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Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment

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Title: Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment


1
Dimensions of Human Behavior Person and
Environment
  • Chapter 9
  • Social Institutions and Social Structure

2
KEY POINTS ADDRESSED
  • Social Inequality by the Numbers
  • Social Institutions and Structure Defined
  • Global and National Trends
  • Family/Kinship
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Government/Politics
  • Economy
  • Social Welfare
  • Health Care
  • Mass Media
  • Theories of Social Inequality
  • Marx versus Weber
  • Functionalism versus Conflict
  • Human Agency versus Structural Determinism

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
3
Social Inequality by the Numbers
  • GLOBALLY
  • Average incomes in the worlds richest regions
    was three times greater than that of incomes in
    the poorest regions 200 years ago, nine times
    greater 100 years ago, and 20 times greater in
    1998
  • Societies with high levels of inequality
  • make smaller investments in public education and
    other social supports.
  • have higher levels of violence, less trust and
    more hostility
  • lower levels of involvement in community life

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
4
Social Inequality by the Numbers (cont)
  • NATIONALLY
  • The United States is the highest-income country
    in the world but the most unequal society in the
    advanced industrial world.
  • From 1970 to 2001, the gross domestic product
    grew by 158 and the nations social health
    declined by 38
  • All but one of the 19 advanced industrialized
    countries have longer life expectancy
  • U.S. has the highest childhood mortality rate of
    the 19 countries
  • 13 have higher rates of secondary education
    (UNICEF, 2006).
  • 6 countries with least inequality have
    considerably have higher rates of secondary
    education

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
5
Social Inequality by the Numbers
  • GLOBALLY
  • Average incomes in the worlds richest regions
    was three times greater than that of incomes in
    the poorest regions 200 years ago, nine times
    greater 100 years ago, and 20 times greater in
    1998
  • Societies with high levels of inequality
  • make smaller investments in public education and
    other social supports.
  • have higher levels of violence, less trust and
    more hostility
  • lower levels of involvement in community life

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
6
A Slow Climb Forward
  • In the 1940s, the median income of black families
    was about 50 of the median income of white
    families, and in 2005, the median income of black
    families was 61 of non-Hispanic white families
  • Between 1959 and 2005, the percentage of the
    population 65 years and older living in poverty
    decreased from about 35 to about 10
  • The proportion of the population under 18 years
    living in poverty showed a smaller decrease in
    this same period, from about 27 to about 18
  • Since 1974, the poverty rate for persons under 18
    has been higher than for the group 65 and over

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
7
Social Institutions
  • Patterned ways of solving the problems and
    meeting the requirements of a particular society
  • Social institutions organize rights and duties
    into statuses and roles and identify the expected
    behaviors for the roles
  • Social Institutions organize social relations in
    a particular sector of social life

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
8
Major Social Institutions and Specific
Requirements of Social Life Addressed
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
9
Social Structure
  • Another term for society
  • A set of interrelated social institutions
    developed by human beings to impose constraints
    on human interaction for the purpose of the
    survival and well-being of the collectivity

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
10
Globalization
  • The process through which peoples lives all
    around the world become increasingly
    interconnected - economically, politically,
    environmentally, and culturally

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
11
Consider The formal definitions of social
institution and social structure and globalization
  • Use your own words to explain what these concepts
    mean to someone who is not familiar with
    sociological terms.
  • Use the Meza familys situation to illustrate the
    concepts.
  • Explain why the conflict perspective is helpful
    in understanding the various implications of
    different types of social institutions and social
    structure.

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
12
Trends in Family and Kinship
  • GLOBALLY
  • Modified extended family
  • Mass migration
  • Feminization of wage labor
  • NATIONALLY
  • Unmarried cohabitation, delayed marriage,
    declining fertility, high divorce, increased life
    expectancy
  • Greater valuing of autonomy and self-direction,
    as opposed to obedience and conformity, in
    children
  • Equalization of power between men and women
  • Impact on Social Inequality
  • Global gender wage gap
  • Increased economic opportunities for some
  • Ongoing backlash and political fear campaigns

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
13
Trends in Religion
  • GLOBALLY
  • More diverse
  • Violent contests occur within and between
    religious traditions
  • NATIONALLY
  • Christianity dominant within the United States
  • Intense culture wars between the traditionalists
    and the modernists

Impact on Social Inequality Conflict centering
on the definition of family, role of women, the
beginning and end of life, same sex
relationships, prayer in school, and creation
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
14
Trends in Government and Politics
  • GLOBALLY
  • Neocolonialism
  • Collapse of the Soviet Union and rise of the
    European Union
  • Upward flow of power from nation states to
    worldwide organizations
  • NATIONALLY
  • Downward movement of power to the states,
    devolution, new federalism
  • Outsourcing through privatization, contracting
    out, deregulation

Impact on Social Inequality Inequality has
grown around the world, but nowhere at the same
high rate as in the United States
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
15
Trends in the Economy
  • GLOBALLY
  • Development of transnational corporations
  • Corporate desire for bigger profits that come
    from cheap raw materials and cheap labor
  • Consumer desire for cheap and novel products
  • Wage labor bifurcatation
  • NATIONALLY
  • Increase in contingent, peripheral workforce
  • Corporate downsizing
  • Work intensification
  • Limited protection by organized labor

Impact on Social Inequality Rich nations have
been getting richer a few nations have made
impressive gains most poor nations have made
few gains and the poorest nations have lost
ground
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
16
Trends in Education
  • GLOBALLY
  • Reduced funding for educational levels in Asia,
    Latin America, and Africa, and a widening gap in
    average years of education between rich and poor
    countries
  • NATIONALLY
  • Reduced public resources for education in
    low-income areas coupled with increased ability
    of upper-income families to supplement from
    private resources
  • Escalating cost of college education
  • Shortage of teachers trained to teach English
    language learners

Impact on Social Inequality The education
institution is becoming a prime force in
perpetuating, if not exacerbating, economic
inequalities
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
17
Trends in Social Welfare
  • GLOBALLY
  • Aging population
  • Labor market insecurities make families more
    dependent
  • World Bank and IMF required poor countries to
    reduce social spending in the face of rising
    numbers of orphans of the AIDS pandemic
  • Increasing evidence of the importance of the
    early years
  • NATIONALLY
  • Diminishing sense of public responsibility and an
    increasing emphasis on individual responsibility
  • Less generous public support to families than
    other countries
  • Provision of social welfare services in
    public-private partnerships
  • Greater attention to social control than to
    social reform

Impact on Social Inequality Increase in child
poverty rates but not older adult poverty rates
in the 1990s
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
18
Trends in Health Care
  • GLOBALLY
  • Global inequalities in child and adult mortality
    are large and growing
  • Infectious and parasitic diseases are rampant in
    poor countries
  • NATIONALLY
  • The only affluent country with no universal
    health plan
  • Rapid growth in therapeutic medicine
  • An increased emphasis on culture
  • Cost containment through consumer-driven health
    care
  • Provider-based cost containment (managed care)
  • Bioscience knowledge and bioscientific technology
    more sophisticated and beyond the reach of
    understanding of non-scientists

Impact on Social Inequality Socioeconomic
status, race, ethnicity, and poverty seen as the
driving force behind growing health disparities
Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
19
Trends in Mass Media
  • GLOBALLY
  • Worldwide immediate access to different cultures
    and different markets
  • Widespread access to multiple forms of mass
    communication
  • Media companies targeting a global market to sell
    product
  • NATIONALLY
  • Growth in media outlets and media products
  • More time and money spent on media products
  • Integration of media functions
  • Concentration of ownership
  • Impact on Social Inequality
  • Stereotypical media presentations of minority
    groups
  • Control of cultural meanings to benefit elites
    and silence dissident views
  • Unequal access to Internet serves to perpetuate
    social class standing

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
20
Thinking about Theory
  • In the conservative thesis, inequality is the
    natural, divine order, and no efforts should be
    made to alter it.
  • In the radical antithesis, equality is the
    natural, divine order inequality is based on
    abuse of privilege and should be minimized.

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
21
Classical Theories
  • Marx
  • Class differences based on exploitation and
    domination by the owners of production and
    alienation among the workers
  • Social class as a central variable in human
    behavior and a central force in human history
  • Class consciousnessthe awareness of ones social
    class and hostility toward other classes
    motivates people to transform society
  • Weber
  • Class division based on life chances in the
    marketplace
  • Life chances reflect the distribution of power
    within a community, including economic power,
    social prestige, and legal power
  • Life chances fall on a continuum
  • Great variability found along the continuum
    reflects the multiple sources of power

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
22
Contemporary Theories
  • Functional Theories
  • Structural inequality and social classes
    necessary for society
  • Unequal rewards for different types of work
  • Guarantee that the most talented persons will
    work hard and produce technological innovation to
    benefit the whole society
  • Poverty caused by traditional attitudes and the
    failure to modernize
  • Conflict Theories
  • Emphasize the role of power, domination, and
    coercion in the maintenance of inequality
  • Persons with superior wealth and income also hold
    superior social and political power
  • Persons with superior wealth use their power to
    protect their privileged positions

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
23
Consider
  • What is structuration theory and why is it a
    preferred framework for social work practice?
  • What is neoliberalism and why is it the dominant
    economic philosophy today?
  • How does the World Systems perspective differ
    from neoliberalism?

Chapter 9 Social Institutions and Structures
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