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New Reproductive Options: New Ethical Questions

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New Reproductive Options: New Ethical Questions Dianne Bartels, RN, MA, PhD Center for Bioethics University of Minnesota Objectives To examine the individual and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Reproductive Options: New Ethical Questions


1
New Reproductive Options New Ethical Questions
  • Dianne Bartels, RN, MA, PhD
  • Center for Bioethics
  • University of Minnesota

2
Objectives
  • To examine the individual and social consequences
    of new biological technologies by looking at
    reproductive options
  • To describe the range of current reproductive
    technologies
  • To identify ethical questions that arise in the
    context of offering new reproductive options

3
Reproductive Options
  • prenatal testing
  • artificial insemination - by spouse or donor
  • egg donation
  • in vitro fertilization
  • pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
  • surrogacy contract
  • embryo adoption
  • cloning?

4
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5
SNUPPY
6
Embryo Adoption
  • Embryo adoption - proposed as an alternative
    after discussion of stem cell transplantation and
    cloning.
  • A response to a question about whether existing
    IVF embryos are really spare (unwanted)
    embryos.

7
Embryo Adoption
  • Snowflake Embryo Adoption Program promises to
    help genetic parents find a suitable home for
    their pre-born children giving genetic parents
    some control over their destiny
  • abc news email 8/22/02

8
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9
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10
Genetic testing now offers the option to test
for susceptibilities to diseases like cystic
fibrosis, breast cancer, or Fanconis Anemia
genetics will become the new paradigm for
health care.
11
Prenatal testing is often the first application
of new tests. So, what tests should be
done/allowed?
12
  • One moral question is whether the end, (e.g.
    having a healthy child) justify the means
  • prenatal testing
  • offering the choices about whether to continue a
    pregnancy
  • selecting embryos

13
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14
Alzheimer Disease
  • A 30 year old asymptomatic woman with a genetic
    mutation consistent with early onset Alzheimer
    disease was identified by predictive testing
  • She requested and received PGD which resulted in
    the birth a child free of inherited
    predisposition to early-onset AD

15
Boy conceived to be deaf at center of ethics
uproar
  • Taking the idea of genetic engineering to a
    whole new level a couple deliberately have
    conceived a deaf son because they think the
    inability to hear is a cultural identity, not
    a disability.
  • Chicago Sun Times 4/10/ 02

16
Does the child have a right to know?
  • In fact a majority of couples who have used
    gamete donation to conceive their children do not
    intend to tell their children?

17
Ethical Challenges
  • Destruction of Embryos
  • Status of embryos (personhood)
  • Right to reproduce
  • Best interest of the child
  • using a child as a means to anothers end
  • was Adam Nash born to perform
  • Commodification - product orientation
  • selecting traits of children

18
Egg Donor Needed
  • Large financial incentive
  • Intelligent, athletic egg donor needed/for loving
    family
  • You must be at least 5 10
  • Have a 1400 SAT Score
  • Possess no family medical issues
  • 50,000
  • Free medical screening
  • All expenses paid

19
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20
Ethical Challenges
  • Family and community responsibility
  • to have a healthy child
  • to share genetic risk information
  • Eugenics - harm to society
  • discrimination against the disabled
  • Justice-resource allocation
  • 186,000,000 people in developing countries have
    little or no access to basic health care
  • 46 million people have little or no access to
    health care in the U.S.
  • cost is prohibitive, here and there
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