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Linkages between US and Latin America


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Title: Linkages between US and Latin America

Linkages between US and Latin America
  • Lecture 8, Part III
  • Geog 313

Migration Network
  • Kinship
  • Friendship
  • Paisanaje
  • Voluntary Organization

Characteristics of Migration Networks
  • Memory
  • Acquired new meaning
  • Develop over time
  • Materialized and defined migration network

  • Important bases for migration social organization
    and family connections.
  • Provides a safe environment for new and future
  • Family relationships relations- provide
    assistance, information, and services.
  • Father-son, brothers, uncle-nephews, cousins,
  • Kinship connection are reinforced through
    frequent interaction on important occasions. Ex.
    Wedding, baptism, quinceaneras, death, and births.

  • Are networks created between individuals that
    grew up together, roughly the same age, and
    shared a formative experience (church or sports).
  • In this network the assistances include finding
    housing, jobs, pooling resources, and borrowing
    or loaning money.
  • This type of network grows as new friends from
    different communities are formed through work,
    housing, and leisure activities.
  • Regional alliances within Mexico also favor the
    formation of friendships such from Jalisco or

  • Origin from the same place is not a meaningful
    basis of social organization for people while
    they are in their home country.
  • It becomes meaningful when they encounter each
    other outside their home country.
  • The strength of the paisanaje tie depends on the
    strangeness of the environment and the nature of
    the prior relationship.
  • An example of this network is manifested through
    fiestas that celebrate a patron saint form their
    home country. Ex. Dia de los muertos.

Voluntary Organizations
  • This network provides mechanisms that facilitate
    the formation and maintenance of social ties.
  • Voluntary associations created by migrants in the
    United States promote
  • regular interpersonal contact
  • greatly facilitating the process of adaptation
    and mutual assistance.
  • Soccer is an example of this type of voluntary
  • Create a space.
  • Focal point for social activities.
  • Establish new friendships with people from other
    places in Mexico.
  • Help immigrants to establish or sometimes
    reintegrate into a community.
  • Social interaction

Development of Networks
  • Migration networks are valuable adaptive
    resources in a strange environment.
  • The interaction of people, goods, and information
    circulation helps create linkages between the
    Mexico and the U.S.
  • Connectivity increases as the quantity and
    quality of networks increases.
  • Social Capital is created by migrant
    experiences and knowledge. Ex. where to cross
    and how to obtain jobs.
  • As networks grow and mature, peoples
    participation in voluntary organizations

Formation of Daughter Communities
  • Channelization of immigrants occur as social
    networks focus increasingly on specific
  • Migrants move to a particular place because that
    is where networks lead them and provide the
    greatest opportunity to success.
  • Daughter Communities are permanent settlement
    communities in the United States with specific
    linkages to communities in Mexico.
  • Allow circular migration
  • Provide a permanent settlement.
  • Provide extensive links between the parent and
    daughter communities.
  • Changes the Paisanaje networks as immigrants
    began marrying American or second generations

  • Recent studies have focused on the three measures
    of integration of labor markets in the global
  • The proportion of foreigners in the domestic
  • The ratio of the domestic force in
    export-dependent industries and employed by
    domestic affiliates of foreign multi-national
  • Remittances that contribute to a home countrys
    GNP and provide it with valuable foreign
  • In this case, they propose using the ratio of
    remittances to gross domestic product (GDP) as an
    indicator of integration.

  • Studies of three remittances have often focused
    on three issues
  • The wealth- generating capacity of remittances
    through saving and investments.
  • The factors influencing their flow.
  • The effects of remittances in the recipient
    economies at the household level.
  • What studies have concluded about remittances is
    that they have important effects on
  • economic growth
  • trade
  • the distribution of wealth in the home recipient
  • different patterns of economic behavior

  • Latin Americas economy has become more
    integrated through trade and investments.
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Southern Cone countries, (MERCOSUR).
  • Latin American Free Trade Area (FTAA)
  • Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)
  • However, Remittances have emerged as the leading
    economic indicator with the most potential.

Family Remittances
  • Latin American migration to the U.S. in the 1970s
    and 1980s have created new linkages between
  • Individual-individuals (family)
  • Towns-towns (Hometown associations)
  • Cities-cities
  • Countries-countries (trade agreements)
  • Regions-regions (CAFTA)
  • Family remittances are currently one of the most
    important forms of linkage among emigrant Latinos
    and Latin America.

Family Remittances
  • Researchers have focused on two aspects of the
    globalization of remittances
  • Scope (Stretching)- are the agents in the
    circular migration such as market intermediaries,
    governments, hometown associations, international
    groups, and individuals.
  • Intensity (Strengthen)- relates to the level of
    involvement of the previous agents in affecting
    the impact of remittances in the receiving
  • In other words, the boundaries of spaces are
    stretched, and already existing networks are

Family Remittances
  • How important are remittances in Latin America?
  • The volume of remittances began increasing in the
  • Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and
    Nicaragua remittances have increased from nearly
    1 billion in 1980 to 3.7 billion in 1990 and
    over 10 billion dollars in 2000!!!!
  • Just in Mexico alone, remittances increased from
    800 million in 1980, to 2.4 billion in 1990,
    and to 6.5 billion in 2000.
  • In Mexico, remittances represents 10 of the
    total value of exports, nearly as much as tourism.

Family Remittances
  • How important are remittances in Latin America?
  • Remittances in Latin America during 2002
    increased by 17.6 reaching over 32 billion.
  • Latin America is now the number one destination
    for remittances worldwide.
  • Remittances to every L.A. country except Bolivia
    increased by 10 in 2002
  • Colombia (28),
  • Jamaica (27),
  • Peru (24),
  • Guatemala (23),
  • Honduras (22),
  • Cuba (22)
  • Dominican Republic (16.9)
  • EL Salvador (15.4)
  • Nicaragua (15)
  • Haiti (15)
  • Ecuador (10)
  • Brazil (10)

Family Remittances
  • How important are remittances in Latin America?
  • In Nicaragua remittances represent ¼ of the
    national income.
  • In El Salvador remittances have exceeded the
    total value of exports.
  • In Dominican Republic and Nicaragua, they
    represent half of the values of exports, and
    about 80 percent of the value of foreign direct

Hometown Associations
  • What is the function of HTA?
  • Hometown Associations (HTA) or transnational
    migrant organizations (TMOS) are formed among
    remittance senders to coordinate their support
    not only of relatives but also of their towns.
  • In addition, to retain a sense of community as
    they adjust to life in the United States.
  • Immigrants have formed community groups to
    maintain relationships with the home country or
    with local communities.

Hometown Associations
  • HTAs international activities can be described
    in five groups
  • Charity Orientations range from charitable aid
    to investment.
  • Include the donation of clothes
  • Construction materials for various projects such
    as churches
  • Small cash amounts to purchase goods for local
  • Infrastructure raise money for improvements for
  • Streets
  • Parks
  • Build sewage treatment
  • Water filtration plants
  • Buy or maintain cemetery plots
  • Health care facilities

Hometown Associations
  • HTAs international activities can be described
    in five groups
  • 3. Human development these activities are
    orientated toward human development.
  • Scholarships
  • Library books
  • Health supplies
  • Medicine
  • Sports facilities
  • Nursery homes
  • Daycares
  • Schools
  • Communal soup kitchens
  • Investment capital investment for
    income-generation projects managed by local
    community members and often supervised by
  • Co-ops
  • Credit Unions
  • Other General fundraising
  • Soccer Games

Hometown Associations
  • HTAs international characteristics can be
    described in five features
  • Activities Orientations range from charitable
    aid to investment.
  • Charity
  • Infrastructure
  • Human development
  • Investment
  • Other
  • Structure and links
  • Lack of strong organizational structure
  • Lack of institutional counterpart in their home
  • Membership is small
  • Connection is through a local leader such as
  • Relationships
  • Hierarchical hometown associations communicate
    their counterparts what to do.
  • Joint Cooperation both parties in the home and
    host country organization communicate to define
    the agenda. Ex. Hurricane Mitch support in 1998

Hometown Associations
  • HTAs international characteristics can be
    described in five features
  • 4. Decision Making
  • Financial resources
  • Relationship with home organizations
  • Members preferences
  • Organizational structure
  • Goal and project might change over time
  • Membership available time
  • Needs of the town in the home country
  • 5. Financing
  • Small economic base
  • Most raise less than ten thousand dollars on
    overage each year
  • Money raised is sent in cash or materials.

  • Who are the players in the Industry?
  • Banks- In El Salvador, charge less than 10 for
    almost any amount to be sent but they do not
    have the same outreach capacity like Western
  • Courier agencies- Western Union or MoneyGram.
  • In 1995, moreover 44 percent of money
    transactions through MoneyGram took place from
    the United States to Mexico.
  • In El Salvador, Western Union carries out to a
    minimum of 70,000 transactions a month worth an
    average of 300.
  • In the Dominican Republic, the minimum, thus
    likely controlling at least 20 percent of the
    flow of remittances.
  • These companies charge significant fees, ranging
    from 8 to 14 of the value of the remittance.
  • U.S. Postal Services- created its own delivery
    system offering a lower rate than Western Union
    or MoneyGram.
  • Hand deliver
  • Third party- encomenderos

Remittances Agents-Host Country
  • A money transfer business (one that can wire
    money to other countries) such as Seven-eleven.
  • The transfer institution collects a fee.
  • Transfer institutions make a profit on the
  • fee
  • commission
  • foreign exchange differential.

Remittances-Host Country
Remittances Agents- Home Country
  • Money transfer agencies establish agreements with
    agent-distributions in Latin America in order to
    ensure coverage and efficiency on the receiving
  • Commercial banks are one, if not the only, key
    player in a given market because their financial
    operations cover large areas and meet regulatory
  • In the case of Mexico, the largest distributing
    agents are large banks, such as Banamex,
    BBVA-Bancomer, HSBC, and BanNorte.
  • In Central America, Airpak, works exclusively for
    Western Union.
  • Grace Kennedy is Western Unions exclusive
    English Caribbean distribution

Remittances Agents- Home Country
  • Recipient country distributors also play a key
    role in the remittances.
  • Distributors have made agreements with more than
    one company.
  • Agents must compete to attract companies to
    utilize their networks, in so they influence the
  • If they increase the fees it would affect the

Remittances Agents- Home Country
  • Banks play a direct and indirect role in money
  • Function as agents
  • Serve as intermediaries
  • Operate as depositories for the money transfer
    companies and distributors agents
  • Banks also charge fees to keep money by the
    company or distributors agents.
  • Can control prices, fees, and exchange rates.

  • What is the role of government as a player in the
  • As remittances become a more stable source of
    income for Latin America, its governments are
    finding ways to attract more of these funds.
  • Governments are making policies to address the
    cost reduction in remittance transfers
  • Create an attractive economic environment for
    various kinds of migrant funds.
  • Central Banks in Guatemala and El Salvador have
    regulations that are liberal on import duties.
  • Salvadorans are allowed to bring up to 1500
    worth of merchandise.
  • Guatemalans are permitted to bring up to 2000
    into the country without duty.

  • What is the role of government as a player in the
  • Other countries have attempted to require that a
    certain percentage of the earnings of their
    workers abroad can be deposited into a national
  • Former U.S. Ambassador William Stixrud has
    suggested that Guatemalan emigrants put up the
    equivalent of 10 percent of the value of
    remittances for private investment.
  • The Ambassador argues for the implementation of
    such a fund with the assistance of emigrants, the
    government, and international development

  • What is the role of government as a player in the
  • Sending-country governments can also stimulate
    remittances by helping emigrant groups to develop
    migrant associations.
  • The Mexican govt has had formal outreach
    programs since 1990.
  • The federal programs include the Paisano program
    and the Mexican Communities Living Abroad (PCMLA)
  • The PCMLA operates through the network of 42
    consulates and 23 institutes or Mexican cultural
    centers in the U.S.
  • President Fox in 2000, created a new
    executive-branch office to interact more
    vigorously with Mexicans in the U.S. and attract
    their resources.
  • By late 1998, four hundred clubs were operating
    throughout the U.S., although most were in Los
    Angeles and Dallas.

  • What are other programs established to trap the
  • Remittance bonds
  • Joint Ventures
  • Matching funds
  • Economic development funds
  • What do you think the countries should do with
    the remittances?

Latino Presence in The United States
  • Geog 313
  • Lecture 7

  • Barrioization (external processes) seeks to
    explain the formation of barrios as an experience
    of a less-advantaged Latino population staking
    out a territory which is then overwhelmed by
    urban diseconomies-poverty, crime, negative lands
    uses, etc.
  • Barriology (internal processes) describes the
    process by which Latinos began to reassert
    control over their neighborhoods through
    acquisition of political power, mastery of the
    process of urban planning, and the use of art and
    muralism to create identity.
  • Globalization Anthony Gidden defines it as
  • the intensification (networks) of worldwide
    social relations which link distant localities
    (spaces) in such way that local happenings are
    shaped by events occurring many miles away and
    vice versa (circular migration) (199064).

  • Barrioization (1900-1945) In Southern California
    and parts of the Southwest.
  • What forces were at work?
  • Increased migration
  • Expansion of cities
  • Increased segregation by Chicanos into less
    desirable parts of the city.
  • Land values increased
  • Enclaves of cheap rental housing formed around
    undesirable land in the city. Ex. Railroads,
  • Immigrants settling near ethnic neighborhoods or
  • Urban development (1950-1960)- land was seized to
    build factories, freeways, and bridges.

  • Barriology began with the creation of symbolic
    activities parades, holiday festivities, and
    cultural events as a response to mass
    deportations and the great depression of the
  • Barriology represents a kind of collective
    decision to find ways to Mexicanize the bland
    spaces that had become home to the Chicano
  • 1) In Los Angeles, activists fought to protect
    the Oregon and Elysian Parks.
  • 2) In other cities in the Southwest Chicano
    Parks were created in Mexican-American
  • 3) Mexican American cultural centers were created
    in Balboa Park, San Diego.
  • 4) Murals were painted that transformed ugly
    space into powerful expressions of
    Mexican-American identity.
  • 5) Demonstrations were organized to protect a
    space near an under bridge that was going to be
    transformed into a police sub-station and a
    parking lot.
  • Today, Mexican murals cover the pillars and each
    Spring, a special Chicano Day celebration takes
    place to honor the communitys struggle to create
    this importance place.

  • The borderlands, especially in the Southwest U.S.
    border region is a globalized region.
  • The proximity to Mexico accelerates the
    socio-economic integration between the two
  • NAFTA created an institutional affirmation of the
    process of globalization.
  • How?
  • Maquiladoras with ties to U.S. capital and to
    Mexican labor.
  • San Diego, California is an important example of
    a globalizing region.
  • Some 3 million people reside in the San Diego
    region, and about 500,000 are Latino.
  • Combined with 2 Mexicanos in Tijuana-Rosario-Ensen
  • The result is a geographical area with 2.5
    Latinos/Mexicans out a population of 5 million.

  • Joint-venture capital is now moving free back and
    forth across the border.
  • Assembly plants exist on both sides of the
  • Cultural events are a weekly occurrence as part
    of the cross-border tourism industry.
  • Identity has been affected by the increased
  • Traditionally Mexicans immigrants to the United
    States were looked upon by Mexican citizens as
  • Pochos, are people who abandoned the homeland and
    lost their cultural identity with Mexico while
    falling into a stage of marginality in the host
  • Pochos, in Mexico were forgotten citizens and in
    the United States were not even citizens.
  • However, by 1980 Mexico discovered the political
    and economic value of maintaining relations with
    its more than ten million brothers in the U.S.

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • Barriers
  • Recaptured Space
  • Global Tourism
  • Consumerism
  • Post-NAFTA Housing
  • Invented Connections

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 1. Globalization imposes new hierarchies on the
    cities such as barriers
  • The city will grow in function of corporate
    machines like skyscrapers, freeways, and
    mega-shopping malls.
  • Exogenous actors will have big impacts in the
  • global investors
  • national government
  • corporations
  • large-scale commercial developers

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • What are the barriers in San Diego?
  • In the case of San Diego the barriers that have
    been constructed have been freeways.
  • They are fundamental to the mobile lifestyle of
    the region but hamper the barrios.
  • For example, I-5 and I-805 freeways and on/off
    ramps cut across the heart of the Barrio Logan.
  • Mega-shopping malls- help destroy the sense of
    place in a neighborhood or community.
  • Facilities super-imposed by the federal
    government on the Ysidro community such as fences
    and walls along the international community.
  • The San Diego-Tijuana wall is 47 miles long and
    built from metal recycled in the Persian Gulf
  • A second wall has been constructed which contains
    18 foot concrete pilling topped with metal mesh
    screens and an experimental cantilevered wire
    mesh-style fence.
  • The fence/walls runs into the Pacific Ocean.
  • The zone is buttressed by six miles of stadium
    lights, twelve hundred seismic sensors and
    numerous infrared sensors used to detect movement
  • Detention center immigration detention facility
    sited in the heart of San Ysidro.

  • The overall effect of the landscape is to render
    the San Ysidro border space into a war zone.
  • Journey to the USA
  • http//
  • Conflict
  • http//
  • Gangs vs. Minuteman
  • http//

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 2. Recaptured Space
  • Both Barrio Logan and San Ysidro began to fight
    back as early as the 1970s.
  • In the late 1970s when a police station was going
    to be build under the bridge in the barrio.
  • Residents erupted in mass protest and occupied
    the land under the bridge.
  • Began spontaneously building a community park.
  • The city of San Diego agreed to give the land to
    the community, thus Chicano Park was born.

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • Recaptured Space
  • Also, the resistance was a global phenomenon
  • Chicano artist and architects began to cross the
    border and participate in the rebuilding of the
    barrio during the 1970-1980s
  • with the statewide coalition of Chicano and
    Mexican artists
  • Combined the community and redesigned the space
    under the bridge by painting giant murals on the
    pillars of the Coronado Bridge.
  • The Chicano Park became a kind of international
    landmark for the use of murals as a form of
  • community process
  • Cultural identity
  • Murals on the pillars of the bridge made visual
    reference to the Mexican history, Latin American,
    and American history.

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • Recaptured Space
  • Redevelopment plan seeks to erase the negative
    imagery imposed by the federal government and
    recapture the space for local residents.
  • International border zones like San Ysidro can no
    longer be thought of merely as buffer spaces or
    defensive edges.
  • Nations need to understand the buffer zones can
    house people, industry, trade infrastructure, and
    other economic activities.
  • 34 million vehicles and over 7 million
    pedestrians cross the gate each year.
  • But the port of entry and surrounding zone on
    both sides of the border are fragmented by a
    variety of land use and design problems.
  • Traffic congestions
  • Poor circulations routes
  • Disorganized land uses
  • Conflicts between local interests
  • Crime
  • Public safety
  • Unresolved land development plans

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 3. Global Tourism
  • An experiment to create a Mexican Disneyland just
    across the border in Tijuana failed.
  • Barrio Logan have never been major destinations
    in the San Diego region.
  • It could never rival the big-ticket tourism
    destinations like Seaworld, San Diego Zoo, and
    Old Town.
  • What to promote in Barrio Logan?
  • City of San Diego is promoting Latin Cultural
    heritages sites as part of the tourism in the San
    Diego region.
  • Promote the murals, Chicano Parks, and other
    Latino businesses.
  • San Ysidro has never been a tourism destination,
    but rather a gateway into Mexico.
  • A local group wants to build a Museum of

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 4. Global Consumerism
  • The culture of shopping malls and a fast-food
    consumerist culture is part of the globalization
    of the border.
  • Barrio Logan neighborhood historically has been
    deprived of any significant commercials sites,
  • Latino developers recognize this gap and have
    located a new commercial space to be named the
    Mercado Shopping Center.
  • One of the challenges for the project is in
    Barrio Logan
  • How to create a neighborhood design and
  • Respect the Mexican/Latino qualities of the
    barrio (murals, parks, gardens),
  • Make it pedestrian friendly
  • Securing loans

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 4. Global Consumerism
  • In San Ysidro, the community faces a massive
    shift toward the construction of retail malls and
    shopping centers
  • to capture the large market of Mexicans consumers
    and visitors passing through the region.
  • The first new shopping mall, Las Americas, built
    literally adjacent to the international boundary
    line on the edge of San Ysidro.
  • Las Americas is a three-phase, mixed-use,
    retail-office complex located ¼ mile west of the
    San Ysidro-Tijuana border crossing.
  • Phase I is 375,000 sq ft. of open-air retail and
    restaurant space.
  • Phase II will add another 270,000 sq ft. of
    retail and restaurant space
  • Phase III is expected to add a pedestrian bridge
    to Tijuana,
  • new-port-of-entry facility
  • A transit center
  • Hotel
  • Conference building
  • Office space

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 4. Global Consumerism
  • What are some problems with this development?
  • The project is entirely based to automobiles
  • There is no sense of public space.
  • Private security teams patrol the shopping mall.
  • The project is called a mixed use. There is no
    residential space on the site.

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 5. Post-NAFTA housing
  • Because of the escalating housing prices, Latino
    Barrios have been forced to seek innovative
    approaches to affordable housing.
  • Various local and state groups designed
    affordable housing units in a high-density, but
    well crafted, residential complex called Mercado
  • Mercado Apartments were designed with elements
    that would maintain the identity of Barrio Logan
    such as
  • First, Bright colors of the façade of the
    buildings to conform with the Mexican tradition
    of bright colors in urban setting.
  • Second, The architectural style of the complex
    was deliberately chosen to be similar to the
    simple pueblo-adobe style.
  • Third, the building was intentionally not set
    back from the street, and it incorporates patios
    and balconies facing the street.

Characteristics of a Latino Barrio
  • 6) Invented Connections
  • San Diego-Tijuana Trolley
  • New Ballpark
  • The San Ysidro Trolley
  • Las Americas Mall pedestrian bridge
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