem. At 6, she was given a lethal
    injection after veterinarians discovered she had
    lung cancer. Normal life span of sheep is 12
    years. These symptoms that are
    associated with premature aging are
    also found in other cloned
    animals.

35
Wilmut listed defects occurring regularly in
other cloned animals, including gigantism
(excessive size) in cloned sheep and cattle
placentas of up to four times the normal size in
mice and heart defects in pigs. Despite being
given normal amounts of food, many cloned mice
also become grotesquely fat, while many cloned
cows, sheep and pigs have developmental
difficulties, lung problems and malfunctioning
immune systems. Cloned animals have also shown
a variety of individual defects. A calf cloned in
France appeared to be thriving but suddenly died
at 51 days old after a failure in its ability to
produce white blood cells. Similarly, scientists
at Roslin had to put down a cloned lamb at 12
days old because the muscles around its lungs
were so abnormally thick that it could hardly
breathe.
36
  • Moreover, the success rate of cloned animals is
    extremely low. Dolly was born after 277
    unsuccessful trials. It will be a horrendous
    waste of human embryos if similar experiments are
    carried out in the attempts to clone humans when
    more than 99 of them are destroyed.

37
  • Human clones are not only facing health problems,
    they are also faced with psychological pressures.
    He/She always lives under the shadow of his/her
    nuclear donors and will not have the normal self
    image developed in the traditional nuclear family
    with biological parents.

38
  • Embryonic stems cells can be developed from
    discarded fertilized eggs in fertility clinics,
    aborted or miscarried fetuses. Whenever a human
    fetus is cultivated in the laboratory to develop
    into stem cells, it is no longer viable as a
    human fetus. In other words, the embryo is
    destroyed.
  • While a majority of American supports stem cell
    research, a majority of them oppose it if they
    know that it involves embryo destruction.

39
  • In what stage of embryonic development is the
    fertilized egg accorded the status of a human
    being who is entitled to human right protection?

40
  • In the context of human transplants, should we
    sacrifice one life in order to save another life?

41
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42
Cloning will not provide the claimed medical
treatments Unlikely chance of success in clinical
useDr. James Thomson, USAOdorico JS et al.
Multilineage differentiation from human
embryonic stem cell lines, Stem Cells 19,
193-204 2001Dr. Alan Trounson,
AustraliaTrounson AO The derivation and
potential use of human embryonic stem cells,
Reproduction, Fertility, and Development 13,
523-532 2001Dr. Peter Mombaerts, USA,
Therapeutic cloning in the mouse, Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100,
11924-11925 30 Sept 2003 (published online 29
August 2003) Transplant Rejection will still
occur using cells from cloned embryosDr. Irving
Weissman13 February 2002 before the Presidents
Council on BioethicsDr. John Gearhart25 April
2002 before the Presidents Council on
Bioethics. Cloning not commercially viable
Thomas Okarma, CEO, Geron Corporation (Denise
Gellene, Clone Profit? Unlikely, Los Angeles
Times, May 10, 2002) Developing therapeutic
cloning techniques can lead to reproductive
cloningRobert P. Lanza, Arthur L. Caplan, Lee M.
Silver, Jose B. Cibelli, Michael D. West, Ronald
M. Green The ethical validity of using nuclear
transfer in human transplantation The Journal
of the American Medical Association 284,
3175-3179 27 Dec 27 2000American Society for
Reproductive Medicine Ethics Committee Human
somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)
Fertility and Sterility 74, 873-876 November
2000Woo Suk Hwang, lead author of the South
Korean human cloning study, admitted that the
technique developed in his lab cannot be
separated from reproductive cloning
43
Therapeutic cloning places women at
risk Because both cloning and embryonic stem
cell production are extremely inefficient, a
tremendous number of eggs will be required. For
example, to treat only the 17 million Diabetes
patients in the U.S. Will require at least 1.7
billion human eggs(Optimistically 100 human
eggs/patient, estimated cost US100,000-200,000)M
ombaerts P, Therapeutic cloning in the mouse,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
USA 100, 11924-11925 30 Sept 2003 Prentice DA,
Stem Cells and Cloning, 1st edition, San
Francisco Pearson Education/Benjamin-Cummings,
July 2002 --Collecting 10 eggs/donorWill
require at least 170 million women - childbearing
age donorsHealth risksHigh-dose hormone therapy
and surgery to obtain eggs risks the donors
health and future reproductive successCommercial
exploitationof women globallySOUTH KOREAN HUMAN
CLONING FRAUDCloned human embryos?? no cells,
faked data, paying women for eggs, coercion of
women students
44
  • In fact, recent successes with adult stem cells
    make them a non-controversial and promising
    alternative to embryonic stem cells. These
    rapidly dividing adult cells, such as cells
    derived from bone marrow, placenta, cord blood,
    are also capable of developing into totipotent
    cells. They can also pose promises as potential
    source of human transplants.

45
Adult stem cell capabilities
Some adult stem cells appear to have the
capability to differentiate into tissues other
than the ones from which they originated this is
referred to as plasticity. Reports of human or
mouse adult stem cells that demonstrate
plasticity and the cells they differentiate or
specialize into include 1) blood and bone marrow
(unpurified hematopoietic) stem cells
differentiate into the 3 major types of brain
cells (neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes)
ectoderm, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle
cells mesoderm, and liver cells endoderm 2)
bone marrow (stromal) cells differentiate into
cardiac muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, fat,
bone, and cartilage and 3) brain stem cells
differentiate into blood cells and skeletal
muscle cells. Ibid, Pg. ES-7 emphasis
added
There is no evidence of an adult stem cell that
is pluripotent. It has not been demonstrated that
one adult stem cell can be directed to develop
into any cell type of the body. That is, no adult
stem cell has been shown to be capable of
developing into cells from all three embryonic
germ layers. Stem Cells Scientific Progress and
Future Research Directions, National Institutes
of Health, June 2001 Pg. ES-6 (emphasis added)
Thus, at this stage, any therapies based on the
use of human ES cells are still hypothetical and
highly experimental. Whether embryonic stem
cells will provide advantages over stem cells
derived from cord blood or adult bone marrow
hematopoietic stem cells remains to be
determined. Stem Cells Scientific Progress and
Future Research Directions, National Institutes
of Health, June 2001 Pg. 17, 63
46
Diseases Treated in Human Patients
47
Nuclear Reprogramming of Somatic Cells After
Fusion with Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
Science2005 vol309 iss5739 pg1369
  • The Harvard University team fused lab-grown
    embryonic stem cells with the adult cells to
    create the new stem cell. Researchers believe
    these hybrid embryonic stem cells could help
    disease research without using human embryos.
  • We have explored the use of embryonic stem cells
    as an alternative to oocytes for reprogramming
    human somatic nuclei. Human embryonic stem (hES)
    cells were fused with human fibroblasts,
    resulting in hybrid cells that maintain a stable
    tetraploid DMA content and have morphology,
    growth rate, and antigen expression patterns
    characteristic of hES cells. Differentiation of
    hybrid cells in vitro and in vivo yielded cell
    types from each embryonic germ layer. Analysis of
    genome-wide transcriptional activity, reporter
    gene activation, allele-specific gene expression,
    and DMA methylation showed that the somatic
    genome was reprogrammed to an embryonic state.
    These results establish that hES cells can
    reprogram the transcriptional state of somatic
    nuclei and provide a system for investigating the
    underlying mechanisms

48
In 2006, using PGD, scientists generated two new
stem-cell lines while the embryos survived and
continued to develop
  • pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, or PGD,
    allows doctors to implant in a woman only the
    healthiest embryos that have been conceived
    through in vitro fertilization

49
Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with
potential for therapyNature Biotechnology 25,
100 - 106 (2007) Published online 7 January
2007 doi10.1038/nbt1274
  • Stem cells capable of differentiating to multiple
    lineages may be valuable for therapy. We report
    the isolation of human and rodent amniotic
    fluidderived stem (AFS) cells that express
    embryonic and adult stem cell markers.
    Undifferentiated AFS cells expand extensively
    without feeders, double in 36 h and are not
    tumorigenic. Lines maintained for over 250
    population doublings retained long telomeres and
    a normal karyotype. AFS cells are broadly
    multipotent. Clonal human lines verified by
    retroviral marking were induced to differentiate
    into cell types representing each embryonic germ
    layer, including cells of adipogenic, osteogenic,
    myogenic, endothelial, neuronal and hepatic
    lineages. Examples of differentiated cells
    derived from human AFS cells and displaying
    specialized functions include neuronal lineage
    cells secreting the neurotransmitter L-glutamate
    or expressing G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying
    potassium channels, hepatic lineage cells
    producing urea, and osteogenic lineage cells
    forming tissue-engineered bone.

50
  • The United States House of Representatives have
    voted to ban research on human cloning.
  • The President of the United States has also
    recently decided that federal support will not be
    available to support any research based on
    embryonic stem cells created after August 9,
    2001. In September 2006, He also vetoed a bill
    which allows couples who have had embryos frozen
    for fertility treatments to donate them to
    researchers rather than let them be destroyed.
  • September 2006, Two companion bills -- one to
    promote alternative means of developing stem-cell
    lines from sources such as placental blood and
    another to ban the commercial production of human
    fetal tissue were passed unanimously in the US
    Senate. The former bill was rejected by the
    House.
  • UNITED NATIONS, March 8, 2005 -- The U.N. General
    Assembly adopted a declaration that calls on
    governments to ban all forms of human cloning
    that are "incompatible with human dignity and the
    protection of human life." (Opposed by UK,
    Belgium and China.)

51
Ethics of Reproductive Control
  • Utilitarian Views
  • Rosss theory of Beneficence
  • Kantian Categorical Imperatives
  • Natural Law

52
Utilitarian Views
  • 1. Does Reproductive Technology bring more
    happiness?
  • 2. Does Reproductive Technology affect society
    adversely?

53
Rosss theory of Beneficence
  • Does Reproductive Technology promote the
    well-being of others?

54
Kantian Categorical Imperative
  • Can Reproductive Technology be universalized in
    all circumstances?

55
http//www.bioethics.gov/
56
Kantian Categorical Imperative Autonomy
57
Human Cloning and Human Dignity An Ethical
InquiryThe President's Council on Bioethics,
Washington, D.C.,July 2002
We believe that a permanent ban on
cloning-to-produce-children coupled with a
four-year moratorium on cloning-for-biomedical-res
earch would be the best way for our society to
express its firm position on the former, and to
engage in a properly informed and open democratic
deliberation on the latter.
58
David King Savior Sibling Illicit
  • 1. Human beings an end, not a means.
  • 2. Tissue Farms?
  • http//lime.theisland-themovie.com/trailer/interna
    tional_1.html
  • 3. Born to be donors second class?

59
Recent Controversies
  • Embryo Adoption?
  • http//www.nightlight.org/snowflakeadoption.htm
  • State Funding for Stem Cell Research?
  • http//www.ncsl.org/programs/health/genetics/embfe
    t.htm
  • California's stem-cell initiative on hold
  • http//www.csmonitor.com/2006/0308/p03s03-stss.htm
    l

60
Natural Law
  • Part 1 Respect for Human Embryos

61
Natural Law
  • 2. Is Prenatal Diagnosis Licit?
  • Not if Abortion is an alternative outcome.

62
Natural Law
  • 1. What Respect is Due to the Human Embryo,
    Taking Into Account His Nature and Identity?
  • The human being must be respected as a person
    from the very first instant of his existence.

63
Natural Law
  • 3. Are Therapeutic Procedures Carried Out on the
    Human Embryo Licit?
  • Yes if they are for the benefits for the embryos
    at minimal risks.

64
Natural Law
  • 4. How Is One to Evaluate Morally Research and
    Experimentation on Human Embryos and Fetuses?
  • Integrity of the Human Embryos
  • Informed and Free Parental Consent

65
Natural Law
  • 5. How is One to Evaluate Morally the Use for
    Research Purposes of Embryos Obtained by IVF?
  • Voluntary destruction of human embryos for the
    purpose of research created by IVF is morally
    wrong.

66
Natural Law
  • 6. What Judgment Should be Made on Other
    Procedures of Manipulating Embryos Connected with
    Reproductive Technology?
  • They are contrary to the dignity of the human
    embryos and are immoral.

67
Natural Law
  • Part II. Intervention upon Human Procreation

68
Natural Law
  • A. Heterologous Artificial Fertilization and
    Surrogate Motherhood
  • Why Must Human Procreation Take Place in
    Marriage?
  • Respect for the fidelity of married couples.
  • Respect God for the gift of children.
  • Violation of the One Flesh essence of marriage

69
Natural Law
  • B. Homologous Artificial Insemination
  • Because it is in opposition to the dignity of
    procreation and of the conjugal union even though
    everything is done to insure the integrity of the
    embryos, it is immoral.
  • Possible exceptions cases for miscarriages?

70
  • Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith 1987
  • Respect for the humanity and dignity of the
    embryo, and the nature of marriage, provide moral
    grounds to evaluate recent developments in
    assisted reproduction
  • Impermissible
  • Prenatal diagnosis for abortion.
  • Risky therapeutic intervention in utero.
  • Nontherapeutic research on embryos.
  • Creating and maintaining embryos for research or
    sale, as well as destroying them.
  • Cross species fertilization.
  • Gestation of a human embryo other than in a human
    womb.
  • Use of human genetic material in procedures like
    cloning, parthenogenesis, and twin fission.
  • Manipulation of genetic material for sex
    selection or positive eugenics.
  • AI for unmarried persons or widows.
  • Acquiring sperm by masturbation.
  • Surrogate motherhood.
  • Permissible
  • Medical and drug therapy to promote fertility.
  • Prenatal diagnosis for fetuss benefit.
  • Prenatal therapeutic intervention and genetic
    manipulation to heal the developing unborn child.

71
Statement by the Vatican on Cloned Human Embryo ,
Nov. 27, 2001
  • "Therefore, notwithstanding the declared
    'humanistic' intentions of those who announce
    amazing cures through this method, that will go
    via the cloning industry, a calm but firm
    evaluation is necessary that will show the moral
    gravity of this project and motivate its
    unequivocal condemnation. The principle that de
    facto has been introduced, in the name of health
    and well- being, sanctions, in fact, a true and
    proper discrimination among human beings based on
    the measure of time of their development (thus an
    embryo is worth less than a fetus, and a fetus
    less than a child, a child less than an adult),
    overturning the moral imperative that imposes,
    instead, the greatest care and maximum respect
    precisely of those who are not in a condition to
    defend themselves and to show their intrinsic
    dignity.
  • "On the other hand, stem cell research shows that
    other paths are available, morally licit and
    valid from a scientific point of view, such as
    the utilization of stem cells that have been
    taken, for example, from an adult individual
    (there are many in each one of us), from maternal
    blood or from fetuses that were aborted
    spontaneously. This is the path that every honest
    scientist must follow to the end of reserving
    maximum respect for man, that is, for himself."

72
  • Guidelines according to the Scriptures

73
  • After the first human couple sinned, the human
    race has been subject to death, disease and pain
    (Gen. 3). The paradox of a loving Creator
    allowing human suffering is only resolved in the
    Incarnation, Crucifixion and Resurrection of our
    Lord Jesus Christ.

74
  • (A) The purpose of human life is for the glory
    of God. God created us for His glory. (Is. 437).

75
  • While eliminating human suffering is a noble
    cause, there may be a higher purpose for some
    incurable diseases after all human efforts are
    exhausted, as Paul has experienced from the thorn
    in his flesh. (II Cor. 127-9) Jesus did not
    confront the origins of congenital diseases. Yet
    He made it clear that the ultimate purpose of the
    healing of the man blind from birth was that the
    works of God might be displayed in him (Jn.
    93).

76
  • Infertile couples should not pursue human cloning
    that risks the destruction of potential lives or
    creating defective human embryos in their
    attempts to have biological offspring. This is
    exactly the reason used by the mainstream
    scientific establishment to oppose
    experimentation on human cloning. Infertile
    couples should explore other avenues of having
    children such as adoption of unwanted children or
    embryo adoption.

77
  • (B) Human Being, Created in the Image of God,
    Became a Living Being by the Direct Involvement
    of God.

78
  • Humans were created in the Image of God. (Gen. 1
    26-27). Gods act of the breathing into the
    nostrils of man the breath of life to make him a
    living being (Gen. 27) strongly suggests a
    direct involvement of God in mans life. After
    the creation of the first couple, the capability
    for procreation or the potentials of the human
    gene pool that generated the entire human race is
    also divinely endowed. (Gen. 128, 2 24).

79
  • The Scriptures emphasize children are the
    inheritance given by God (Ps. 1273). Invitro
    fertilization using the sex cells of an infertile
    couple and implantation of these artificially
    inseminated embryos into the wifes uterus has
    been successfully carried out. These children can
    be a gift of God made possible by good
    stewardship on the parts of scientists who
    develop these technologies. Preimplantation
    Genetic Diagnosis may be a way to produce normal
    children by IVF from disease carriers.

80
  • However, if the sole purpose of artificial
    insemination is to create human embryos for
    experiments in human cloning, then the line of
    violation of human rights may have been crossed.
    Human clones are products of asexual reproduction
    which lacks the normal process of genetic
    recombination during meiosis characteristic of
    sexual reproduction that gives rise to variations
    amongst the offspring of a couple. In addition,
    human clones will have shorter life spans. Even
    though the technology of human cloning can be
    improved, the human clones will live in the
    perpetuate shadow of identity crisis. They will
    always be second-class citizens. Humans are
    always an end in themselves, never a means.
  •  

81
Conclusion
  • Establishment of Scriptural principles that
    will safeguard human dignity and prevent abuse of
    human rights for reproductive technologies.

82
Baby Hope born as a means to an end?
  • CBS News A Miracle 'Baby Hope' July 14,
    2003 171639

Miracle of Life http//abcnews.go.com/search?searc
htextmiracle20of20lifetype
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