PPT – VALUE ADDITION TO FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 63679d-ODY0Y


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation



The prepacked produce presents better consumer ... Since the fast food ... suvarnarekha and totapuri and their blends Factors influencing purchasing behaviour ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:3584
Avg rating:5.0/5.0
Slides: 45
Provided by: VIJAYL


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes


  • E mail

Introduction ?With the continuous increase in
the population, efforts are required to feed
additional 15million people every
year. ?enhancing food production does not answer
this problem because all foods particularly
fruits and vegetables are perishables and
seasonal. ?unless excess production is processed
and preserved, it will be wasted. ?today only
1.0 of the total fruits and vegetables produced
are processed in the 3000 food industries in the
country. ? although India is the second largest
producer of fruits and vegetables only 2 is
being commercially processed wastage is estimated
to be very high and value addition is constrained
by long chain with too many intermediaries making
scale efficiencies difficult.
Introduction ?much progress has been made in the
last two to three decades regarding the
development of processed fruit and vegetable
products. ?considerable amount of research and
development has been carried out in research
institutions, universities, experimental stations
to standardize varieties, post harvest handling,
storage, transportation, processing, product
development, packaging etc. ?some of these
process technologies and products have
considerable potential for establishing fruits
and vegetable industry in rural areas.
Introduction ? some of these process
technologies and products have considerable
potential for establishing fruits and vegetable
industry in rural areas ?In India the food
processing is divided into organized and
unorganized sectors. The food processing industry
depends upon agricultural production for supply
of raw material and so far the country has been
self sufficient in this aspect. ?food industry
contributes 18 GNP and employs 1.5million
workers i.e., about 20 of our industrial labour.
? In India, the value addition of food
production is only 7 compared to 23 in China,
45 in Phillipines or 188 in UK
Introduction ?there are two types of procesed
foods a. Basic foods such as atta (wheat
flour), milk, poultry etc. b. Niche products such
as breakfast cereals, jams, sauces etc. ?to be
competitive in the market whether national or
international, we will have to keep updated about
new developments in food industry abroad,
innovate and do RD to bring un value added
convenient products which should be made
available to the consumer at affordable prices.
Introduction ?the continuous thrust shall be to
reduce cost, improve quality, improve convenience
so as to attract consumers to buy. ?whenever the
price of tomatoes sky rocket, people start
purchasing tomato puree in tetra packs. Otherwise
there is no demand which clearly shows that the
prices of the products should be in tune with
market prices of fresh produce to attract
consumers. ?to be successful, one should not
consider preservation as the only reason for
processing. Processed food products have to give
something extra to the consumers and it will have
to be explained and convinced. In season,
processed food products have to show benefits to
counter higher prices.
Let us see the various methods of food processing
and the recent trends 1. Food irradiation This
is a new addition to the methods of food
preservation. It is an effective and safe method
in which food is exposed to ionizing energy under
controlled conditions. Irradiation does not leave
any residue in food like chemicals and hence it
is safe. It is cleared in more than 40
countries. food irradiation inhibits sprouting
in tuber and bulb crops delays ripening of
fruits eg. Banana extends shelf life of meat and
meat products
increases food safety by eliminating non spore
forming microorganisms decontaminates spices
such as black pepper, red chillies, other whole
spices and spice powder without affecting their
aroma sterilizes meat and meat products in
frozen state packed in laminated pouches which
can then be stored at ambient for long
time. generally no nutritional losses take
place. Food irradiation is going to become a very
important method of food preservation in future.
2. Non thermal processes for food processing a.
Membrane technology Mainly used for water
treatment and waste water treatment. Different
types of membranes and membrane systems have been
developed. Nano-filtration, ultra filtration and
reverse osmosis separation processes use membrane
technology. Ultra filtration membranes are widely
used in food industry applications. Saves huge
energy while concentrating fruit and vegetable
juices. For initial concentration membrane
technology is used and final concentration heat
processing is used. It saves energy as well as
gives better quality product due to reduced heat
b. Pulsed electrical fields (PEF) cool pulsed
electrical field process developed by pure pulses
technology for antimicrobial treatment of liquids
and pumpable foods results into improved flavor
and nutritional properties, extended shelf life
and destruction of both spoilage organisms and
pathogens. c. Ultra high pressure (UHP) used
to pasteurize fruit juices for 2 minutes at
60,000 psi. It can handle particulates up to
half inch size. 3. Food preservation through
packaging innovation Controlled modified
atmosphere (CA/MA) storage and packaging has
emerged as most significant food preservation
technology. This is called modified atmosphere
packaging (MAP). It extends the shelf life of the
product. It does not require any additives and
involves nil or least processing.
4. Enzymes in fruit processing industry
Enzymes make things happen and at a faster rate.
They breakdown components to make something more
useful. Enzymes are used for cheese making, by
citrus processors to decrease viscosity of
concentrate, to increase yield of fruit juices,
to dissolve albedo portion of citrus fruit, to
make gelatin from cattle hide, broth and broth
flavors from chicken carcasses.
5. Fabricated foods To increase the quantity
and variety of foods available to man. Food
fabrication means to put together various
nutrients in the desired proportion and imparting
to such a composite, organoleptic qualities
through the use of additives and suitable
processing. Results in development of more
economical substitutes of analogs eg. Margarine
to replace butter, textured vegetable protein,
soy milk equivalent to dairy milk. Fabricated
foods are developed to meet the needs of
metabolically handicapped eg. Eggless mayonnaise,
lactose free food based on soy protein, non
nutritive sweetners etc.
6. Hurdle technology of food safety A
combination of factors like pH, temperature etc
successively weaken the target micro organisms
thus keeping them under control. It is often seen
that combination of hurdles will act
synergistically at concentrations much lower than
those used singly. The usefulness of hurdle
technology lies in the fact that it is possible
to achieve high levels of safety assurance using
relatively mild combination treatments. This
allows for the development of fresher, more
natural foods with desired organoleptic
7. Heat processing In India, major thrust in
fruits and vegetables processing is by heat
processing i.e., canning and dehydration. Major
units for fruits and vegetables processing in
India is canning. A. Asceptic packaging a
new technology for asceptic packaging i. e.
processing of fruit juice / concentrate that
entered India, is Bag-in-Box filling method where
a sterile product is filled in sterile pack under
sterile conditions B. Dehydration dehydrated
products like onion, egg powder, tomato powder
etc did not succeed as yet but only baby foods
plants worked well. Freeze drying where the
product is first frozen and then dehydrated by
applying vacuum is becoming popular because it
gives an excellent quality product.
6. Refrigeration processing Freezing technology
for fruits and vegetables was used since last 25
years . Popular for green peas and mango pulp.
Method of freezing used is blast freezing. Now
it is Individual Quick Freezing (IQF). In this
each piece is frozen by fluidization. Results in
s better quality product. Used
Some value added products of fruits and
Fruit Toffees Fruit Toffee is a highly
nutritious product as compared to sugar boiled
confectionery. It is made from pulp of mango and
other fruits along with certain ingredients.
Small and cottage scale manufacture of fruit
toffee provides potential avenues for self
employment in the area where the fruits are
available. Although fruit toffees are being made
in the organized sector, there exists a vest
potential for cottage scale production also
Fruit Bars Fruit
bar is a concentrated fruit product meant for
ready consumption. It has a good shelf life. Any
variety of pulpy fruits, e.g. mango, guava,
papaya, banana, apple etc. singly or in
combination can be used for manufacture. Fruit
bars are becoming increasingly popular due to
good shelf life, taste, flavour and texture.
Fruit Jams and Jellies
These products are prepared by boiling the fruit
pulp with sufficient quantity of sugar to a
moderately thick consistency. The popular
varieties of jam are pineapple, mango, mixed
fruit, strawberry, grape, apricot and among
jellies, guava and apple. The product is used as
a bread spread and is also taken along with
chapati, puri or similar products. Jams, jellies
and marmalades share approximately 17 of the
total processed fruit and vegetable products.
Improved Murabba Making Murabba is one
of the indigenous sweet preparations of the
country. Murabba made from amla, bael, myrobalan,
carrot, apple, mango, citrus peels are quite
popular. The traditional method of the
preparation requires a long processing time and
does not ensure good keeping quality for the
product often spoils due to miocrobial
fermentation. The method has been improved to
obtain murabba in a shorter period with good
keeping quality, attractive translucent
appearance and desirable texture.
Tutty Fruity Fruits
generally used for making preserves/ candies are
apple, amla, papaya, mango, strawberry,
raspberry, pear, cherry, etc. Among these raw
papaya is largely used to make tutti-fruity used
in bakery products, sweetmeats, ice creams,
salads and pan. The candied fruits and vegetables
are quite popular food items. The consumption of
these products is rapidly increasing
Osmo-air dried Fruits
Osmo air- dried fruits are based on a novel
approach towards dehydration. Slices of ber,
pineapple, jackfruit, mango, etc. are processed
in two stages. The first phase is the removal of
most of the water using sugar syrup as an osmotic
agent. The second phase is air drying where the
moisture content is further reduced to about 15.
The osmo-air dehydrated product is near to the
fresh fruit in terms of colour, flavour and
texture. The product can be used in ready -to
eat type foods, ice cream, fruit salad, kheer,
cakes and bakery products. Such osmo-air dried
fruit based units can be set up in areas near
fruit orchards to the benefit of people. The
process is simple and involves operations like
selection of fruits, cleaning, washing, peeling,
curing and slicing/ dicing. The prepared fruit
slices are steeped in sugar solution to remove
water by osmosis. The slices are then drained,
dried in a hot air drier and packed in flexible
Grape Raisins Dried
grapes are used in various food preparations and
considered as a delicacy for direct consumption.
Manufacture of raisins can be an important
industry in the grape growing areas. An improved
method has been developed which can easily be
adopted. The process consists of washing, alkali
treatment, sulphitation, drying in sun or in
dehydraters. Any grape variety with high sugar
and low acid content can be used yielding a good
quality product. No sophisticated equipment is
needed and the unit can be installed in orchards.
It can generate rural employment.
Dry Apricots Apricot is
an important fruit cultivated in the temperate
regions. The dry fruit forms an important item of
confection. The fully ripe fruits are harvested
item of confection. The fully ripe fruits are
harvested and placed in a wooden sulfuring
chamber wherein yellow sulphur is burnt at the
rate 4g/kg fruit. Sulfured fruits are dried in a
solar drier for 5-7 days till the moisture
content is about 17. The dry fruits are packed
in polythene bags for storage and marketing
Dehydrated Vegetables Vegetables
are seasonal and perishable. Dehydration is one
of the methods to preserve them and make
available throughout the year in hygienic
conditions at reasonable cost. The dehydrated
vegetables are easy to transport and cater to the
needs of large catering establishments. They can
be used in various preparations at any season of
the year. Traditional sundrying is time
consuming, less hygienic and climate
dependent. The process for controlled dehydration
of vegetables consists of grading/ sorting,
washing, peeling/ trimming, size reduction,
blanching, Chemical treatment, dehydration and
packing in unit can be established.
Anardana The seed with
adhering pulp (arils), when dried yields Anardana
of commerce. The traditional method consists of
manual extraction of arils followed by sundrying.
It is unhygienic, labour intensive and slow. The
product cannot be stored beyond the following
monsoon season since spoilage occurs due to
discolouration, moisture ingress and insect
infestation. The improved processing technique
consists of pre-cleaning, mechanised extraction
of arils, solar drying and packaging. The
mechanised aril extractor works on ¼ HP motor and
can process 60 kg fruit/hr as compared to
productivity of 5 kg/hr in manual operation.
Prepackaging of fruits and
Vegetables This simple technique involves
cleaning, trimming, cutting of the fresh produce
and packing the same in unit packages in
polyethylene bags. Bean, carrot, brinjal, green
chilli, root crops, leafy vegetables, and fruits
like orange, lemon, banana, grape, and flowers
like champaka, chrysanthemum can be prepackaged
to obtain 1 to 2 times extension in shelf life in
polyethylene bags under normal conditions without
any refrigeration. The prepacked produce presents
better consumer appeal, longer shelf life and has
considerable handling advantages in transport and
marketing. The major facility required at the
farm level or in orchards is a packing shed.
Wax Emulsion for Fruit Vegetables A
large number of units in tiny sector can be set
up for improving the shelf life of fresh fruits
and vegetables in villages where they are grown
for marketing in the urban areas. The wax
emulsion is diluted with cold water and used for
dipping fruits and vegetables. It enhances the
shelf life, protects fruit from fungal attack,
and reduces desiccation and weight loss during
storage. The emulsion is harmless and imparts a
gloss to fruits and vegetables. The process is
quite simple and economical.
Evaporative Cool Stores
Evaporative cooling system is a simple and cheap
method for short term storage of fruits and
vegetables. It does not depend on conventional
energy sources. A 170 litre capacity EC chamber
has been designed and tested. The special
features are dripping system for water,
compactness, easy loading and unloading through
door and recycling of water. During summer months
the system maintained a 20-25oC temperature and
90-95 RH as compared to ambient conditions of
23 38oC and 30-75.5 RH. The shelf life of
commodities is extended upto 20 in EC storage.
The freshness is well maintained due to the high
humidity environment. EC stored tomato and banana
develop better colour and uniform ripening. This
system can also be used for various other
purposes like horticulture, plant propagation,
mushroom cultivation, fermentation, sericulture,
Anti fungal Paste The
banana bunches after harvests are cut into banana
hands or clusters. The cut ends get infected. To
check this spoilage, an antifungal paste has been
developed. It is harmless and produces no
undesirable odour or flavour. The latex oozing
out from the cut ends is washed in running water
and wiped. The dry cut ends are treated with
antifungal paste with the help of a paintbrush.
The paste sticks well and dries in 20-40 minutes
in the open air. It protects the cut ends of the
bananas for a period of 15-17 days at room
temperature and 21-32 days at 13oC while
untreated cut ends show fungal rotting on 5th day
room temperature and 10 day in cold storage. This
antifungal paste application reduces infection
during ripening also. For its manufacture the
ingredients are mixed in a dough mixer to get a
uniform paste. A food colour is also added to the
paste to acertain the treatment of cut ends. The
cost of the paste works out minimum economic unit
is 25 kg paste/ batch of 90 min.
Improved Method of Mango Ripening
Mangoes are generally harvested when fully
matured but green. The conventional method of
ripening in hay has disadvantages like long
ripening time, excessive handling and high degree
of spoilage due to stem- end rot. The spoilage
during ripening period is reported to be as high
as 25 to 30. In order to improve upon the
ripening method, a simple technique has been
worked out. It consists of dipping the fully
matured but green mangoes in hot water at 48 to
54oC for 5 minutes, draining and keeping at room
temperature till adhering surface water
evaporates. Fruits are then packed in ventilated
boxes/ crates. No hay or other packing material
is needed. The ripening generally starts on 6th
day of treatment and is complete on 12th day. The
operation can be made continuous in fruit
processing factories where large quantities of
mangoes are handled. The technique has presently
been standardized for Alphonso variety. The hot
water treatment is found to reduce the spoilage
to the extent of 50 and also helps in uniform
ripening of fruits. The colour development in the
flesh is better than conventionally ripened
Pickles and Chutneys
Pickles and chutney have a great importance in
the Indian menu and have now become essential
items in any feast and lunch. Pickling of fruits
and vegetables is an old art. A large variety of
these items are method of preparation varies. The
basic method is salt curing of fruits and
vegetables, acidifying, addition of vinegar / oil
and the spices.
Instant Pickles
The traditional pickle making involves elaborate
and time consuming process. A new concept has
been worked out for making an instant pickle mix
of lime and mango, which can easily be
reconstituted, into a tasty pickle by the simple
addition of oil and water. The dry mix has the
features of convenience, better keeping quality,
relatively low cost of production, reduced
packaging and transportation cost. The ever
expanding market for pickles, both in domestic
and export sectors, can be exploited by adopting
suitable market strategies. The process is simple
and consists of the selection of fully matured
commodities for picking, washing, and cutting
matured commodities for pickling, washing and
cutting, brine curing at optimal conditions,
drying, addition of dry spice mixes and packing
in unit packages.
Potato Flour Many
ready to -eat products are prepared from potato.
Units based on potato products can easily be
established in rural areas and the market can be
exploited in urban and semi urban centres. Potato
flour, granules and mash are used in the
preparation of instant foods, soups etc. as
binding materials and also for preparing kheer,
tikki, chops, pakoda, cutlets, stuffed parotha,
kofta and other products. Production of potato
flour can be taken up easily using indigenous
equipments. The process involves peeling of
potato, cutting, pre-treatment with salt and
permitted preservatives, soaking, granulating and
drying. The dried product is ground and packed.
The flour obtained by this process can be easily
reconstituted with boiling water to get the
mashed potato and used for making a variety of
Potato Chips
Potatoes are grown extensively in the northern
region of India. During the glut season, growers
do not get remunerative prices. Therefore it is
advisable to utilize the surplus produce by
preparing potato chips under hygienic
conditions. The product based on developed sun
drying technology is superior to the conventional
one both in colour and quality. The process is
simple and can be easily adopted at rural areas
Potato Wafer
Potatoes are grown extensively in the northern
eastern region of India. During the glut season,
growers do not get remunerating prices. Therefore
it is advisable to utilize the surplus produce by
preparing potato chips under hygienic
conditions. The product based on developed sun
drying technology is superior to the conventional
one both in colour and quality. The process is
simple and can be easily adopted at rural level.
Mushrooms are fruit bodies of fungi that grow
abundantly in the open fields, meadows, marsh
edges, farm, yards etc. Some wild mushrooms are
poisonous and narcotic but there are about 2000
edible spices too. Technologies have been
developed for commercial cultivation of mushrooms
under controlled conditions. These are safe and
readily available for the market. Mushrooms are
rich sources of easily digestible protein and
minerals, besides being low in calories and
almost fat-free. Profitable mushroom cultivation
can be taken up in the rural areas where
agro-waste is easily available. Its cultivation
can provide gainful employment. Mushrooms are
highly perishable. The unmarketable surplus of
fresh produce can be preserved and processed into
value added products by canning, dehydration,
brine preservation, conversion into pickles, soup
and ketchup in small scale processing units near
the site of production.

Papain Papain is obtained from the latex of
unripe green papaya fruit. It contains
proteolytic (protein digesting ) enzyme. Papain
finds wide applications in different industries.
It is used in tenderisation of meat, manufacture
of protein hydrolysate, confectionery items (to
prepare chewing gum), brewing industry (for
cheese making). It is also used in the
pharmaceutical, textile, tanning, aroma and
perfume industries and for effluent treatments.
Organised papaya Planatations can be taken up in
the rural areas. The process consists of tapping
of latex from papaya fruits, mixing with
potassium metabisulphite and storing under cold
temperature. The latex is refined, vacuum dried
and powdered. After testing and standardisation,
it is packed and placed in rigid airtight
Tomato Products Tomato is
extensive grown in India and used for the
preparation of puree, paste, ketchup, sauce and
ready- to- eat products. There is a good domestic
and export market. Since the fast food sector is
expanding rapidly the demand, particularly for
tomato ketchup and sauces, is also increasing
Value added products from bottlegourd sweet
pickle, hot pickle, tuity fruity Low fat bhajias
and samosas, aonola supari, safal fruit juice,
Value added products from banana juice, ripe
banana powderm value addition of banana peel,
amylase production, low fat cheese, all in one
spice powder Mango powder rich in ß-carotene
was developed from baneshan, suvarnarekha and
totapuri and their blends
Factors influencing purchasing behaviour of
processed foods -among sensory attributes,
consumers consider color, flavor, and texture in
ghee. In cheese and milk powder, flavor was
considered important. - an exposure to mass media
appeared to be a very important factor
influencing the purchase of health drinks - the
vegetable products purchased by the survey
population were pickle, ketchup and tomato
sauce. -convenience foods/ instant foods require
little or no preparation and save considerable
time on cleaning the preparation area along with
variety and high quality i.e., taste, nutrition
and safety. -purchase of baked products is to
save time.
Conclusion India produces around 150 million
tonnes of fruits and vegetables, but the annual
wastage is estimated at Rs. 100 billion,
according to a government task force. "India
wastes more fruits and vegetables than are
consumed in a country like Britain," said the
report presented to Union Agriculture Minister
Ajit Singh. To reduce wastage, fruits and
vegetables have to be handled carefully and post
harvest handling and packaging facilities should
be improved, the report states.
Conclusion The report says lack of cold chain
at the farm level remains a major problem. It has
advised cutting out all rough edges in handling
fruits and vegetables to cushion the produce
against damages. The poor handling of farm
produce has led to only 1.8 per cent of fruits
and vegetables being processed for value
addition. Farmers are short changed, while
consumers pay almost seven times more than what
farmers receive. "All this is epitomised in the
low level of processing, which is substantially
lower than that of our Asian neighbours," it
states, citing the case of Thailand that
processes 83 per cent of produce and the
Philippines (78 per cent).
Conclusion To reduce wastage and improve
delivery to customers, the task force has
suggested setting up agriculture cooperatives on
the lines of the Gujarat Co-op Milk Marketing
Federation, which heralded India's milk
revolution. What can be more relevant for India
would be a better marketing network. "Both the
system in South Korea and our own milk marketing
system have demonstrated how co-operatives can
play a useful role in streamlining the
distribution system and reducing distribution
costs but also providing an extension for
farmers," the report states. India has estimated
an investment need of Rs 1,400 billion over the
next decade to increase value addition from the
current two to 10 per cent and to generate
employment for 30 million people.

Thank You