ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR: CENTRAL AMERICA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR: CENTRAL AMERICA PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 14074a-NDQ5M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR: CENTRAL AMERICA

Description:

Central America = Mexico, Belize and six other republics. Latin America. coined by the French ... Martyrs and Virgins: Popular Religion in Mexico and Nicaragua. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:161
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: Gro665
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR: CENTRAL AMERICA


1
ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR CENTRAL AMERICA
  • Helsinki University
  • Fall 2003
  • Toomas Gross

2
  • Times Wed 12-14
  • Location U40 ls 12
  • Instructor Toomas Gross
  • Email toomas.gross_at_helsinki.fi
  • Phone (09) 19122645
  • Office Hours Thurs 11-12, E309

3
On terminology (I)
  • Central America Mexico, Belize and six other
    republics
  • Latin America
  • coined by the French in the 1860s
  • 24 political entities
  • culturally, linguistically and religiously
    defined
  • North America US, Canada ( Mexico?) gt NAFTA
  • Hispano-America or Hispanic America
  • Vs Anglo-America or Luso-America

4
On terminology (II)
  • Ibero-America
  • Hispano- Luso-America
  • Central America
  • Traditionally - cinco repúblicas (Guatemala,
    Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Costa Rica)
  • United Provinces of Central America in 1823-1838
  • Hence does not include Panama, Belize or Mexico

5
On terminology (III)
  • Middle America
  • Central America plus the Caribbean and the
    Antilles
  • i.e. what lies between North and South America
  • Mesoamerica
  • a cultural term
  • coined by Paul Kirchhoff in 1943
  • based on geographical limits, ethnic composition,
    and cultural characteristics

6
On terminology (IV)
  • Luso-America Portuguese America
  • Franco-America
  • Haiti Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana
    ( Quebec)

7
Seminar requirements
  • 8-10 page research paper on a selected topic
  • 15-20 minute presentation
  • topic to be chosen by 24.09
  • research paper to other seminar participants a
    week prior to their presentation
  • presentation based on one ethnography and linking
    it with other seminar readings.

8
Readings
  • Required readings (2 articles per seminar)
  • Readings for presentation
  • (1 monograph/ethnography per student)
  • Additional readings (optional)

9
2. History of anthropological research in Central
America (24.09)
  • Beals, R., R. Redfield S. Tax 1943.
    Anthropological Research Problems with Reference
    to the Contemporary Peoples of Mexico and
    Guatemala. In American Anthropologist 45, pp.
    1-21.
  • Hewitt de Alcántara, Cynthia 1984. Conclusions.
    In Anthropological perspectives on rural Mexico.
    London Routledge.

10
3. Socio-political organization of rural
communities (1.10)
  • Communal identity, cargo system, social
    organization, social relationships, caciquismo,
    compadrazgo
  • Carrasco, P. E. 1961. The Civil-Religious
    Hierarchy in Mesoamerican Communities
    Pre-Spanish Background and Colonial Development.
    In American Anthropologist 63, pp. 483-497.
  • Chance, J. K. 1990. Changes in Twentieth-Century
    Mesoamerican Cargo Systems. In Class, Politics
    and Popular Religion in Mexico and Central
    America (eds) L. Stephen J. Dow. Washington,
    D.C. American Anthropology Association.

11
4. Ethnicity and indigenous groups (8.10)
  • Ethnic identity, inter-ethnic relations, ethnic
    groups and boundaries
  • Diskin, M. 2001. Ethnic Discourse and the
    Challenge to Anthropology The Nicaraguan Case.
    Urban, G. and J. Sherzer Nation-States and
    Indians in Latin America. Austin University of
    Texas Press.
  • Medina, L. 2003. History, Culture, and
    Place-Making Native Status and Maya Identity
    in Belize. In Gutmann, M. et al (eds)
    Perspectives on Las Américas A Reader in
    Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford
    Blackwell.

12
5. Peasantry, poverty, class (15.10)
  • Land, peasantry, class, culture of poverty
  • Hewitt de Alcántara, Cynthia 1984. Cultural
    Ecology, Marxism and the Development of a Theory
    of a Peasantry, 1950-1970. In Anthropological
    perspectives on rural Mexico. London Routledge.
  • Wolf, Eric R. 1955. Types of Latin American
    Peasantry A Preliminary Discussion. American
    Anthropologist 57, pp. 452-71.

13
6. Nations and nationalism (22.10)
  • Nation-building, collective symbols, national
    identity, multiculturalism, mestizaje
  • Stavenhagen, R. 2002. Indigenous Peoples and the
    State in Latin America An Ongoing Debate. In R.
    Sieder (ed.) Multiculturalism in Latin America
    Indigenous Rights, Diversity and Democracy. New
    York Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Wolf, E.  1979. The Virgin of Guadalupe.  In
    Lessa W., and E. Vogt (eds) Reader in Comparative
    Religion An Anthropological Approach. Boston,
    MA Addison-Wesley.

14
7. Conflict and violence (29.10)
  • State, violence, ethnocide, land conflicts
  • Edelman, M. 2003. A Central American Genocide
    Rubber, Slavery, Nationalism, and the Destruction
    of the Guatusos-Malekus. In Gutmann, M.
  • Stephen, L. 2003. The Construction of Indigenous
    Suspects Militarization and the Gendered and
    Ethnic Dynamics of Human Rights Abuses in
    Southern Mexico. In Gutmann, M..

15
8. Ethnic resistance and indigenous movements
(5.11)
  • Human rights, social mobilization, social
    movements, Guatemala, Chiapas
  • Adams, R. N. 2001. Strategies of Ethnic Survival
    in Central America. In Urban, G. and J. Sherzer
    Nation-States and Indians in Latin America.
    Austin University of Texas Press.
  • Stephen, L. 1990. The Politics of Ritual The
    Mexican State and Zapotec Autonomy, 1926-1989. In
    Class, Politics and Popular Religion in Mexico
    and Central America (eds) L. Stephen J. Dow.
    Washington, D.C. American Anthropology
    Association.

16
9. Politics of gender (12.11)
  • Machismo, marianismo, social movements, womens
    organizations
  • Duvalos, K. 2003. La Quinceañera Making Gender
    and Ethnic Identities. In Gutmann, M. et al
    Perspectives on Las Américas A Reader in
    Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford
    Blackwell.
  • Navarro, M 2002. Against Marianismo. In R.
    Montoya, L. Frazier, and J. Hurtig (eds) Genders
    Place Feminist Anthropologies of Latin America.
    New York Palgrave Macmillan.

17
10. Popular religion and religious change (19.11)
  • (Folk) Catholicism, syncretism, ritual,
    Evangelical Protestantism
  • Higgins, M. J. 1990. Martyrs and Virgins
    Popular Religion in Mexico and Nicaragua. In
    Class, Politics and Popular Religion in Mexico
    and Central America (eds) L. Stephen J. Dow.
    Washington, D.C. American Anthropology
    Association.
  • Dow, J., and L. Stephen 1990. The Dynamics of
    Religion in Middle American Communities. In
    Class, Politics and Popular Religion in Mexico
    and Central America (eds) L. Stephen J. Dow.
    Washington, D.C. American Anthropology
    Association.

18
11. Globalization, dependency and social change
(26.11)
  • US-Central America relations, dependencia,
    neo-colonialism, democratization, migration
  • Cantú, L. 2003. A Place Called Home A Queer
    Political Economy of Mexican Immigrant Mens
    Experiences. In Gutmann, M. et al Perspectives on
    Las Américas A Reader in Culture, History, and
    Representation. Oxford Blackwell.
  • Gutmann, M. 2003. For Whom the Taco Bells Toll
    Popular Responses to NAFTA South of the Border.
    In Gutmann, M. et al Perspectives on Las
    Américas A Reader in Culture, History, and
    Representation. Oxford Blackwell.

19
Texts for presentation (3)
  • Socio-political organization of rural communities
    (1.10)
  • Lewis, Oscar 1963 1951. Life in a Mexican
    Village Tepoztlán Restudied. Urbana University
    of Illinois Press.
  • Nader, L. 1990. Harmony Ideology Justice and
    Control in a Zapotec Mountain Village. Stanford
    Stanford University Press.
  • Redfield, Robert 1973 1930. Tepoztlán A
    Mexican Village. Chicago University of Chicago
    Press.
  • Vogt, E. Z. 1969. Zinacantan A Maya Community in
    the Highlands of Chiapas. Cambridge, Mass.
    Harvard University Press.

20
Texts for presentation (4)
  • Ethnicity and indigenous groups (8.10)
  • Faust, B. 1999. Mexican Rural Development and the
    Plumed Serpent Technology and Maya Cosmology in
    the Tropical Forest of Campeche, Mexico.
    Westport Bergin Garvey.
  • Friedlander, J. 1975. Being Indian in Hueyapan A
    Study of Forced Identity in Contemporary Mexico.
    New York St. Martins Press.
  • Lipp, F. J. 1998. The Mixe of Oaxaca Religion,
    Ritual, and Healing. Austin University of Texas
    Press.
  • Sandstrom, A. R. 1991. Corn is Our Blood Culture
    and Ethnic Identity in a Contemporary Aztec
    Indian Village. Oklahoma City University of
    Oklahoma Press.

21
Texts for presentation (5)
  • Peasantry, poverty, class (15.10)
  •  
  • Cancian, Frank 1972. Change and Uncertainty in a
    Peasant Economy The Maya Corn Farmers of
    Zinacantan. Stanford, CA Stanford University
    Press.
  • Foster, G. M. 1979 1967. Tzintzuntzan Mexican
    Peasants in a Changing World. New York Elsevier
    (Pages TBA)
  • Redfield, R. 1967. Peasant Society and Culture.
    Chicago University of Chicago Press.
  • Tax, S. 1953. Penny Capitalism A Guatemalan
    Indian Economy. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian
    Institution, Institute for Social Anthropology.

22
Texts for presentation (6)
  • Nation and nationalism (22.10)
  •  
  • Turner, F. C. 1968. The Dynamic of Mexican
    Nationalism. Chapel Hill The University of North
    Carolina Press.
  • Vasconcelos, J. 1979 1925. La Raza Cósmica /
    The Cosmic Race. Baltimore The Johns Hopkins
    University Press.

23
Texts for presentation (7)
  • Conflict and violence (29.10)
  • Berryman, P. 1994. Stubborn Hope Religion,
    Politics, and Revolution in Central America. New
    York Orbis Books / The New Press.
  • Dennis, P. 1987. Intervillage Conflict in Oaxaca.
    New Brunswick London Rutgers University Press.
  • Romanucci-Ross, L. 1986 1973. Conflict,
    Violence and Morality in a Mexican Village.
    Chicago University of Chicago Press.

24
Texts for presentation (8)
  • Ethnic resistance and social movements (5.11)
  • Campbell, H. 1994. Zapotec Resistance Ethnic
    Politics and Cultural Revivalism in Southern
    Mexico. Albuquerque University of New Mexico.
  • Collier, G., and E. Lowery Quaratiello 1999.
    Basta! Land and the Zapatista Rebellion in
    Chiapas. Oakland Food First Books.
  • Harvey, N. 1998. The Chiapas Rebellion The
    Struggle for Land and Democracy. Durham Duke
    University Press.

25
Texts for presentation (9)
  • Politics of gender (12.11)
  • Gutmann, M.C. 1996. The Meanings of Macho Being
    a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley University of
    California Press.
  • Lancaster, R. 1994. Life Is Hard Machismo,
    Danger, and the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua.
    Berkeley University of California Press.
  • Stephen, L. 1991. Zapotec Women. Austin
    University of Texas Press.

26
Texts for presentation (10)
  • Popular religion and religious change (19.11) 
  • Brandes, S. H. 1988. Power and Persuasion
    Fiestas and Social Control in Rural Mexico.
    Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Falla, R. 2001. Quiché Rebelde Religious
    Conversion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in
    Guatemala. Austin University of Texas Press.
  • Garrard-Burnett, V. 1998. Protestantism in
    Guatemala Living in the New Jerusalem. Austin
    University of Texas Press.

27
Texts for presentation (11)
  • Globalization, dependency and social change
    (26.11)
  • Buckley, R. 1999. Central America Wrestling with
    US Power. Cheltenham Understanding Global
    Issues.
  • Bulmer-Thomas, V., and J. Dunkerley 1999. The
    United States and Latin America The New Agenda.
    London Institute of Latin American Studies
    (selected articles).

28
Central America as a culture area(I)
  • a heterogeneous region, because
  • Mexico - big and relatively rich, others small
    and poor
  • Mexico - 3000 km borderline with the US and NAFTA
  • Panama canal
  • Ethnic differences (eg. Guatemala vs Costa Rica)
  • Socioeconomic differences (Mexico vs others)
  • Political differences (Costa Rica the only
    democracy)

29
Central America as a culture area (II)
  • a cultural whole, because
  • Similar political history (except Belize)
  • most formed part of Viceroyalty of Spain
  • independence in the early 19th century
  • Economic similarities
  • plantation agriculture
  • Similar cultural and social characteristics
  • Indigenous ethnic groups
  • Human rights issues
  • Catholicism
  • Similar geopolitical and strategic position
  • Dependence on the US, migration

30
Regional analysis" in anthropology
  • two different meanings
  • regional comparison, i.e studying and comparing
    cultures within a region
  • study of a region as a structural or dynamic
    system, with different social or cultural units
    interacting (eg. Studies of colonialism, Marxist
    analyses, dependency theory)

31
Diffusionism
  • spread of cultural traits through contact and
    borrowing
  • 1) British school - G. Elliot Smith, Haddon,
    William J. Perry, W. H. R. Rivers
  • heliocentric (Egypt)
  • 2) German-Austrian or Kulturkreis School
    Friedrich Ratzel, Fritz Graebner, Wilhelm
    Schmidt
  • Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India and Mexico
  • 2) ) US School Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber
  • culture area environmental zone
  • Age-area principle

32
Historical periodization (I)
  • Paleoindian (?18,000-10,000 BC)
  • initial population of the New World via the
    Bering Land Bridge
  • dramatic climate changes
  • Archaic (10,000 - ca. 3000 BC)
  • mobile, band-level societies
  • trend for sedentism on coasts

33
Historical periodization (II)
  • Early Preclassic (3000 BC - 1000 BC) Early
    Formative
  • appearance of permanent villages and later large
    chiefdoms
  • cultivation of maize, beans, and squash
  • Olmec culture (flourished around 1150 BC, San
    Lorenzo, chiefdom-level societies )
  • Middle Preclassic (ca. 1000-400 BC) Middle
    Formative
  • spread of religious traditions related to Olmec
    culture
  • trend towards political centralization
  • San Lorenzo is abandoned, La Venta, Tres Zapotes,
    and Laguna de los Cerros grow

34
Historical periodization (III)
  • Late Preclassic (400 BC to ca. AD 100) Late
    Formative
  • beginnings of early state-level societies
  • centers in the Valley of Mexico, highland
    Chiapas, the Gulf Coast, and the Maya area
  • invention of writing systems
  • Maya ceremonialism based on the observation of
    celestial events
  • Protoclassic (AD 100 - 200)
  • major shifts in the power of individual ritual
    centers

35
Historical periodization (IV)
  • Early Classic (AD 200 - 600)
  • the rise of Teotihuacan civilization
  • appearance of dynastic records with Long Count
    dates in the Maya area
  • ruling dynasties at sites like Tikal, Calakmul,
    Palenque, Yaxchilán, and Copán 
  • Zapotec civilization at Monte Alban in Oaxaca
  • Late Classic (AD 600 - 900)
  • Teotihuacan suffers from a dramatic decline
  • Maya civilization in Petén, Chiapas, western
    Honduras, and Yucatán
  • Palenque, Yaxchilán, Copán, Dos Pilas, and
    Chichén Itzá Uxmal

36
Historical periodization (V)
  • Epiclassic (AD 800 - 1000)
  • "collapse" of Classic Maya culture in the
    southern lowlands
  • flourishing of Maya culture in the northern
    lowlands (the Yucatán Peninsula). 
  • Cholula, Cacaxtla, and Xochicalco in Central
    Mexico
  • Early Postclassic (AD 1000-1300)
  • the rise of Toltec culture (Tula)
  • Late Postclassic (AD 1300-1519)
  • Aztec dominance (Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco)

37
Colonial era (1519 early 19th c.)
  • Belize independence in 1981
  • Tzvetan Todorov on the conquest and otherness
  • Theological disputes - Bartolomé de las Casas
  • Particularity of Spanish and Portuguese
    colonialism
  • obedezco pero no cumplo
  • Encomienda system and repatrimiento
  • The spread of Catholicism
  • Administrative changes

38
Post-colonial era
  • Simon Bolivars dream of United Latin America
  • United Provinces of Central America in 1823
  • Monroe's doctrine "America to the Americans
  • Nationalism and creation of national identity
    (religion, national symbols)
  • Economic dependence on the US and Europe (UFCO
    etc)
About PowerShow.com