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Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment

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Title: Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine Environment


1
Marine Life and Adaptations to the Marine
Environment
2
Overview
  • More than 250,000 identified marine species
  • Most live in sunlit surface seawater

3
Classification of living organisms
  • Three domains of Life
  • Archaea
  • Prokaryotic, includes extremophile bacteria
  • Bacteria
  • Prokaryotic, includes what used to be in Kingdom
    Monera
  • Eukarya
  • Eukaryotic cells
  • Includes Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals

4
Domain Archaea
  • Bacteria - Prokaryotic cells
  • Cell wall differs from those bacteria in Domain
    Bacteria
  • Includes extremophile bacteria
  • Acidophiles
  • Halophiles
  • Thermophiles
  • Etc.
  • These bacteria are found to chemosynthesize in
    hydrothermal vents

5
Domain Bacteria
  • Bacteria prokaryotic cells
  • Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
  • Includes Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Vibrio,
    Pseudomonas, etc.
  • Only a very small of bacteria are pathogenic
  • Bacteria are very important in things like
    nitrogen cycle, decomposition, food making, etc.
  • Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria

6
  • Archaea and Bacteria
  • Most numerous organisms on Earth!!
  • Think about how much bacteria lives just on you
  • Viruses are thought to out number bacteria but if
    you are just talking about live organisms then
    bacteria are the most numerous
  • Simplest of organisms
  • But, can live in every thinkable habitat, even
    those once thought to be unsuitable to life, very
    successful organisms!!

7
  • Now we will talk about Domain Eukarya
  • Includes protists, fungi, plants, animals

8
Domain Eukarya
  • Protists
  • Algae
  • Photosynthetic
  • Can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
  • Multicellular - seaweed kelp, sargassum, sea
    lettuce
  • Unicellular phytoplankton, produce majority of
    oxygen in atmosphere comes from our
    phytoplankton, can cause red tides (examples are
    dinoflagellates and diatoms)
  • Protozoans
  • Heterotrophic
  • Unicellular
  • Amoeba, paramecium

9
Domain Eukarya
  • Fungi
  • Heterotrophic
  • Secrete enzymes and absorb nutrition
  • Since they are heterotrophic, they are more
    closely related to animals than to plants
  • Multicellular (mold) or unicellular (yeast)

10
Domain Eukarya
  • Plants
  • Autotrophic, multicellular
  • Many plant species cannot tolerate saltwater
  • Very few species grow in/near ocean
  • Sea grasses
  • Mangroves
  • Dune plants

11
Domain Eukarya
  • Animals
  • Heterotrophic, multicellular, have motility at
    some point in life cycle
  • Wide variety
  • From simplest of animals (sponges) to most
    complex (mammals)

12
Viruses
  • Acellular entities
  • Are they alive??? many scientists say no
  • Do not have the machinery for life processes,
    have to take over host cell
  • The ultimate parasites
  • Viruses very prevalent in the marine environment

13
Taxonomic classification
  • Systemized classification of organisms
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
  • Fundamental unit
  • Population of genetically similar, interbreeding
    individuals

14
  • With new molecular methods (comparing DNA
    sequence and amino acid sequences of certain
    proteins), traditional taxonomy is changing
  • Taxonomists are discovering new relationships
    between species
  • Molecular data gives a clearer picture of
    relatedness as opposed to the traditional ways of
    classifying organisms
  • Morphology, embryology, behavior, habitat, etc.

15
  • Lets take a closer look at Plant and Animal
    taxonomy

16
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Nonvascular Plants mosses, etc
  • Vascular Plants
  • Seedless Vascular Plants ferns, etc
  • Seed Vascular Plants
  • Gymnosperms naked seeds
  • Angiosperms flowering plants (in the marine
    environment these include mangroves, sea grasses,
    etc.)

17
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Parazoa no true embryonic tissues
  • Sponges
  • Eumetazoa true embryonic tissues
  • 2 true tissues radial symmetry Cnidarians,
    Ctenophores
  • 3 embryonic tissues bilateral symmetry all
    other animals
  • Acoelomate only flatworms
  • Coelomates
  • Protostomes
  • Deuterostomes

18
  • Radially Symmetrical Animals, 2 true embryonic
    tissues
  • Cnidarians
  • Class Anthozoa sea anemones, corals
  • Hydrozoa Hydra
  • Scyphozoa jellies
  • Ctenophores no stinging cells, complete gut
    unlike in the Cnidarians

19
  • What are the embryonic tissue layers?
  • Tissue layers that form during development
  • Ectoderm
  • Mesoderm
  • Endoderm

20
  • What is radial symmetry?
  • What is bilateral symmetry?

21
  • What is an acoelomate?
  • What is a coelomate?

22
  • Bilaterally symmetrical animals are divided into
    2 groups
  • Protostomes 1st blastopore that forms during
    development becomes the mouth
  • Includes Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs
  • Deuterostomes 1st blastopore that forms during
    development becomes the anus
  • Includes the Echinoderms, Chordates

23
  • Bilaterally symmetrical animals
  • Platyhelminthes flatworms
  • Protostomes
  • Annelids
  • Mollusks
  • Nematods
  • Arthropods
  • Deuterostomes
  • Echinoderms
  • Chordates

24
  • Platyhelminthes flatworms
  • Class Turbellaria free-living flatworms
  • Class Trematoda flukes
  • Class Cestoda - tapeworms

http//ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/photos/m
arine-worms//marine-worms03-flatworm_18260_600x45
0.jpg
25
Protostomes
  • Mullusca
  • Class Polyplacaphora - chitins
  • Class Gastropoda snails, conchs
  • Class Bivalvia oysers, scallops
  • Class Cephalopoda squid, octopus

26
Protostomes
  • Annelida
  • Class Oligochaeta earthworms
  • Class Polychaeta many marine species, sand
    worms, feather dusters
  • Class Hirudinea - leeches

Marine feather duster worm
http//www.aquariumdomain.com/viewMarineInvertSpec
ies.php?invert_marine_id26
27
Protostomes
  • Nematoda round worms
  • Many of these are parasitic

28
Protostomes
  • Arthropoda
  • Largest group of animals on the planet!!!!
  • Chelicerates horseshoe crabs and arachnids
  • Crustaceans marine and freshwater, crabs,
    lobster, shrimp, barnacles
  • Insects and relatives

29
Limulus polyphemus
Callinectes sapidus
30
Deuterostomes
  • Echinodermata
  • Adults have pentahedral symmetry but larvae are
    bilaterally symmetrical
  • Class Ophiuroidea brittle stars
  • Class Echinodea sea urchins
  • Class Holothuroidea sea cucumber
  • Class Crinodea sea lillies

Sea cucumber from IRL
31
Deuterostomes
  • Chordata
  • Characteristics dorsal hollow nerve cord,
    notochord, post-anal tail, pharyngeal gill slits
  • Subphylum Urochordata tunicates
  • Larvae have bilateral symmetry, look like tadpole
  • Subphylum Cephalochordata lancelets
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Superclass Agnatha jawless fishes
  • Superclass Gnathostoma jaws
  • Class Chondrichthyes
  • Class Osteichthyes
  • Class Amphibia
  • Class Reptilia
  • Class Mammalia

32
Vertebrates
  • Class Chondrichthyes
  • Sharks, rays

33
Vertebrates
  • Class Osteichthyes
  • Bony fish, ray-finned fish
  • Great diversity in the ocean!
  • Very small to very large
  • Large tuna, grouper, sailfish
  • Deep sea fish
  • Flattened fish flounder
  • Seahorses
  • Eels

34
Vertebrates
  • Class Reptilia
  • Includes birds now!!!
  • Sea turtles, sea snakes, pelicans, penguins,
    osprey, sea gulls

35
http//seaturtlesofindia.org/?page_id12
36
Vertebrates
  • Class Mammalia
  • What are the characteristics of mammals?
  • Carnivores Sea otters, Polar bears, pinnepeds
    (walruses, seals, sea lions)
  • Sirenians manatees
  • Cetacea
  • Odontocetes toothed whales dolphins,
    porpoises, sperm whale
  • Mysticetes baleen whales gray whale, right
    whale, blue whale (largest animal to roam the
    Earth)

37
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38
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39
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40
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41
Classification in the marine environment by
habitat and mobility
  • Plankton (floaters)
  • Nekton (swimmers)
  • Benthos (bottom dwellers)

42
Plankton
http//i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/2110
315/icephytoplankton-main_Full.jpg
  • Most biomass on Earth consists of plankton
  • Phytoplankton
  • Microscopic algae, Autotrophic
  • Zooplankton
  • Heterotrophic
  • Protozoans, tiny animals, larvae of larger
    animals
  • Bacterioplankton
  • Virioplankton
  • Viruses that infect bacteria and eukaryotic cells

43
Plankton
  • Holoplankton
  • Entire lives as plankton
  • Example is algae, protozoans, small microscopic
    animals
  • Meroplankton
  • Part of lives as plankton
  • Juvenile or larval stages in the plankton
  • Examples are lobsters, some fish species, etc.
  • Macroplankton
  • Large floaters such as jellyfish or Sargassum
  • Picoplankton
  • Very small floaters such as bacterioplankton

44
Nekton
  • Independent swimmers
  • Most adult fish and squid
  • Marine reptiles
  • Marine mammals

45
Benthos
  • Epifauna live on surface of sea floor
  • Infauna live buried in sediments
  • Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above
    seafloor
  • Most abundant in shallower water

46
Number of marine species
  • More land species than marine species
  • Ocean relatively uniform conditions
  • Therefore, less adaptation required, less
    speciation
  • Dont get this fact confused with of individual
    organisms
  • There are fewer different species in the ocean
    but greater of individuals
  • Majority of life on Earth lives in the ocean!!
  • Diversity in the ocean is high, also think
    about different types of fish (seahorses to
    sharks, for example)
  • Marine species overwhelmingly benthic rather than
    pelagic
  • Most of these will be in shallow coastal benthic
    areas where there is light and a lot of primary
    productivity

47
  • Marine organisms have a lot of adaptations for
    living in the marine environment
  • Lets take a look at some of these adaptations

48
Adaptations of marine organisms
  • Physical support
  • Buoyancy
  • How to resist sinking
  • Different support structures in cold (fewer)
    rather than warm (more appendages) seawater
  • Smaller size

http//www.solaster-mb.org/mb/images
49
Adaptations to marine life
  • Oil in micro-organisms to increase buoyancy
  • Over-time, if these organisms die and sink to
    bottom
  • Can become offshore oil deposits

Fish egg with oil droplet
Fig. 12.9
http//www.rpgroup.caltech.edu/natsirt/aph162/web
pages/dylanandco/lab1/image
50
Adaptations to marine life
  • Streamlining important for larger organisms
  • Less resistance to fluid flow
  • Flattened body
  • Tapering back end fusiform

http//www.wissenschaft-online.de/sixcms/media.php
/591
51
Fin designs in fish
  • Vertical fins as stabilizers
  • dosral and anal fins
  • Paired fins for steering and balance
  • Pelvic and pectoral
  • Tail fin (caudal) for thrust

http//www.biologycorner.com/resources/fish_fins.g
if
52
Adaptations to marine life
  • Narrow range temperature in oceans
  • Smaller variations (daily, seasonally, annually)
  • Remember it takes longer to change water temp
    than air temp
  • Deep ocean nearly isothermal

53
Adaptations to marine life
  • Cold- versus warm-water species
  • Smaller in cooler seawater
  • More appendages in warmer seawater
  • Why?
  • Tropical organisms grow faster, live shorter,
    reproduce more often
  • Higher of species in warmer seawater
  • Not necessarily higher of individuals
  • More biomass in cooler seawater (upwelling)
  • Polar waters are much more productive (more
    plankton growth) than tropical waters

54
Adaptations to finding prey
  • Most fish cold-blooded but some are warm-blooded
  • Homeothermic-body temperature above sea water
    temperature
  • Modifications in circulatory system
  • Mainly in fast-swimming fish

http//www.sciencedaily.com/images/2005/10/0510311
33653.jpg
55
Adaptations of deep-water nekton
  • Mainly fish that consume detritus or each other
  • Lack of abundant food
  • Bioluminescence
  • http//www.ted.com/talks/edith_widder_glowing_life
    _in_an_underwater_world.html
  • Fishing lures
  • Large, sensitive eyes

Anglerfish w/ males
Lanternfish
http//www.lifesci.ucsb.edu/biolum/organism/pictu
res/myctophid1.jpg
http//www.antoranz.net/CURIOSA/ZBIOR2/C0301
56
Adaptations to marine life
  • Stenothermal
  • Organisms withstand small variation in
    temperature
  • Typically live in open ocean
  • Eurythermal
  • Organisms withstand large variation in
    temperature
  • Typically live in coastal waters

57
Adaptations to marine life
  • Stenohaline
  • Organisms withstand only small variation in
    salinity
  • Typically live in open ocean
  • Euryhaline
  • Organisms withstand large variation in salinity
  • Typically live in coastal waters, e.g., estuaries

58
Adaptations to marine life
  • Extracting minerals from seawater
  • High concentration to low concentration
  • Diffusion
  • Cell membrane permeable to nutrients, for example
  • Waste passes from cell to ocean

59
Adaptations to marine life
  • Osmotic pressure
  • Less concentrated to more concentrated solutions
  • Isotonic
  • Hypertonic
  • Hypotonic

60
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61
Adaptations to marine life
  • Dissolved gases
  • Some animals extract dissolved oxygen (O2) from
    seawater through gills

Fig. 12.15
62
Adaptations to marine life
  • Waters transparency
  • Many marine organisms see well
  • Some marine organisms are nearly transparent to
    avoid predation

63
Adaptations to marine life
  • Camouflage through color patterns
  • Countershading
  • Disruptive coloring
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPmDTtkZlMwM

http//theplasticocean.blogspot.com/2012_07_01_arc
hive.html
64
Adaptations to marine life
  • Water pressure
  • Increases about 1 atmosphere (1 kg/cm2) with
    every 10 m (33 ft) deeper
  • Many marine organisms do not have inner air
    pockets
  • Collapsible rib cage (e.g., sperm whale)

65
Main divisions of the marine environment
  • Pelagic (open sea)
  • Neritic (lt 200 m) and oceanic
  • Benthic (sea floor)
  • Subneritic and suboceanic
  • Another classification scheme
  • Euphotic
  • Disphotic
  • Aphotic

66
Pelagic environments Open ocean
  • Epipelagic
  • Mesopelagic
  • Bathypelagic
  • Abyssopelagic

Fig. 12.19
67
Benthic environments ocean floor
  • Supralittoral
  • Transition from land to seafloor
  • Subneritic (under neritic)
  • Littoral (intertidal zone)
  • Sublittoral (shallow tidal zone to 200m)
  • Suboceanic
  • Bathyal (200-4,000m)
  • Abyssal (4000-6000m)
  • Hadal (below 6000m)

Fig. 12.19
68
Distribution of benthic organisms
Fig. 15.1
  • More benthic productivity when closely beneath
    areas of high surface primary productivity
  • Mainly on continental shelves
  • Affected by surface ocean currents

69
Humans and coral reefs
  • Activities such as fishing, tourist collecting,
    sediment influx due to shore development harm
    coral reefs
  • Sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers
    increase nutrients in reef waters
  • corals thrive at low nutrient levels
  • Phytoplankton overwhelm at high nutrient levels,
    limit light reaching the corals
  • Bioerosion of coral reef by algae-eating organisms

Coral covered with macroalgae
http//daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/oceancolor/images/coral_
reef_algae.jpg
70
Ocean Literacy Principles
  • 3.e - The ocean dominates the Earths carbon
    cycle. Half the primary productivity on Earth
    takes place in the sunlit layers of the ocean and
    the ocean absorbs roughly half of all carbon
    dioxide added to the atmosphere.
  • 5.a - Ocean life ranges in size from the smallest
    virus to the largest animal that has lived on
    Earth, the blue whale.
  • 5.b - Most life in the ocean exists as microbes.
    Microbes are the most important primary producers
    in the ocean. Not only are they the most abundant
    life form in the ocean, they have extremely fast
    growth rates and life cycles.
  • 5c. - Some major groups are found exclusively in
    the ocean. The diversity of major groups of
    organisms is much greater in the ocean than on
    land.
  • 5.e - The ocean is three-dimensional, offering
    vast living space and diverse habitats from the
    surface through the water column to the seafloor.
    Most of the living space on Earth is in the
    ocean.
  • 5.f - Ocean habitats are defined by environmental
    factors. Due to interactions of abiotic factors
    such as salinity, temperature, oxygen, pH, light,
    nutrients, pressure, substrate and circulation,
    ocean life is not evenly distributed temporally
    or spatially, i.e., it is patchy. Some regions
    of the ocean support more diverse and abundant
    life than anywhere on Earth, while much of the
    ocean is considered a desert.
  • 5.g - There are deep ocean ecosystems that are
    independent of energy from sunlight and
    photosynthetic organisms. Hydrothermal vents,
    submarine hot springs, methane cold seeps, and
    whale falls rely only on chemical energy and
    chemosynthetic organisms to support life.

71
Sunshine State Standards
  • SC.6.L.14.3 - Recognize and explore how cells of
    all organisms undergo similar processes to
    maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy
    from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing.
  • SC.7.L.17.3 - Describe and investigate various
    limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their
    impact on native populations, including food,
    shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism,
    predation, and nesting sites.
  • SC.912.L.15.5 - Explain the reasons for changes
    in how organisms are classified.
  • SC.912.L.15.6 - Discuss distinguishing
    characteristics of the domains and kingdoms of
    living organisms.
  • SC.912.L.17.2 - Explain the general distribution
    of life in aquatic systems as a function of
    chemistry, geography, light, depth, salinity, and
    temperature.
  • SC.912.L.17.7 - Characterize the biotic and
    abiotic components that define freshwater
    systems, marine systems and terrestrial systems.
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