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LEGAL ISSUES OF HUMAN CLONING AND THERAPUTIC CLONING

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LEGAL ISSUES OF HUMAN CLONING AND THERAPUTIC CLONING WORLDWIDE CLONING RESEARCH LEGSLATION CLONING ANIMALS A costly and lengthy approach Dolly: 1 out of 276 attempts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LEGAL ISSUES OF HUMAN CLONING AND THERAPUTIC CLONING


1
LEGAL ISSUES OF HUMAN CLONING AND THERAPUTIC
CLONING
2
WORLDWIDE CLONING RESEARCH LEGSLATION
3
CLONING ANIMALS
  • A costly and lengthy approach
  • Dolly 1 out of 276 attempts
  • Mouse 100 blastocysts transferred to wombs,
    seventy-one were able to take, from which between
    five and sixteen fetuses developed, and
    eventually two or three live mice were born
  • Only private funded research with creation of
    embryo is allowed in States

4
PRIVATIZED CLONING RESEARCH
  • Research carried out in commercial labs is not as
    accessible and amenable to being judged and
    criticized by other scientists.
  • High demand of human ova can result in
    uncontrollable coercion or exploitation of ova
    donors
  • The absence of transparency and scrutiny not only
    hinders scientific advance but also can make the
    public, and lawmakers, nervous.
  • Legislation of identity, rights and status of
    clones must be established before any human
    cloning research is permitted

5
CLONE IDENTITY
  • The most accurate human identity diagnosis will
    fail (e.g. DNA profile, fingerprints)
  • Difficulties of enforcing laws
  • Criminal identity
  • Inherited properties between donor and clone
  • Kinship of offsprings
  • Relatives approval immigration, etc.

6
TREATING CLONES AS NORMAL INDIVIDUALS
  • Will citizenship granted for clones?
  • Clones carried with mutations from donors
  • Should our current health care system support a
    multiplying clone population with inherited
    diseases?
  • Will handicapped clones receive public support by
    providing with extra privileges?

7
TREATING CLONES AS SUB-HUMANS
  • How can we treat sub-humans?
  • Will we have right to destroy clones at certain
    physical state and age to save medical care?
  • Will the discrimination of legislation between
    human and clone become slavery?
  • What if clones have significant support of the
    society?

8
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9
ANTI-CLONING
  • Ethics

10
Threat to a person's individuality and uniqueness
  • Genetically identical with another person
  • Feel that they are a less unique individual than
    other people
  • Because they genetically identical, they will
    have almost everything in common with their
    genetic parent

11
Relationship problems
  • Kinship problems within the family
  • Social relationships
  • Relationship problems within the family

12
It's too risky
  • At present, it is experimental and unpredictable
  • Carries a high risk of abnormality in the
    resulting child
  • Put both the cell donor and the birth mother at
    risk
  • High failure rate

13
Eugenics Start of a Brave New World
  • Encourages selective breeding
  • Discriminate against people
  • Genocide is an extreme form of eugenics
  • Could be used to produce an superior master race
    and underclass of slaves

14
We should not play God !
  • Nature has devised the proper way to make babies,
    and we shouldn't interfere with natural law by
    doing it in a different way
  • A child conceived in the normal way is a unique
    product of the union of its mother and father
    and is not a genetic replica of either parent.
  • In normal procreation, the genes of a child are
    determined by chance through the fruitful union
    of two people

15
It involves murdering embryos
  • Cloning inevitably involves throwing away some
    fertilized embryos, and at the current stage of
    development many of the embryos selected to live
    fail to develop and eventually die before birth

16
Emotional Distress
  • Emotions involving dealing with moral dilemmas
  • If emotions are part of how we decide that
    something is wrong, then we need to accept some
    kinds of emotional reaction as part of our
    ethical thinking

17
Human cloning may cause unexpected demographic
changes
  • Cloning could alter the ratio of males and
    females in the population
  • Cloning could accelerate the move away from the
    two parent family
  • Cloning could alter the age of parents relative
    to their children, by allowing people to have
    children at a later age
  • If there was general agreement on the sort of
    people who were desirable, society could become
    more homogeneous

18
Cloning reduces human beings to manufactured
products
  • The way a person comes into being affects their
    value - or their dignity
  • People should be made by an act of love between
    their parents, not by a laboratory process
  • Supposing a particular embryo turns out to be
    very good - someone could patent its genes and
    use it to manufacture lots of similar clones for
    profit. That would degrade people

19
Problems of power
  • Invokes a degree of power and control over the
    physical identity of other persons

20
Take-home Message
21
Issues In CloningLoss of Biodiversity
22
What is Biodiversity
  • Three types of Biodiversity
  • habitat diversity, genetic diversity, and species
    diversity
  • Of these Genetic Diversity is at risk through
    Cloning
  • Why is Genetic Diversity So Important?
  • Conveys the small differences between members of
    a species that promote the survival and continued
    improvement of the species as a whole
  • Darwinian Evolution

23
Genetic Biodiversity
  • Why should humans worry about diversity?
  • Many traits are being linked to genetics which
    were previously though to be unrelated including
    anger, intelligence and obesity.
  • Diversity allows our species to flourish
  • Exceptional individuals such as Einstein DeVinci
    have greatly molded the advancement of human
    society.
  • Genetic Diversity is essential to disease
    resistance (survival of the species)
  • AIDS, Plague (CCR5)

24
Examples of Diversity Problems
  • The problems caused by a loss in genetic
    biodiversity are real.
  • Bananas
  • Worldwide crops are threatened by a fungal
    pathogen
  • This is dues to the clonal nature in which banana
    crops grow
  • Cloned Trees
  • Some trees are more resistant than others to
    certain diseases. Forest companies have to ensure
    that a wide enough variety of clones is used to
    repopulate a forest to prevent potential disaster

25
Other Genetic Diversity Problems
  • Other genetic problems could arise in a clonal
    society, similar to those observed in inbreeding
  • Clones of clones could pick up mutations through
    each passage.
  • Mutations in haplosufficient genes
  • Mutations in haploinsufficient genes

26
REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
27
METHOD
SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER
28
PARTHENOGENESIS
29
INSTABILITY AND UNPREDICTABILITY
  • DNA TRANSFERRED IS ALREADY DIFFERENTIATED
  • DIFFERENTIATED SOMATIC CELLS FORMATTED
    DIFFERENTLY FROM GERM CELLS
  • DIFFERENTIATED DNA MUST BE
  • REPROGRAMMED TO ALLOW EMBRYOGENESIS
  • BUT HOW??

30
  • NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING
  • REQUIRES REMOVAL OF EPIGENIC MODIFICATIONS
    IMPOSED ON DIFFERENTIATED CHROMATIN
  • OOCYTE CAN REVERSE THESE ALTERATIONS TO A
  • STATE OF TOTIPOTENCY
  • HOW THIS IS DONE IS CURRENTLY UNKNOWN
  • HOW EFFICIENT IS THIS??
  • FOR EVERY ANIMAL CLONED, HUNDREDS FAIL!!

31
  • MORE ON EFFICACY
  • MANY FAILURES AND DEFECTS
  • NO DEFINED ASPECTS OF FAULTY DEVELOPMENT
  • RATHER, CLONING PROCESS CREATES RANDOM ERRORS IN
    INDIVIDUAL GENE EXPRESSION
  • MAY PRODUCE A MANY NUMBER OF UNPREDICTIBLE
    PROBLEMS
  • DOES NOT INVOLVE CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATION
  • DEFECTS CANNOT BE DETECTED BEFORE BIRTH

32
  • THE TELOMERE PROBLEM
  • AGE OF A EUKARYOTE RELATED TO LENGTH OF ITS
  • TELOMERES
  • TELOMERES RELATED TO CHROMOSOMAL INTEGRITY
  • TELOMERE LENGTH OF SOMATIC CELLS MUCH
  • SHORTER THAN GERM CELLS
  • FOR SUCCESSFUL CLONING, ONE MUST TURN BACK THE
  • CLOCK!!

33
  • REJUVINATION
  • THE ENZYME RESPONSIBLE FOR EXTENDING THE
  • TELOMERES IS TELOMERASE
  • THIS ENZYME IS NOT NORMALLY PRESENT IN SOMATIC
  • CELLS, BUT SOME HAVE SHOWN ITS ACTIVITY IN CLONED
    EMBRYONIC CELLS
  • THIS MAY SUGGEST THAT THE OOCYTE CAN TURN BACK
    THE CLOCK
  • HOWEVER!!

34
  • NEW EVIDENCE SUGGESTS SENESCENCE OF DONOR CELLS
    IS NOT RESTORED
  • 14 CATTLE CLONED USING DONOR CELLS FROM MUSCLE,
    OVIDUCT, MAMMARY, AND EAR SKIN
  • SHOW REMARKABLE VARIATION IN TELOMERE LENGHTS
  • SOME MUCH LONGER OR MUCH SHORTER THAN DONOR
  • SUGGESTS THAT CLONING DOES NOT NECESSARILY
    RESTORE TELOMERE CLOCK
  • NUCLEAR TRANSFER ITSELF ITSELF MAY COMMONLY
    TRIGGER AN ELONGATION OF TELOMERES, MORE OR LESS
    ACCORDING TO DONOR TYPE
  • Myashita et. Al Biol Reprod 2002
    Jun66(6)1649-55

35
  • GENETIC DEFECTS
  • DOLLY-SHORTENED TELOMERES
  • HEART DEFECTS IN PIGS
  • OBESITY IN CLONED MICE
  • GIGANTISM IN CLONED SHEEP AND CATTLE
  • PLACENTA OF 4X NORMAL SIZE IN MICE
  • DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN , LUNG PROBLEMS,
  • AND MALFUNCTIONING IMMUNE SYSTEMS IN CLONED
  • COWS, SHEEP AND PIGS

36
  • EVIDENCE THUS FAR
  • CLONING IS STILL POORLY UNDERSTOOD
  • CLONING IS FAR TOO INEFFICIENT
  • GIVEN THESE FACTORS, IT WOULD BE DANGEROUS AND
  • IRRESPONSIBLE TO ATTEMPT TO CLONE HUMAN BEINGS
  • CLONING OF ANIMALS SHOULD NOT CONTINUE GIVEN
  • THE ABNORMALITIES THAT RENDER THESE PRACTICES
  • UNETHICAL

37
  • MISCONCEPTIONS BORDERING ON IDIOCY
  • CLONED INDIVIDUALS DO NOT IN FACT APPEAR
  • ADULT SIZE FROM TANKS FILLED WITH EMBRYONIC
  • FLUID
  • CLONED INDIVIDUALS WILL NOT HAVE ALL THE
  • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DONOR
  • ALTHOUGH THE TWO WILL BE GENETICALLY
  • EQUIVALENT (GIVEN NO SEVERE ABNORMAITIES)
  • PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER DEVELOP IN
  • CONTEXT OF EXPERIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT

38
Why Clone ?
39
Organ Harvesting
  • The ability to create individuals with
    near-identical genetics would allow for easier
    organ transplantation
  • This is fraught with perils as killing someone is
    illegal and organ removal greatly weakens the
    donor
  • Cloning is horribly inefficient as it is quite
    difficult to even create a clone let alone
    waiting for one to develop to an appropriate age
    for adult organ transplantation

40
Embryonic vs. Adult Stem Cells
  • Only embryonically harvested stem cells are
    created through cloning
  • The conversion of adult cells into cells with
    stem cell like features does not require cloning
  • All that is required to create adult stem cells
    is extraction of cells and treatment with media
    to stimulate differentiated cells to
    undifferentiate and adopt a stem cell like
    phenotype

41
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42
Disease Treatment
  • Brain tumours
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Solid tumours
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Breast cancer
  • Non-Hodgkins lymphoma
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Systemic lupus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Anaemia
  • Stroke
  • Immuno-deficiency.

43
Therapeutic Cloning
  • At this time there are no practical roles for
    cloning in therapeutics
  • Organ harvesting is unethical and suffers from
    both inefficiency and a long gestation period
  • Stem cell transplantation while a viable therapy
    has been shown to be effective using adult stem
    cells removing the need to use cloning to produce
    embryonic stem cells

44
Where have all the bananas gone?
  • The banana, discovered in South East Asia 10,000
    years ago, faces extinction due to parasites that
    resist drugs.
  • Bananas can only reproduce clonally making it
    difficult to breed new, improved varieties and
    therefore impossible for them to adapt to drug
    resistant pathogens

45
Dont let this happen to us
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