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Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack

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Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack References: FM 7-10, FM 7-8, FM 101-5-1, FM 6-71 Characteristics of Offensive Operations Concentration Surprise ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate Attack


1
Light Infantry Company and Platoon Deliberate
Attack
References FM 7-10, FM 7-8, FM 101-5-1, FM 6-71
2nd Battalion (TS) (IN)
2
Agenda
Doctrinal Overview of the Attack 5 Phases of a
Deliberate Attack Task Organization SOSR Observed
Problems Maintaining Suppressive Fires The
90-Degree COA Fire Support Planning and
Execution Limited Visibility Attacks Force
Protection
3
Characteristics of Offensive Operations
FM 100-5, 1993, pp.7-1 thru 7-3
  • Concentration
  • Surprise
  • Tempo
  • Audacity

4
Forms of Tactical Offense
FM 100-5, 1993, pp. 7-3 thru 7-9
  • Movement to Contact
  • Attack
  • Exploitation
  • Pursuit

5
Typical Tasks for Attacks
FM 101-5-1, 1985, CH 1
  • Main Attack Supporting Attack
  • - Seize - Isolate
  • - Clear - Fix
  • - Destroy - Suppress
  • - Secure

6
Forms of Maneuver
FM 100-5, 1993, P.7-11
  • Infiltration
  • Turning Movement
  • Envelopment
  • Frontal Attack
  • Penetration

7
Infiltration
8
Turning Movement
9
Frontal Attack
10
Envelopment
11
Penetration 1.
12
Penetration 2.
13
Penetration 3.
14
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
FM 7-10, 1990, pages 4-28 through 4-34
1. Reconnoiter and develop a concept 2. Move to
the objective 3. Isolate the objective and the
selected breach site 4. Attack to secure a
foothold 5. Exploit the penetration and seize the
decisive point
15
Movement to the Assault Position
Objective
Obstacles En Route
Chance Contact En Route
Attack Position
AA
16
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
1. Recon the Objective and Develop a Concept
  • Determine PIR and type/level of recon
  • Try to maintain eyes on the objective
  • Task organize based on the concept
  • Support
  • Breach
  • Assault
  • Reserve (Possibly)

17
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
2. Move to the Objective
  • Develop routes
  • Decide on movement formations and techniques
  • Determine the order of movement
  • Time the movement to reduce halts
  • Anticipate contact or obstacles en route
  • Engagement and bypass criteria
  • CASEVAC
  • Fire support
  • Synchronize supporting fires
  • Establish adequate control measures

18
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
3. Isolate the Objective and the Selected Breach
Site
  • Establish security
  • Use direct and indirect fires
  • Plan the breaching fundamentals--SOSR
  • Set the conditions
  • Have a means of identifying the breach site
  • Be flexible Breach based on enemy and terrain

19
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
4. Attack to Gain a Foothold
  • Execute SOSR
  • Control of fires

20
5 Phases of a Deliberate Attack
5. Exploit the Penetration and Seize the
Decisive Point
  • Organize the Assault force into support, breach
    and assault elements, in case another obstacle is
    encountered
  • Mass effects of combat power
  • Control fires
  • Plan through to Consolidation and Reorganization

21
Task Organization for a Deliberate Attack
FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-29
  • Assault element
  • Support element
  • Breach element
  • Possibly a Reserve

22
Light Infantry Company Task Organization for
Deliberate Attack
UNIT
TASK and (Purpose)
METHOD
23
Breach Fundamentals SOSR
24
Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the
Company Level
  • Planning process
  • Time management
  • Use of sand table
  • Inclusion of attachments (FO, Engineers, Medics)
  • Graphic control measures
  • Adjacent unit coordination
  • Determining PIR Where are their machine guns?
  • Isolating the objective
  • Collecting intelligence from S2 and Scouts
  • Location of FO, mortars and ammo resupply
  • Planning indirect fires
  • Rehearsals with all key leaders
  • Directing and prioritizing rehearsals
  • Signals
  • Engagement/Bypass criteria during movement
  • MEDEVAC plan (Casualty collection points)
  • Water resupply
  • Back briefs

25
Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the
Company Level
  • Execution
  • Pre-combat inspections
  • MILES zero and test fire
  • Weapons maintenance
  • Rehearsals with wire obstacle
  • Movement and halts
  • Leaders Recon
  • Stealth breach
  • Maintaining suppressive fire
  • AT weapons
  • Marking of lanes and bunkers
  • Location of First Sergeant and XO
  • Fratricide
  • The 90-Degree COA

26
Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the
Platoon/Squad/Soldier Level
  • Planning
  • Dissemination of information
  • Rehearsals with attachments
  • Rehearsals during limited visibility
  • Contingency planning
  • Pre-combat inspections
  • Assignment of special teams
  • Assault force prepared to breach
  • Marking lead assault element
  • Breach kits (contents and number of)

27
Observed Problems with Company Attacks at the
Platoon/Squad/Soldier Level
  • Execution
  • Route reconnaissance and navigation
  • Hand and arm signals
  • Use of cover and concealment
  • Security during movement and at halts
  • Communication with SBF position
  • Crew drills
  • Fire control and distribution
  • Synchronization
  • Signaling
  • Squad and fire team movement
  • Maintaining momentum during assault
  • Communication and reporting
  • Fratricide
  • Consolidation and reorganization

28
Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- Rates of Fire
M60 MG Burst Rate M249 MG Burst Rate
Cyclic 550 RPM 6-9 rounds as fast as the trigger can be squeezed 850 RPM 3-5 rounds as fast a the trigger can be squeezed
Rapid 200 RPM 6-9 rounds with a 1-second pause between bursts 200 RPM 3-5 rounds with a 1-second pause between bursts
Sustained 100 RPM 6-9 rounds with a 2- second pause between bursts 85 RPM 3-5 rounds with a 3- second pause between bursts
Techniques
  1. Begin with the cyclic rate to prevent the enemy
    from returning accurate fire or displacing,
    continue with a rapid rate as long as targets are
    in view, then go to the sustained rate to save
    ammo.
  2. Do the math Put the correct amount for each rate
    and time in a separate ammo box (M60 _at_ 30 seconds
    cyclic 275 rounds).
  3. Use 4x1 mix of ammo (DODIC A131), not straight
    ball (A143).

29
Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- Barrel Change Requirements
Rate of Fire M60 MG M249 MG
Cyclic Every 1 minute Every 1 minute
Rapid Every 2 minutes Every 2 minutes
Sustained Every 10 minutes Every 10 minutes
Techniques
  1. Using the ammo can technique, each can should
    have no ammo beyond what will be fired before
    each barrel change.
  2. Gunners must plan changes so that they are
    staggered.
  3. Gunners must pick up the rate of fire if there is
    a lull during barrel changes and reloading.
  4. The AG can use an empty rucksack to carry the
    spare barrel bag and ammo cans. Pad cans with
    rags to reduce noise.
  5. Misfire! Use Leatherman tool and cleaning rod to
    clear brass and links.

30
Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- SBF Location Considerations
  • Conduct a good terrain analysis and select a site
    that
  • Has adequate cover and concealment
  • Can protect the assault force
  • Is not masked by the assault forces movement
  • Once this is done, the SBF leader must identify
    where he wants fires concentrated and the limits
    of the sectors. METT-T might require the use of
    multiple SBF positions.

-- Weapon Priorities
Example order to M60 Gunner Your priorities
will be Bunker 1 followed by Bunker 2 once the
maneuver element destroys the bunkers, you will
engage 3 to 5 man targets in your secondary
sector. However, if a thin-skinned vehicle
enters your current sectors, engage it
immediately.
-- Fire Commands
Creeping fires versus Shift fire Lift fire Use
of whistles, tracers, laser designators
31
Maintaining Suppressive Fires
-- Distribution of Fires
  • The target area dictates the assignment of
  • Primary sectors
  • Secondary sectors
  • Priority targets
  • Shift sectors

Primary Sector
Secondary Sector
Primary sector left limit
The M60 is closest to the maneuver unit, since
its fires are most visible, and all other weapons
shoot to its inside. If the M60 goes down, the
other weapons shift to its primary sector.
Secondary sector left limit
M60
M203
M249
M16
32
The 90-Degree COA
33
Consolidation and Reorganization
Once platoons have consolidated on the objective,
they begin to reorganize in order to continue the
attack. Reorganization involves--
  • Reestablishing command and control
  • Manning key weapons, redistributing ammunition
    and equipment
  • Assessing and reporting the status of personnel,
    ammunition, supplies, and essential equipment
  • Establishing OPs and overlapping sectors of fire
    in preparation for a possible enemy counterattack
  • Clearing the objective of casualties and EPWs

The MTP standard for completion of platoon CR is
15 minutes
34
Fire Planning and Execution
Agenda
Battle Drills Preparatory Fires Obscuration and
Screening Consolidation Hasty Defense Fire
Plan Reorganization Quick Fire Planning
CPT Munson and SFC Dougherty 3-393 (TS) (FA)
35
Fire Planning and Execution
  • Use of Battle Drills
  • Battle drills are used to employ a collective
    action and are rapidly executed without applying
    a deliberate decision making process.
  • Battle Drill Characteristics
  • Minimal leader orders
  • Sequential actions
  • Trained responses
  • Battle Drills Provide
  • Key actions performed quickly
  • Smooth transition / reaction from one activity
    to another
  • Standardized actions

36
Fire Planning and Execution
Battle Drill I II I. React to Contact (Search
and Attack or chance contact) Receiving fire
from enemy individual or crew served weapons II.
React to Ambush (Near or Far) Platoon enters
kill zone, enemy initiates with casualty
producing device and high volume of fire
37
Fire Planning and Execution
Battle Drill I ( React To Contact )
38
Fire Planning and Execution
Battle Drill I ( Continued )
39
Fire Planning and Execution
Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Near
40
Fire Planning and Execution
Battle Drill II React To Ambush - Far
41
Fire Planning and Execution
FM 6-71
  • Preparatory Fires
  • It is imperative that targets are either
    confirmed or denied before execution
  • Weigh the benefits versus the drawbacks of
    shooting preparatory fires.
  • Consider making your mortars direct support to
    the support force during this operation.
  • Ensure that a specific company, team, or observer
    is designated to control fires on the objective.
    One technique is to assign this responsibility to
    a unit in a support-by-fire position. They are
    not as actively engaged in staying alive as the
    company or team FSO in the assault force.
  • Plan FM (voice) and visual (backup) signals for
    the lifting or shifting of indirect fires on the
    objective, and rehearse them in detail.

42
Fire Planning and Execution
FM 6-71
  • Preparatory Fires
  • (Continued)
  • Enforce target refinement cutoff times
  • Articulate the number of elements or size of
    elements you want engaged during each phase of
    the operation (engagement criteria)
  • Specify the effects of attack (suppress,
    neutralize, or destroy) in terms of the enemy
    target types (attack criteria)
  • When determining fire support coordination
    measures (FSCM), consider the minimum safe
    distance (danger close) for each weapon system
  • Plan fires to augment your deception plan

43
Fire Planning and Execution
FM 6-20-50
Obscuration Smoke placed on or near the enemy
position to interfere with his observation of the
battlefield is called obscuration smoke. Enemy
positions with secondary or more than one
objective can be isolated from adjacent or
flanking support units by obscuration smoke, thus
degrading effective defensive fires. Screening Scr
eening smoke is placed within the areas of
friendly operation or in areas between friendly
and enemy forces to degrade enemy observation and
fire. It is primarily intended to conceal
movement of friendly forces.
44
Fire Planning and Execution
  • Consolidation
  • Platoons and squads move quickly to establish
    security during the consolidation of an
    objective. FOs, in conjunction with OPs, are
    along likely approaches and establish targets
    with overlapping sectors of fire to create
    all-round security.
  • Hasty Defense Fire Plan
  • Establish FPF (FPL)
  • Target known enemy locations
  • Target engagement areas
  • Target obstacles
  • Key terrain and TAIs
  • Target avenues of approach at critical choke
    points
  • Target withdrawal routes from battle
  • Forward to higher headquarters ASAP

45
Fire Planning and Execution
  • Reorganization
  • FO reestablishes contact / relocates with PL to
    establish command and control.
  • After PL assesses the platoons status
    (personnel, ammunition, supplies, and essential
    equipment), FO sends report to company FSE
  • Quick Fire Planning
  • Targets to be engaged Desired effect on targets
  • Order and timing of target engagement Duration of
    fires
  • H-hour Priority of fires
  • Priority for targeting Priority for execution
  • Time check from commander Estimated rate of
    movement
  • Need for target adjustment Objective and
    defensive positions
  • Maneuver control measures Fire plan name
  • Obstacles Unit to fire

46
Limited Visibility Attacks
FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-36
Difficulties
  • Navigating and movement
  • Identifying and engaging targets
  • Controlling units, soldiers and fires
  • Locating, bypassing or breaching obstacles
  • Identifying friendly and enemy soldiers

47
Limited Visibility Attacks
Considerations
  • Rate of movement and types of formations
  • Lack of NVGs (especially for Engineers)
  • Whether or not to use illumination
  • Target identification and engagement
  • Controlling (Focus, distribute, shift) direct
    and indirect fires
  • Use of AT-4
  • Marking breach points and cleared bunkers
  • Locating and treating casualties

48
Limited Visibility Attacks
Fire Control
FM 7-10, 1990, p. 4-38
  • Tracer fire
  • -- Used by assault element leaders to mark
    targets
  • -- Used by support element leaders to indicate
    near limit of fires
  • Luminous or glint tape and Chemlights
  • -- Mark lead assault personnel to prevent
    fratricide
  • -- Throw in front of assault element
  • -- Put on stick or radio antenna and use to mark
    progress through a trench
  • Weapons restrictions techniques
  • -- Control status of individual weapons
  • -- Weapons on semi-automatic
  • -- No automatic weapons with assault element

49
Force Protection
  • Establish Minimum Safe Distances (MSD) based on
    unit SOPs, registration status, proficiency of
    supporting units, weather, etc. Establish them
    for indirect fires, automatic weapons, and
    explosives. Build it into the plan.
  • Use M60 tripod and TE
  • Night vision devices
  • Body armor?
  • Eye, hand, and knee protection
  • Water resupply and CASEVAC

50
Questions?
2nd Battalion (TS) (IN)
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