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Testing and quality assurance

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Title: Testing and quality assurance


1
Testing and quality assurance I. Quality control
and web site development The importance of
testing Quality assurance II.
Testing for quality assurance
Phases of testing Types of testing
III. The test plan
2
Testing and quality assurance I. Quality control
and web site development The importance of
testing Testing is a process of quality control
and assurance It is intended to improve the site
by assessing how it works under a variety of
conditions Platforms, browsers,OS, monitors,
digital devices, bandwidth It ensures that
the site does what it is supposed to do for the
intended audience Usability and
accessibility Navigation, search and retrieval
3
It is critical to gain client buy-in for
testing You must be ready with a clear
justification for the time and costs of
testing Questions you should be ready to answer
What are the costs and how will testing save
money? How many people will be involved and
how much time will it take? How will it
improve the site? What is the clients role in
testing? This should be determined in advance The
process should be clear and accounted for in the
budget
4
Risks associated with testing Slippage Not
allotting enough time for testing or taking time
away because of problems elsewhere
Coverage how much of the original plan did you
cover? Bug fixes People have to be assigned
to this and time has to be set aside
Typically this is at the end when people are
tired and swamped Metrics These are
unclear to testers
5
More risks associated with testing Outdated
specifications Makes benchmarking difficult
for testers Poorly trained testers Should
have familiarity with the site and with the error
management procedures Unclear assessment of
the targeted users Leads to inappropriate
testing scenarios Component, module, application
system integration Testing should be taking
place in a relatively stable environment
6
Quality assurance What is quality? Being able to
understand and use a system to achieve desired
goals and recover efficiently and gracefully from
problem situations Meeting requirements and
conforming to target market needs and
expectations This means the requirements must
be known to be valid This means those needs and
expectations are seen to be realistic The
delivery of a product that satisfies user
expectations of functionality, performance, and
security at previously agreed upon costs and
timetables
7
Meanings of quality Descriptive being able to
understand and utilize a system to achieve
desired goals Also, recovering efficiently and
gracefully from problem situations Prescriptive
being able to meet the requirements negotiated
with the client The requirements must be known
to be valid It also means conforming to target
market needs and expectations Those needs
and expectations are known to be realistic)
8
Objective quality The degree of compliance of a
process/product or its outcome with a
predetermined set of criteria These criteria are
presumed essential to the ultimate value the
process or product provides Subjective
quality The level of perceived value reported by
the person(s) who benefits from a
process/product or its outcome Quality is the
delivery of a product that Satisfies user
expectations of functionality, performance, and
security The site is delivered at previously
agreed upon costs and in a timely manner
9
Quality involves building applications and
formulating methodologies that add value to the
business and customers It is a valuation
perceived by organizations, customers, and users
This is based on how a product or service meets
their collective and individual
needs Information quality is a strategic resource
for an organization and supports managing with
facts It is an ongoing process of building and
sustaining relationships by assessing,
anticipating, and fulfilling stated and implied
needs It encompasses business concerns (i.e., the
producers and customers) and the concerns of the
end-user as well
10
There is a distinction between business needs and
market needs This mirrors the distinction
between a customer and a user A customer
will be focused on the product meeting certain
objectives and including a certain amount of
functionality A user will focus on issues such
as ease-of-use and overall operability How does
the user perceive the quality of the product?
The view the customer has of the product is the
view that the organization must have The
bottom-line of the organization is dependent upon
its view of the customer or user
11
The main goal of quality is to enable competitive
advantage and business effectiveness It
involves building applications and processes that
add value to the business and customers Quality
is a tradeoff between time and money The goal is
to make the site as good as it can be given the
constraints of the project The site meets the
stated objectives These are laid out in the
scope document It is delivered on time an
budget Quality can be empirically measured This
requires standards, standard methods, and
accepted processes
12
Quality involves the creation and maintenance of
relationships between the business and its
customers In a practical sense you are trying to
make quality visible Showing tangible aspects of
quality by focusing on how customer experiences
with a site impact the bottom line The tangible
result of quality is the degree to which the
stability and market viability of a product
Increases the probability of outcomes desired
by the customer Reduces the probability of
undesired outcomes for the organization
13
Customers judge the quality according to stated
and implied needs and expectations and the
availability of alternatives The site should
be Reliable ease of use Responsive allows
efficient use Easier to use than the
alternatives Compared to the competition
14
What is quality assurance? It is a function that
identifies, documents, and reviews for
improvement the processes that deliver
products Systematic actions that constantly
optimize productivity, communication, and value
within an organization Measures attributes,
properties, and characteristics of a product
Nyman, J. (2002). What is Quality Assurance?
http//www.globaltester.com/sp2.html Another view
of QA (ISO 9001) What you need to do, to
demonstrate that your product or service will
satisfy your customers
15
The practice of quality assurance is auditing,
monitoring, and testing How it functions is the
means by which you do that auditing,
monitoring, and testing Testing is so much a
part of quality assurance that it is really
inseparable Context of testing Your company is
in the position of making some sort of
product That product will have various projects
placed against it Either to create new
functionality to the product or to modify
existing functionality
16
The quality focus, overall, is looking at the
product lifecycle The means by which it is
produced Requirements documents Design
specifications, source code, executable binaries,
etc. At each phase of the lifecycle, QA is going
to be doing some sort of testing Testing
documents (to check for things like consistency)
Testing code itself (in the form of code
reviews or inspections) Testing the direct
execution of code without a front-end (unit
testing)
17
QA testing Testing the full system, after all
units have been integrated and work with a
front-end (system testing) Testing to be sure
that new functionality did not affect existing
functionality and is not, itself, broken
(regression testing) QA is also auditing and
monitoring What QA is doing Establishing certain
processes defect tracking solution or a
standard change control process Audit that which
you establish in order to make sure that what
you are doing is effective
18
What is a QA system? The organizational
structure, the processes and procedures necessary
to ensure that the overall intentions and
direction of an organization as regards quality
are met The quality of the product or service is
assured ISO 9001 Quality Assurance. (2002). Home
Page. http//www.iso9001qualityassurance.com A
well developed ISO 9001 QA system should Improve
your product and service quality Give customers
confidence that their needs will be
met Standardize your business by giving it a
consistent approach to its operations Improve
work processes, efficiencies, morale and reduce
waste
19
Testing and quality assurance I. Quality control
and web site development The importance of
testing Quality assurance II.
Testing for quality assurance
Phases of testing Types of testing
III. The test plan
20
II. Testing for quality assurance What is
testing? Creating manual or automated sequences
that are structured, methodical, and
repeatable These methods are designed to probe
suspected product or system weaknesses and to
find defects This provides an indication of
product reliability The degree to which the
product fits the specifications Response of
client and customer How well the product meets
their needs Both are necessary for QA A
reliable product that satisfies stakeholders and
users
21
Testing involves two distinct phases Before the
milestone This is verification testing The
process of evaluating a system or component to
determine whether the products of a given
development phase satisfy the conditions
imposed at the start of that phase
(IEEE/ANSI) Given the requirements, are we
doing the right thing? Testing up to this point
is necessary to determine which among a range of
alternatives to select As new content and
functionalities are added, they should be
tested This is iterative or developmental
testing and is intended to point out bugs
22
Phases of testing After the milestone This is
validation testing The process of evaluating
a system or component during or at the end of
the development process to determine whether
it satisfies specified requirements Given the
requirements, did we do what we said we were
going to do? No new content or functionality is
accepted Testing after this milestone is to
determine the usability and quality assurance
(QA) of the site that will be launched Goal
is to uncover operational or functionality
problems
23
Sample metrics These determine the ideal test
environment and should resemble the typical or
majority user environment Browser/OS
configurations Hardware requirements Software
requirements Memory size requirements File
and application size Bandwidth and connection
speed Response times for download
24
Sample testers They dont (and should not) care
about whats inside the black box They should
just be using the site The test is based on the
site specifications Tests reflect the
functional requirements set out in the scope
document Testers are given a representative
range of scenarios This is based on typical
uses of the site Testers use valid and invalid
inputs They should intentionally try to break
the system This provides information about
error handling
25
Eight validation axioms 1. Testing can be used to
show the presence of errors, but never their
absence 2. One of the most difficult problems in
testing is knowing when to stop 3. Avoid
unplanned, non-reusable, throwaway test cases 4.
A necessary part of a test case is a definition
of the expected output or result 5. A comparison
should be made of the actual versus the expected
result 6. Test cases must be written for invalid
and unexpected, as well as valid and expected,
input conditions Nyman, J. (2002). What is
Quality Assurance? http//www.globaltester.com/sp2
_a6.html
26
5. Invalid input Invalid input is a condition
outside the set of valid conditions and should
be diagnosed as such by the program being
tested 6. Cases must be written to generate
desired output Do not think just in terms of
inputs Determine the input required to generate
a pre-designed set of outputs 7. A program
should not be tested (except in unit and
integration phases) by the person or organization
that developed it 8. The number of undiscovered
errors is directly proportional to the number of
errors already discovered
27
Types of testing User acceptance/usability
testing To determine whether the site meets the
specified requirements Whether the intended
audience can use the site Useful when the
pre-production prototype is finished
(pre-milestone) Also when launch version is
ready (post-milestone) Can use a variety of
methods Observation, accompanied browsing
Heuristic evaluation, card sorting, focus groups,
peer review
28
Functional testing Going through the entire site
to ensure that everything works as it is
supposed to Compatibility test testing
configurations as described in the project
documents technical specifications of
browsers x of operating systems x of screen
resolutions the of tests to be
performed Start with the configuration that is
likely to cause the most problems (and use
Netscape) Try to break it (unusual
characters in forms) Regression test retest
with the most common configuration after
finishing the changes
29
Functional testing Compatibility test
Elements include Links, forms, navigation,
download times, readability, content
management, transactions, push functions,
personalization, printing Error management
What is your process for logging errors and
problems uncovered in testing? How much
detail should be recorded? Testers and
fixers need access to this system so they they
can record problems and fixes in real time
30
Functional testing Error management
Resolution of the error or problem should also be
logged The resolver log incident
number, date, logged by, priority,
category, description (with error message),
date work began, owner, comments, status, date
finished Priority 1 Fatal (crash or
freeze) 2 Serious (works but not the way it
should) 3 Significant (can be fixed,
interferes with user experience) 4 Minor
(typos) Tester should then try to recreate
the error after it has been resolved
31
Operational testing Testing the back end of the
site Also the service components involved in
the site Focus delivery times, shipping
accuracy, customer service, data
integrity Goal is to find the problem before the
customer or user does Stress/load
testing Simulate possible scenarios of
use Testing the stability of the programming and
the capacity of the hardware Can be done
with scripting that simulates multiple HTTP
requests
32
Security testing Test the stability of the
firewall and intrusion detection software
Check the protection of sensitive data
(especially passwords and credit card
information) This will probably require outside
expertise Proofreading Read every page carefully
and make sure there are no typos and the
grammar is correct Check the contact information
and verify the content
33
Testing and quality assurance I. Quality control
and web site development The importance of
testing Quality assurance II.
Testing for quality assurance
Phases of testing Types of testing
III. The test plan
34
III. The test plan This is a document that
outline the range of tests that will be conducted
throughout the project lifecycle It specifies
types of risks that can be expected and the
test that will be used to assess these risks
It outlines procedures, timeline, and costs It
defines the acceptable metrics that will be used
These can be in the form of benchmarks How
many seconds will it take for the home page to
download? A secondary page? How long
will that average search return take?
35
Structure of the test plan Scope What kinds of
tests will be conducted? What types of test
environments will be used? Who are the
testers? What are the main metrics that will be
used Types and severity of bugs
Functional problems with programming
Usability problems with navigation
Creative differences in color rendering across
platforms Severity use a simple
ranking system
36
Structure of the test plan Version
control Explaining the system in place Risks and
assumptions What is the range of expected
problems that could compromise testing? What
resources are needed in order to carry out the
testing? Testing schedule and cycles When they
occur, how long they take, and when and how
often they are repeated
37
Structure of the test plan Test cases Include
the scenarios used as cases Bug reports
Listing of all the bug found in testing
Description of how they were handled QA
summary General observations Discussion of
major problems and strategies for resolving
them The test plan is an important addition to
the project archives
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