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October 22nd

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According to the reading, we can't be considered a 'melting pot, ... Do We Live Together? Residential segregation is highest for: Blacks (32-57%) Latinos (23-46 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: October 22nd


1
October 22nd
  • Sign in and deposit participation cards
  • Lecture 5 Racial Stratification
  • Homework
  • Response paper 3
  • Readings
  • Savage Inequalities Children in Americas
    Schools
  • The Hispanic Dropout Mystery
  • Racial Stratification and Education in the United
    States Why Inequality Persists

2
Lecture 5
  • Racial Stratification

3
Why do we have racial inequality today?
4
(No Transcript)
5
Are we even at the same salad bar?
  • According to the reading, we cant be considered
    a melting pot, but must be considered a salad
    bowl
  • Pluralism population is characterized by two or
    more cultural traditions
  • Who is an American?

6
Racial Triangle American Race Relations in
History
1st Class Citizens Whites
2nd Class Citizens Blacks
3rd Class Citizens Native Americans
7
Need to understand our racial roots
  • Racial and ethnic groups that were forced into
    American society have historically been
    disadvantaged in the opportunity structure and
    experience segregation today
  • Black, Latino, and Native American
  • Racial and ethnic groups that have voluntarily
    come to the US have seen higher levels of
    integration
  • European, Asian

8
Racial Stratification Cultural Differentiation
  • Cultural differentiation
  • The greater and more visible the cultural
    distinctions, the more likely there is to be
    conflict
  • Ethnocentrism Individual Racism
  • White Privilege ones culture and social
    advantage in society is seen as normal and
    objective
  • Others must assimilate
  • As a white person, I realized I had been taught
    about racism as something that puts others at a
    disadvantage, but had been taught not to see one
    of its corollary aspects, white privilege, which
    puts me at an advantage.

9
Understanding Privilege
  • Structures of privilege are often invisible to us
  • I was taught to see racism only in individual
    acts of meanness, not in invisible systems
    conferring dominance on my group
  • Individuals with privilege are not responsible
    for the circumstances that brought them
    privilege, but they are responsible for how they
    respond to it

10
Racial Stratification Structural differentiation
  • Institutional Racism unchallenged and customary
    way of doing things in society that keep minority
    groups in subordinate or disadvantaged positions
  • Unequal Opportunity Structure
  • Social structure can encourage or reduce
    inequality among racial and ethnic groups

11
Historical Race Relations When Race Mattered
  • Race caste oppression in the Ante-bellum South
    (pre-1865)
  • Slavery economic system based on race
  • Class conflict and racial oppression (1865- 1964)
  • Split-labor market racial conflict over jobs
  • De Jure Segregation separation of racial and
    ethnic groups in daily activities
  • Civil service, housing, education, marriage

12
What is the Racial Legacy?
  • According to William J. Wilson, class position
    now matters more than race in defining life
    chances (Wilson)
  • Political changes broke down racial barriers, but
    economic inequalities exist
  • De Facto Segregation Formal segregation replaced
    with informal segregation today
  • Underclass segment of the population with
    limited social mobility due to economic
    subordination
  • Perpetuated by residential, occupation, and
    education segregation

13
Occupational Segregation
  • Occupations in which at least 25 are African
    American
  • Taxi driver, postal clerk, correctional officer,
    security guard, nurses aid/health aid, barber
  • Occupations in which at least 25 are Latino/a
  • Private house cleaner, maid/janitor, gardener,
    construction worker, farm worker, food service

14
An Invisible Class?
  • Invisible class those who are economically
    invisible
  • Minority status
  • Recent Immigrants
  • Undocumented

15
Residential Segregation
  • New Deal Polices and GI Bill created a legacy of
    residential segregation
  • Between 1934 and 1962, the federal government
    backed 120 billion of home loans more than 98
    went to whites
  • Created segregated white suburbs
  • Since 1970, residential segregation declined for
    Hispanics and Asians

16
Diversity in Bay Area
  • Index of Diversity
  • Most Diverse - Alameda County
  • Least Diverse Marin County
  • Largest Percentage of
  • Black Americans Alameda and Solano (14)
  • Latino/Latina Santa Clara (11)
  • Asian Americans San Francisco (30)

17
Do We Live Together?
  • Residential segregation is highest for
  • Blacks (32-57)
  • Latinos (23-46)
  • Asians (!5-28)
  • Santa Clara County
  • Black White 59
  • Latino- White 52
  • Asian White 34

18
Changes in Education Access
  • 1950s 1970s saw gains in education
  • By 1976 Black and White high school graduation
    were nearly the same
  • Late 1990s seeing decline or stagnation in equal
    education
  • 1998 non-white enrollment at UCB dropped 45 and
    at UCLA 36

19
Disparities in Educational Attainment
20
Separate unequal
  • If schools act as sorting mechanisms, what
    happens when the schools are unequal?

21
Racial Stratification Today
  • Three areas of informal segregation exist today
    that perpetuate racial/ethnic stratification
  • Residential
  • Educational
  • Occupational
  • All of these are tied to wealth, which is the
    engine of social mobility
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