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ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR: SOUTH AMERICA

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Title: ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR: SOUTH AMERICA


1
ETHNOGRAPHY SEMINAR SOUTH AMERICA
  • Spring 2006

2
General information
  • Time Thy 12-14
  • Location Unioninkatu 37 sr 1
  • Email toomas.gross_at_helsinki.fi
  • Phone (09) 19123085
  • Office Hours Thurs 14.30-16.00, E308
  • www http//www.helsinki.fi/antropologia/opetus.ht
    m

3
General information
  • Ethnography Seminar I (758301)
  • 7 credits
  • anthropology majors at aineopinnot level
  • anthropology minors
  • all others
  • Ethnography Seminar II (758302)
  • 10 credits
  • Anthropology majors at MA/syventävät level

4
Classes
  • 1-3 lectures
  • Introduction
  • Indigenous groups in SA
  • History of anthropological research in SA
  • 4-11 lecture-seminars
  • particular theme
  • short lecture (20-30 minutes)
  • student presentations (1-2) and discussions
  • occasional videos

5
Course requirements
  • Seminar presentation
  • Weekly reflection papers
  • Final research paper
  • Participation in seminar discussions
  • Presence in at least 6 seminars (of classes 4-11)

6
Seminar presentations
  • Based on books listed under each topic
  • 1-2 per class (4.-11.)
  • to be chosen 26 January
  • 1-2 students per book
  • Maximum 15 minutes
  • Summary of the authors arguments
  • Present you own criticism and analysis
  • Raise further questions
  • Prepare a list of key ideas for others / Ppt

7
"Reflection papers"
  • Concise summaries of your thoughts
  • Based on required readings
  • authors main arguments
  • their strong and weak points
  • For classes 2-11
  • Short (max 700 words, 1-2 pages)
  • Not an essay
  • May be hand-written
  • In English or in Finnish
  • Submission
  • after the seminar
  • By noon at toomas.gross_at_helsinki.fi if missing
    the seminar
  • Late submission not accepted

8
Research paper
  • A longer essay
  • Presented ethnography as a starting point /
    alternative topic
  • Suggested literature in syllabus
  • in English or in Finnish at toomas.gross_at_helsinki.
    fi
  • Late submission penalties 5 per day (up to 40)
  • ES I
  • 5-6 pages
  • at least three bibliographical sources
  • submission by 27 April
  • ES II
  • 10-12 pages
  • at least five bibliographical sources
  • submission by 4 May

9
Seminar discussions
  • Based on
  • seminar presentation
  • required readings
  • reflection papers
  • In smaller groups

10
Evaluation
  • Research paper 40
  • Seminar presentation 20
  • Participation 10
  • Reflection papers 30 (10 x 3)

11
Texts and reading materials
  • Required readings
  • 2 for each seminar
  • mainly articles or chapters from books to be
    presented
  • master copies by D112 at Unioninkatu 38
  • EBSCO database articles marked with an asterisk
    ()
  • Book reviews
  • background reading on books to be presented
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Additional readings
  • Readers and background literature

12
1. Introduction to the course (19.1)
  • General introduction
  • Brief historical facts
  • Selected statistics

13
2. Indigenous groups and cultures of South
America (26.1)
  • Required readings
  • Fagg (1977 1963) Ancient South America. (in
    Latin America A General History)
  • Steward (1970) Cultural Evolution in South
    America (in Goldschmidt and Hoijer The Social
    Anthropology of Latin America. Los Angeles U of
    California Press)
  • Video
  • Noë

14
3. History of anthropological research in South
America (2.2)
  • Required readings
  • Roosevelt (1994) Amazonian Anthropology
    Strategy for a New Synthesis. (in Amazonian
    Indians from Prehistory to the Present
    Anthropological Perspectives)
  • Strickon (1964) Anthropology in Latin America.
    (in Wagley)

15
4. Studying indigenous groups (9.2)
  • Discussion topics
  • the Yanomamö, Venezuela, Brazil, violence,
    fieldwork ethics, socio-cultural change
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Chagnon, N. 1983 1968. Yanomamö The Fierce
    People.
  • Tierney, P. 2000. Darkness in El Dorado How
    Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon.
  • Required readings
  • Chagnon (1983) Yanomamö Warfare. (Ch 6 in
    Yanomamö)
  • Tierney (2000) Napoleonic Wars. (Ch 3 in
    Darkness …)
  • Book reviews
  • Anthropological Warfare (by Mann)
  • Video
  • The Return of Yanomamö

16
5. Deforestation in the Amazonia (16.2)
  • Discussion topics
  • the Kayapo, Brazil, cultural survival,
    deforestation, economic "development"
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Hemming, J. 1987. Amazon Frontier The Defeat of
    the Brazilian Indians. (Parts 3 and 4)
  • Required readings
  • Gomes (2000) The Indians Today (Ch 5 in The
    Indians of Brazil)
  • Moran (1993) Human Ecology as a Critique of
    Development. (Ch 6 in Through Amazonian Eyes)
  • Book reviews
  • Amazon Frontier (by Needell)
  • Video
  • The Kayapo Out of the Forest

17
6. Coca economy (23.2)
  • Discussion topics
  • Coca, cocaine, peasants, capitalism, Bolivia,
    Peru, US-Latin American relations
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Allen, C.J. 1988. The Hold Life Has Coca and
    Cultural Identity in an Andean Community.
  • Morales, E. 1989. Cocaine White Gold Rush in
    Peru.
  • Required readings
  • Allen (1995 1988) The Hold Life Has. (in
    Starn, et al)
  • Kawell (1995) The Cocaine Economy. (in Starn, et
    al)
  • Book reviews
  • Cocaine White Gold Rush in Peru (by Roberts)
  • Video
  • Cocaine

18
7. Capitalism and development (2.3)
  • Discussion topics
  • the Andes, Bolivia, mines and miners, capitalism,
    money
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Nash, J. 1979. We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat
    Us Dependency and Exploitation in Bolivian Tin
    Mines.
  • Taussig, M. 1980. The Devil and Commodity
    Fetishism in South America.
  • Required readings
  • Nash (1979) Introduction. (in We Eat …)
  • Taussig (1980) The Devil and Commodity
    Fetishism. (Ch 2 in The Devil …)
  • Book reviews
  • The Devil … (by Madsen)
  • We Eat … (by Solie)
  • Video
  • Development in Bolivia

19
9.3 - no seminar
20
8. Conflict and violence (16.3)
  • Discussion topics
  • Sendero luminoso, Peru, peasants, poverty,
    communist ideologies
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Poole, D. and G. Rénique 1992. Peru Time of
    Fear.
  • Tarazona-Sevillano, G., and J.B.Reuter 1990.
    Sendero Luminoso and the Threat of
    Narcoterrorism.
  • Required readings
  • Poole (1994) Peasant Culture and Political
    Violence in the Peruvian Andes Sendero Luminoso
    and the State (in D. Poole Unruly Order)
  • Theidon (2001) Terrors Talk Fieldwork and
    War. Dialectical Anthropology 26 19-35.
  • Book reviews
  • Peru Time of Fear (by Radu)
  • Sendero Luminoso and the Threat of Narcoterrorism
    (by Olney)

21
9. Cities and poverty (23.3)
  • Discussion topics
  • Street children, violence, everyday survival,
    urban Brazil, urban Colombia
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Aptekar, L. 1988. Street Children of Cali.
  • Hecht, T. 1998. At Home in the Street Street
    Children of Northeast Brazil.
  • Required readings
  • Aptekar (1988) The Prepuberty Children Taking
    Advantage of Being Little (Ch 2 in Street …)
  • Hecht (1998) Being in the Street (Ch 2 in At
    Home …)
  • Book reviews
  • Street Children of Cali (by LaRosa)
  • At Home in the Street Street Children of
    Northeast Brazil ("Social Death" by Biehl)

22
10. Race and ethnicity (30.3)
  • Discussion topics
  • Identity, ethnic minorities, racism, immigration,
    Brazil, Colombia
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Lesser, J. 1999. Negotiating National Identity
    Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for
    Ethnicity in Brazil.
  • Wade, P. 1993. Blackness and Race Mixture The
    Dynamics of Racial Idenity in Colombia.
  • Required readings
  • Lesser (1999) The Hidden Hyphen (Ch 1 in
    Negotiating …)
  • Wade (1993) The Racial Order and National
    Identity (Ch 1 in Blackness …)
  • Book reviews
  • Negotiating National Identity (by Meade)
  • Blackness and Race Mixture (by Helg)

23
11. Religious change (6.4)
  • Discussion topics
  • Protestant churches, Pentecostalism, Argentina,
    Chile, Brazil, poverty, gender
  • Ethnographies for presentation
  • Martin, D. 1990. Tongues of Fire The Explosion
    of Protestantism in Latin America.
  • Stoll, D. 1990. Is Latin America Turning
    Protestant?
  • Required readings
  • Míguez (1999) Exploring the Argentinian Case
    Religious Motives in the Growth of Latin American
    Pentecostalism. (in Smith and Prokopy Latin
    American Religion in Motion)
  • Stoll (1993) Introduction Rethinking
    Protestantism in Latin America (in
    Garrard-Burnett and Stoll Rethinking
    Protestantism in Latin America)
  • Book reviews
  • Tongues of Fire and Is Latin America Turning
    Protestant? (by Cox)

24
Deadlines
  • 27.4 - Deadline for ES I research paper
    submission (grades by 4.5)
  • 4.5 - Deadline for ES II research paper
    submission (grades by 11.5)

25
Culture areas of South America
  • 1) Northern South America ( Caribbean and
    Panama)
  • 2) Northern and Central Andes
  • 3) Tropical Forest ( Eastern SA)
  • 4) Southern third of SA (the Cone)

26
Historical facts
  • The conquest
  • Independence
  • 19th century
  • 20th century
  • Current diversity

27
Conquest
  • Columbus (August 1, 1498)
  • the mouth of the Orinoco River
  • Pedro Álvares Cabral (April, 1500)
  • coast of present-day Brazil gt claimed for
    Portugal
  • Followed by various explorers on the coast
  • Eg. Amerigo Vespucci, Ferdinand Magellan (1520)
  • Relatively neglected for till 1530s
  • The Spanish - more focused on Central America
  • The Portuguese more focused on India

28
Conquest
  • Francisco Pizarro
  • The first to penetrate the continental interior
  • invaded the gold-rich empire of the Inca in 1531
  • gt creation of Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542
  • By the end of the 17th century
  • Only the Guyana not dominated by Spain/Portugal
    (Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands)

29
Conquest
  • gt Economic exploitation
  • mineral deposits, timber and cultivable lands,
    farming and livestock raising, sugar pantations
    (slaves)
  • gt Christianization
  • gt Social inequalities
  • Peninsulares
  • Creoles
  • Mestizos, mulattos
  • Slaves, Amerindians

30
Wars of Independence
  • Led by the Creoles
  • Stimulated by the War of Independence in North
    America and by French Revolution
  • Two phases
  • 1) 1810 to 1816
  • contemporary Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay
  • 2) 1816 to 1825
  • the rest
  • Major figures
  • Venezuelan Simón Bolívar
  • Argentinian José de San Martín

31
19th century
  • Internal political instability
  • regional jealousies
  • personal ambitions gt caudillismo
  • conservative vs liberal political groups
  • Boundary problems
  • Paraguay vs Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay
    (1864-70)
  • Chile vs Bolivia and Peru (War of the Pacific,
    1879-83)
  • Paraguay vs Bolivia (Chaco War, 1932-35)
  • US influence
  • Monroe doctrine (1823)
  • "dollar diplomacy" and "big-stick policy
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt - "good-neighbor policy"
    (1933)
  • John F. Kennedy (1961) - Alliance for Progress
    program

32
Recent developments
  • 1960s
  • Latin American Free Trade Area (1960)
  • six South American nations and Mexico -
  • gt Latin American Common Market (1967)
  • 1970s
  • population growth, increased unemployment, and
    inequality
  • increasing violence, military regimes
  • 1980s
  • la década perdida
  • mounting burden of foreign debt
  • privatization of major nationalized industries
    (Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, Argentina)
  • gt rise in unemployment.
  • rampant inflation

33
Recent developments
  • 1990s
  • Some positive trends
  • Eg. Military regimes gt democratically elected
    governments
  • Continuing concerns
  • Human rights violations
  • Situation of Native Americans
  • Urban growth
  • 21st century
  • Economic recession in Argentina, Uruguay,
    Venezuela ( Brazil)
  • Tense relations with the US (Venezuela, Bolivia)
  • Turn to left?
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