Introduction to Marine Ecosystems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 59
About This Presentation
Title:

Introduction to Marine Ecosystems

Description:

... Marine vertebrates control internal salt and water concentration by osmoregulation http://marinebio.org/oceans ... ABIOTIC and BIOTIC ... parts of oceans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:292
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: WHRHS
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Marine Ecosystems


1
Introduction to Marine Ecosystems
2
Ocean Ecosystem
  • An ecosystem is a level of organization that
    includes living things and their environment
  • Living things cannot exist without their
    environment
  • Most of our planet is covered by the ocean or
    marine ecosystem

3
Structure and Function of an Ecosystem
What the ecosystem is made up of and how it works
are linked and influence each other
STRUCTURE Amount of non living materials How
living conditions vary with time and
space Characteristics of living things
FUNCTION Interactions between living
things Cycling
4
LAND vs OCEAN
  • Ocean is wetter than land
  • Materials can be dissolved in ocean water
  • Gametes can be dispersed more easily
  • Harder for smaller things to move through water
  • Ocean is more vast than land
  • Harder to find mates and food
  • Ocean is more supportive than land
  • Body structure will be different than land
    animals
  • Living in aquatic environment will shape biology
    and adaptations of marine life

5
ABIOTIC and BIOTIC FX
  • Physical or non-living parts of the environment
    that influence living things are called abiotic
    factors
  • examples
  • Living factors which influence living things are
    called biotic factors
  • examples

6
Abiotic Factors in the Ocean
  • Inorganic nutrients like C,N,H,P,S,Fe,Si
  • Motion in the ocean upwelling, currents, tides
  • Dissolved materials like gases and salts
  • Climate temperature, light, pressure
  • Variations in time and space

7
Inorganic Nutrients
  • Most of the ocean is nutrient poor
  • Only 10 percent of the surface area of the global
    ocean supports half the worlds fisheries
  • Nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and silica are like
    fertilizer for ocean plants

8
  • Source of nutrients
  • Runoff from land, animal feces and decomposition
  • all this material sinks out of reach
  • Surface nutrients get used up (by plants to make
    plant tissue) they become a limiting factor for
    the growth of new plants which are only found in
    surface waters
  • Nutrients are returned to surface waters by a
    special type of current called 'upwelling'

9
Other Ways Nutrients are Replaced
  • Winter storms, after the thermocline has
    disappeared
  • Deep water currents can be deflected by
    underwater island chains

10
(No Transcript)
11
Motion-Upwelling
  • Upwelling is a vertical current, bringing
    nutrient rich water from the bottom to the
    surface.
  • Upwelling areas support a lot of life
  • Occur off the west coasts of continents or in the
    middle of the equatorial parts of oceans.
  • Upwelling is often seasonal

12
www.coolclassroom.org/cool.../upwellingtutorial.ht
ml
13
Why Upwelling Happens
  • Earth's rotation and strong seasonal winds push
    surface water away from coasts
  • Deep water rises on the edges of continents to
    replace it.

14
uwgb.edu
15
Motion-Tides
  • Alternating rise and fall of sea level
  • Produced by gravitational attraction to moon and
    sun as well as the rotation of the Earth
  • Tides produce strong currents up to 5 m/s
  • http//www.oc.nps.edu/nom/day1/partc.html

16
Motion-Tides
  • Area on the beach exposed between high and low
    tide is intertidal zone
  • Organisms must deal with breaking waves, exposure
    above water, and daily variations in water
    temperature and salinity
  • Adaptations, such as firm attachment to rocks
    and shells to hold in moisture, to deal with
    these conditions.

17
http//geosci.sfsu.edu/courses/geol102/ex9.html
18
Marine Life and Tides
  • Some marine life time their feeding and
    reproduction to the high or low tide cycle
  • Horseshoe crabs come ashore to mate on the night
    of a high tide in May
  • Eggs hatch 2 wks later on a high tide and are
    washed into the ocean

19
Motion-Currents
20
Motion-Currents
  • Ocean currents move heat around the globe and
    affect local climate
  • Driven by atmospheric winds and Earths rotation
  • Found in upper 400m and speeds around 1 m/s
  • Pollution, marine life and food can be stuck in
    currents and moved around the globe

21
(No Transcript)
22
Dissolved Materials
  • Seawater is fresh water plus dissolved materials
    like salts, minerals and gases
  • Amount of material dissolved depends on
    temperature of water

23
Dissolved Gases
  • Oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen
  • Dissolve into the ocean from the atmosphere
    through wave action also released at the surface
    back into atmosphere
  • Dissolve better in cold water
  • Animal life and plant life can change the
    chemistry of ocean gases

24
Dissolved Gases
  • Plants photosynthesize, animals respire, bacteria
    decompose
  • Plants use CO2 and produce O2
  • Animals use O2 and produce CO2
  • Decomposition uses O2 and produces CO2

25
  • Around 500 m water runs out of oxygen
  • Bacteria and other animals are using it during
    decomposition and respiration
  • No photosynthesis at this depth
  • Animals in this region and lower have large
    gills, modified hemoglobin or are inactive

26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
Gas Exchange and Carbon Cycle
  • Oceans absorb and store large amounts of CO2
  • Contain about 50 X the amount found in the
    atmosphere
  • biological pump -some of the absorbed CO2 is used
    in the food web by phytoplankton, or used to make
    shells and then consumed and pooped out
  • gas is trapped in the deep ocean (sequestered)
    until brought to surface by currents

29
(No Transcript)
30
Ocean Acidification
  • CO2 is changed to carbonic acid as it dissolves
    in seawater
  • More CO2 dissolving, more acidic ocean is
    becoming
  • 30 increase in acidity since IR
  • Marine life that produce calcium carbonate shells
    are negatively impacted by increasing acidity
    (coral, clams, mussels, oysters, some algae)

31
  • The photos below show what happens to a
    pteropods shell when placed in sea water with pH
    and carbonate levels projected for the year 2100.
    The shell slowly dissolves after 45 days.  Photo
    credit Used with permission, National Geographic
    Images

32
Dissolved Salts
  • Dissolved salts/ minerals come from land and
    underwater volcanic activity
  • Average salinity is 35 parts per thousand
  • Salts change water density and differences in
    density contribute to the creation of water
    masses and deep ocean circulation
  • Thermohaline circulation, also called the Global
    Ocean Conveyor, moves water between the deep and
    surface ocean worldwide

33
Figure 1 Relative proportions of dissolved
salts in seawater. (Source PhysicalGeography.net)

34
  • Thermohaline circulation, also called the Global
    Ocean Conveyor, moves water between the deep and
    surface ocean worldwide.Click on image for full
    sizeImage courtesy Argonne National Laboratory
  • Image courtesy Argonne National Laboratory

35
Marine vertebrates control internal salt and
water concentration by osmoregulation
http//marinebio.org/oceans/ocean-chemistry.as
p
36
Climate temperature, light, pressure
  • Ocean conditions vary with depth and with
    latitude

http//climate.lanl.gov/
37
http//geosci.sfsu.edu/courses/geol102/ex9.html
38
(No Transcript)
39
(No Transcript)
40
Animal Adaptations and Pressure
  • Ocean life has adapted to deep ocean and 1000x
    our pressure with lightweight skeletons, little
    musculature, and reduced metabolic, growth and
    reproductive rates.
  • Diving mammals have rib cages that collapse and
    expand in result to changing pressure

41
                                              Y
elloweye rockfish with barotrauma. Shows
esophagus protruding from mouth and bulging eyes
(exophthalmia). (Credit Image courtesy of Oregon
State University)
42
Water Depth vs Light
  • Photosynthetic organisms use light to make
    sugars.
  • Sunlit area (top 100 meters) contains 90 of
    marine life
  • Colors of penetrate thru water differently
  • Red light filters out first and blue light goes
    the furthest
  • Red animals are essentially invisible in deep
    waters

43
(No Transcript)
44
blog.hotelclub.com
cdnn.info
driftline.wordpress.com
45
Animal Adaptations and Temperature
  • Average ocean temp is 3 ? C
  • Colder temps reduce the metabolic rate
  • In very cold waters fish have a special protein
    like antifreeze to keep tissues from freezing
  • Lighter colored animals stay cooler than darker
    colored animals and are found in warmer waters
  • Some marine life have thick layers of fat to
    insulate their bodies

46
Variations in Time and Space
  • Characteristics of ocean water change with depth
    and season
  • Many marine organisms migrate daily or seasonally
    because of these variations

Openlibrary.org
47
Biotic Factors in the Ocean
  • Characteristics of living things
  • Diversity How many and what types of things
    live there
  • Interactions between living things competition,
    predation, symbiosis

48
Characteristics of Life
  • Made of cells
  • Getting energy
  • Growth and development
  • Reproducing
  • Respond to environment
  • Maintaining homeostasis

49
Naturalseasponge.com
50
Diversity of Living Things
  • Systematics- Groups organisms for classification
    and study
  • Describes the evolutionary relationships between
    orgs
  • Earliest life forms evolved in the ocean

51
Diversity of Living Things
  • Two main division are based on cell structure
  • Prokaryotes Kingdom Moneran / bacteria group
  • Lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
  • Eukaryotes- All other kingdoms
  • Have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

http//io.uwinnipeg.ca/simmons/1116/images/bactlo
co.gif http//www.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/inouye/ino/e
tc/dinoflagellates.jpg
52
Diversity of Living Things
  • The broadest category of life starts at the top
    and includes one or more of the succeeding
    categories
  • Domain of life
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus and
    species

53
Diversity of Living Things
  • Every organism has a two part name unique to
    itself-Binomial Nomenclature
  • Can only interbreed with other organisms of its
    kind
  • Genus species or Genus species
  • Prevents confusion if a species is known by many
    common names
  • Example Common dolphin is known as Delphinus
    delphis

54
Interaction Between Living Things
  • Competition
  • A habitat can only support a fixed number of
    individuals
  • Limits on space, nutrients, mates etc..
  • May result in extinction of a species or niche
    segregation ( both species become more
    specialized and can then coexist)
  • Winners and losers change based on varoius
    factors like stability of ecosystem, predation

55
Interaction Between Living Things
  • Predation- one organism hunts, kills and eats
    another organism
  • Over time prey evolve adaptations to avoid
    predation which prey must adapt to as well
  • Arms race between two organisms
  • Important in culling weak or sick animals from
    the population
  • Some are keystone species which promote the
    diversity of species in a habitat

56
eyesonafrica.net
57
Interactions between living things
  • Symbiosis- living together of unlike organisms
  • Mutualistic- Both species benefit from the
    relationship
  • Remora and shark remora gets food scraps, shark
    has parasites removed

michaelmcfadyenscuba.info
58
  • Commensal- one species benefits and the other has
    no benefit or harm
  • Hermit crab and a snail (shell)

myfishtanks.info
59
  • Parasitic- one species benefits but the other is
    harmed
  • Female and male anglerfish

http//www.marineparasites.com/gallery.html44
s15.zetaboards.com
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com