Loss of Biodiversity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 39
About This Presentation
Title:

Loss of Biodiversity

Description:

New pharmaceutical drugs and new, disease-resistant crops. The Human Element ... Dragons Blood. Latex or sap of Sangre de Drago ... Dragons Blood cont. Possible ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2675
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: william61
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Loss of Biodiversity


1
Loss of Biodiversity
Team 4
Rainforest Degradation
  • Photo courtesy of www.gu.edu.au

Ben Hammonds Will Hanlon Matt Hughes Steve
Jackson Alex Kevern Ricky Pickett
2
Rainforest DegradationA Moral Dilemma
  • Importance of Rainforests
  • Biodiversity
  • Carbon sinks
  • New pharmaceutical drugs and new,
    disease-resistant crops
  • The Human Element
  • Family farmers
  • industrial logging, mining, and agriculture
    companies as well

3
Rainforest Biodiversity
  • Rainforests cover just 2 of the earths surface,
    but are home to approximately 50 of all species
    of life on the planet.
  • A single bush in the Amazon may have more
    species of ants than the entire British Isles.
    (Monogabay)
  • Rich diversity creates webs of interdependence.

4
History of Conservation
  • Parks and Reserves
  • Ineffective
  • Do not provide economic benefits
  • Using this method, 50 of worlds rainforests
    have been lost
  • local people and the government itself must see
    financial returns to justify the costs of
    maintaining parks and forgoing revenue from
    economic activities within the boundaries of the
    protected area (Monogabay).

5
Plants of the Rainforest
6
Plants of the Rainforest
  • Rainforests have five levels
  • Overstory
  • Canopy
  • Understory
  • Shrub Layer
  • Forest Floor
  • 70-90 percent of rainforest life is in the canopy
    level.
  • Forest floor has limited life.

7
Plants of the Rainforest
  • Plants are protected by CITES (Convention on
    International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild
    Flora and Fauna).
  • This a listing of endangered species.
  • Attempts to stop trade of listed plant species.
  • Plants are endangered by deforestation from
    agriculture, logging, and cattle industries.
  • Elimination of plants, eliminates habitats for
    animals.

8
Plants of the Rainforest
  • Loss of tree canopy inhibits conversion of green
    house gases.
  • This can also cause climate shifts worldwide.
  • The ultimate loss of rainforest plants is the
    loss of biodiversity.

9
Rainforests and Medicines
10
Rainforests and Medicines
  • Most medicines extracted from rainforests are
    used by indigenous people
  • Some herbal remedies are beneficial to the
    physical health of the indigenous people
  • Some of the herbs extracted from the rainforests
    are ritualistic to indigenous culture

11
Medicine Cont.
  • World Health Organization survey
  • 70 to 80 of world population uses
    non-conventional medicines (herbal sources) for
    primary health care
  • Most of the non-conventional used by less
    developed countries due to lack of lab drugs

12
Dragons Blood
  • Latex or sap of Sangre de Drago (dragons blood)
  • Used for gastrointestinal problems, wound
    healing, microbial infections
  • Found in the Amazon river basin
  • Beginning to be used by more than just indigenous
    people
  • Cost effective, two week treatment cost approx.
    25 cents, with same effectiveness as conventional
    methods

13
Dragons Blood cont.
  • Possible cancer treatment
  • Interferes with malignant cells to keep
    reproducing
  • Found to reduce intestinal tumors
  • Could be an effective weapon against colon cancer

14
Animal Species Loss
15
Rainforest Animal Species
  • 5 times the amount of Bird species
  • 43 species of Ants in one tree, nearly as much as
    in all of British Isles
  • Manatees, Giant Otters, Amazon turtles, large
    cats, all in danger of extinction
  • Due to number of insect species, extinctions
    often go unnoticed

16
Causes
  • Fragmentation for Agriculture
  • Logging
  • Over hunting
  • Increased human populations
  • Need for food
  • Modern weapons

17
International Conventions
  • The Convention on International Trade of
    Endangered Species (CITES)
  • Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals
    (CMS)
  • Convention on Biological diversity (CBD)

18
Convention on International Trade of Endangered
Species (CITES)
  • Entered into force 1975
  • 172 member states
  • restrictions on import, export, re-export, and
    introduction of specified species
  • Appendix I is on endangered species
  • Appendix II specifies restrictions placed on
    species by varying degrees of necessity

19
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
  • Signed 1983
  • 104 member states
  • parties to the convention must recognize the
    issue of endangered migratory species and take
    steps to protect them
  • Parties must also take action to prevent other
    species from becoming endangered

20
Member states
21
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • stemmed from the 1992 Rio Convention
  • 190 parties to the treaty
  • Article 8 requires the creation of safe and
    protected areas for animals in potential risk
  • Article 9 requires parties to provide for the
    rehabilitation and reintegration of depleted
    species
  • 2010 Biodiversity Target
  • strives to achieve by 2010 a significant
    reduction of the current rate of biodiversity
    loss at the global, regional and national level
    as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to
    the benefit of all life on Earth

22
Member States
23
Effectiveness
  • Brazil has made steps to reach the 2010 target of
    the CBD
  • protected wildlife areas
  • reintegrating manatees and rock cavies

24
Challenges to effectiveness
  • enforcement is always in question
  • up to member states to implement these
    regulations
  • Development and poverty
  • In extremely poor areas, animal meat is necessity
    to survive, regardless of the source
  • Corruption of low level government officials
  • remoteness and size of rainforest

25
Rainforests and Humans
26
World Population
  • World population has been increasing
    exponentially. By the middle of this very
    century, the world population is expected to
    reach roughly nine billion people, assuming it
    continues to grow at an annual rate of 90 million
    people.
  • Problem at hand humans rapidly overtaxing
    natural resources in rainforests, and are
    consuming a disproportionate amount of the
    Earths primary production, and transforming
    native environments into human-dominated
    landscapes.
  • Two problems concerned with this include that the
    forests are being degraded at an apparently
    ever-increasing rate, while human welfare in
    forested areas is remaining at a constant level
    at best and are more often deteriorating.

27
Problems that affect humans
  • Problems of forest degradation include over
    harvesting of industrial wood and fuelwood,
    overgrazing, fire, insect pests and disease,
    storms, and air pollution
  • Also, With fewer trees to soak up carbon dioxide
    from the atmosphere, the risk of global warming
    is increased

28
Who it effects?
  • forest dwellers who may be dependent on the
    forest for his daily faire
  • settlers in a nearby village, who may need
    forest-dependent environmental services
  • consumers in the rainforests national capitals
    that may suffer if wood prices rise due to
    deforestation
  • farmers in a distant country who may depend on
    the forest for the rains that water his crops or
    for a stable climate

29
What must be done?
  • Sustainable development, therefore, must be the
    answer to how the human well-being can be
    preserved.
  • The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
    defined sustainable development as such
    sustainable forest management aims to meet the
    needs of the present without compromising the
    ability of future generations to meet their own
    needs (Pierce and Byron 6).

30
The Policy Cycle
31
The Policy Cycle
  • Identification of the Problem
  • Agenda Setting
  • Doing Something to correct the problem
  • Formation of Public Policy
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

32
Policy on Rainforest Conservation
  • International Tropical Timbers Agreement-1994
  • International Tropical Timbers Associations
    Guidelines on the Conservation of Biological
    Diversity in Tropical Production Forests
  • Tropical Forest Conservation Act of 1998

33
International Tropical Timbers Agreement 1994
  • Drafted by the International Tropical Timbers
    Organization
  • Regulate Timber use in Modern Industry
  • 14 objectives
  • Use Timber from sustainable regions
  • Rehabilitation of damaged forests

34
International Tropical Timbers Agreement 1994
  • Set forth the Bali Fund
  • A Fund for sustainable management of tropical
    timber producing forests hereby established to
    assist producing members to make the investments
    necessary to achieve the objective of article 1
    (d) of this Agreement.
  • Established 4 Committees
  • Economic Information and Market Intelligence
  • Reforestation and Forest Management
  • Forest Industry
  • Finance and Administration

35
Guidelines on the Conservation of Biological
Diversity in Tropical Production Forests
  • Set forth by the ITTO
  • 20 different recommended actions for conservation
    of Biodiversity
  • Recommended Action 1 Provide a national agency,
    or reform and strengthen existing institutions to
    include biodiversity conservation in their
    mandate.
  • Recommended Action 2 Provide this agency with
    sufficient human and financial resources to
    effectively achieve integrated biodiversity
    conservation involving both the TPA and
    production forest systems.
  • Recommended Action 8 Particular care should be
    taken in applying silvicultural treatments to
    ensure that adequate populations of species which
    are important in food chains or in providing
    ecological functions (keystone species) are
    retained.

36
Tropical Forest Conservation Act 1998
  • Offers eligible developing countries options to
    relieve U.S. debt while generating funds to
    support forest conservation
  • Six countries have agreements
  • Bangladesh, Belize, El Salvador, Panama, Peru,
    and the Philippines
  • Generated over 60 Million for Tropical Forest
    Conservation

37
Tropical Forest Conservation Act 1998
  • Eligibility
  • Must have a tropical forest of global or regional
    significance and meet certain political and
    economic criteria established in the law
  • Must have Democratically Elected Governments
  • Cooperate on International Narcotics Control
    measures
  • Have a sustainable economic reform program in
    place
  • Must not support international terrorism or
    violate human rights

38
Tropical Forest Conservation Act1998
  • Reauthorized in both 2004 and 2007
  • In 2007 received a makeover now including Coral
    Reef protection
  • On October 15, 2007 it was extended through 2010

39
Conclusion
-30-
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com