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METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING

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METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING The Subject Matter The Methods of Philosophical Thinking The Question How can you think philosophically about anything? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING


1
METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • The Subject Matter
  • The Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • The Question
  • How can you think philosophically about anything?
  • Anything of daily concern
  • Anything of ultimate concern

2
METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • The Method
  • You are to practice the methods of philosophical
    thinking by thinking about this question
  • What is an apple?
  • The Learning Objective
  • An exercise in thinking
  • Philosophical thinking skills
  • Non-philosophical thinking skills

3
How can I think philosophically?
  • The Question
  • What is an apple?
  • Student Answers

4
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The How Questions
  • How should you view an apple?
  • How should you think about an apple?
  • Is viewing different from thinking?
  • Is thinking different from viewing?

5
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Answers
  • Viewing is essentially empirical.
  • Sensibility
  • Thinking is essentially intellectual.
  • Thinking is non-empirical.
  • Thinking can be rational irrational.
  • Rationality

6
A Review Question
  • The Questions
  • What is thinking according to Aristotle?
  • What is thinking according Allen Watt?
  • What is thinking according to Nishida?
  • The Student Answers
  • Student 1
  • Student 2
  • Student 3

7
Watts View of Thinking
  • Thinking
  • What thinking is not.
  • A manipulation of symbols
  • Why is thinking not feeling and sensing?
  • Explain.
  • Feeling
  • Emoting
  • Sensing
  • Why is feeling or sensing not thinking and
    different from thinking?
  • Explain.

8
Aristotles View of Thinking
  • The Quote
  • The Analysis

9
Nishidas View of Thinking
  • The Quote
  • The Analysis

10
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Methodological Question
  • How should one address these two how questions?
  • How should an apple be viewed?
  • How should an apple be thought about?
  • The Answer
  • Status of the apple
  • Typology of viewing/thinking

11
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is the status of an apple?
  • The Answer
  • Non-Philosophical Status
  • A concrete thing
  • Philosophical Status
  • A particular
  • A universal
  • A general universal
  • The ultimate universal

12
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is a particular?
  • The Answer
  • A philosophical concept used to represent each
    and everything concrete thing like an apple.

13
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is a universal?
  • The Answer
  • A philosophical concept used to represent all
    particulars of one type/class/kind.

14
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is a general universal?
  • The Answer
  • A philosophical concept used to represent all
    universals of all particulars.

15
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is the ultimate universal?
  • The Answer
  • A philosophical concept used to represent all
    particulars and all universals (all things that
    are).
  • The One

16
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • A typology of viewing/thinking
  • Philosophical Way
  • Philosophical Viewing
  • Philosophical Thinking
  • Non-Philosophical Way
  • Non-Philosophical Viewing
  • Non-Philosophical Thinking

17
VIEWING THE APPLE
  • METHODS OF
  • NON-PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • What is an apple?

18
NON-PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • The Question
  • How do people view and think about an apple
    non-philosophically?
  • The Answer
  • A practical view
  • A business view
  • An economic view

19
NON-PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • The Question
  • How do people view and think about an apple?
  • The Answer
  • A medical view
  • A literary/poetic view
  • A mathematical view

20
NON-PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • The Question
  • How do people view and think about the apple?
  • The Answer
  • A military view
  • A religious view
  • A scientific view

21
NON-PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • The Question
  • How can you view and think about an apple
    philosophically?
  • The Answer
  • Critical and creative uses of relevant fields,
    doctrines, and theories of Western philosophy.
  • Moving from descriptive thinking to theoretical
    thinking

22
Methods of Non-Philosophical Thinking
  • Method of Practical Thinking
  • The Question
  • How is an apple viewed and understood
    practically?
  • The Answer
  • A delicious thing to consume!
  • Taste
  • Nutrition

23
Methods of Non-Philosophical Thinking
  • Method of Medical Thinking
  • The Question
  • How is an apple viewed and understood
    medically?
  • The Student Answers
  • Student 1
  • Student 2
  • Student 3

24
Methods of Non-Philosophical Thinking
  • Method of Business Thinking
  • Method of Economic Thinking
  • Method of Literary Thinking
  • Method of Musical Thinking

25
Methods of Non-Philosophical Thinking
  • Method of Math Thinking
  • Method of Military Thinking
  • Method of Religious Thinking
  • Method of Scientific Thinking

26
What is philosophical thinking?
  • METHODS OF
  • PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • What is an apple?

27
A METHOD OF DOING EASTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • The Question
  • What are we going to do in this class?
  • The Answer
  • CREATING A PHILOSOPHY?
  • No!
  • HOLDING A PHILOSOPHY?
  • No!
  • PHILOSOPHIZING?
  • Sometimes.
  • DOING A PHILOSOPHY?
  • YES!

28
DOING PHILOSOPHY
  • The Question
  • What tools do we need for doing Eastern
    philosophy?
  • The Answer
  • WESTERN TEXTUAL HERMENEUTICS
  • WESTERN DOCTRINES OF REALITY
  • FIELDS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • FIVE STEP FORMULA FOR DOING PHILOSOPHY

29
TOOLS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY for doing EASTERN
PHILOSOPHIES
  • TOOLS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • TEXTUAL HERMENEUTICS
  • DOCTRINES OF REALITY
  • FIELDS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • THREE WESTERN LAWS OF THINKING
  • APPLICATIONS OF WESTERN TOOLS
  • Can these tools of Western philosophy be applied
    for scholarly studies of Eastern Dao, Dhamma, and
    Darshana?
  • YES. If they can be applied selectively and
    creatively.

30
Philosophical Views of an Apple
Metaphysics
Metaphysical View
Epistemological View
Epistemology
Cosmology
Cosmological View
Ontological View
Ontology
31
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • Epistemological Thinking
  • Epistemology
  • A field of Western philosophy
  • A study of knowledge
  • Western theories of knowledge
  • Epistemological theories

32
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • The Epistemological Question
  • How do we know that an apple exists?
  • The Epistemological Answer
  • Identify Western theories of knowledge
  • Empiricism
  • Idealism
  • Rationalism

33
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • Empiricism
  • Empiricist Theory of Knowledge
  • An Empiricist View
  • An apple exists because it can be experienced
    empirically.

34
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • Rationalism
  • Rationalist Theory of Knowledge
  • An Rationalist View
  • The idea of an apple is innate in ones mind.

35
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • Idealism
  • Idealist Theory of Knowledge
  • An Idealist View
  • An apple is inherently mental because it is a
    (mental) projection of ones mind.
  • To be is to be perceived.

36
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • A Buddhist Idealist Theory of Knowledge
  • Textual Hermeneutics (an exercise)
  • A Mahayana (Buddhist) Text
  • The Lankavatara Sutra
  • Phan 2002 277.1.1

37
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • A Textual Analysis
  • The Mahayana Thesis
  • Textual citation
  • Phan 2002 277.1.1
  • Textual interpretation

38
Methods of Philosophical Thinking
  • A Textual Analysis
  • The Mahayana Arguments
  • Textual citation
  • Phan 2002 277.1.2
  • Textual interpretation
  • The Critique
  • Students

39
PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • Which of the following is a Western doctrine of
    reality?
  • Dualism
  • Materialism
  • Creationism
  • Evolutionism
  • Ontology
  • Cosmology
  • Metaphysics

40
PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • Which of the following is a field of Western
    philosophy?
  • Dualism
  • Materialism
  • Creationism
  • Evolutionism
  • Ontology
  • Cosmology
  • Metaphysics

41
PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • The Question
  • How to distinguish a doctrine/theory from a field
    of philosophy?
  • The Answer
  • A logy clue
  • An ism clue

42
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Materialism
  • A Western theory of reality
  • A materialist View
  • An apple is material because it is made up of
    matter.
  • All things are material.
  • All things are derived from primal matter.

43
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Dualism
  • A Western theory of reality
  • Everything is composed of two distinct aspects,
    mind and matter, forming a duality.
  • A Jain Doctrine of Reality
  • All things are derived from Jiva (Soul) and Ajiva
    (Not-Soul).

44
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is an apple?
  • A Jain Answer
  • An apple is constituted by its Jiva and its
    Ajiva.
  • An apple deserves ones respect for what it truly
    is.

45
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Test Questions
  • Can the Jain view of an apple be characterized
    theoretically as dualistic or a dualistic view?
  • Can the Jain view of an apple be characterized
    theoretically as metaphysical or a metaphysical
    view?
  • Student Answers

46
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Cosmology
  • A field of Western philosophy
  • Study of the cosmos
  • Origin of the cosmos
  • Cosmic laws, structures, processes
  • Fate/future of the cosmos

47
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Student Exercises
  • Pose a cosmological question
  • Offer a cosmological answer using the following
    doctrines
  • Creationism
  • Evolutionism
  • The Big Bang Theory

48
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • A Cosmological Question
  • How did an apple come into being/existence?
  • A Creationist Answer
  • An apple is one of the proofs of divine creation.
  • Oh God! Thank you for all the delicious apples I
    have enjoyed.

49
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • A Cosmological Question
  • How did an apple come into being/existence?
  • A Evolutionist Answer
  • An apple is one of the cosmic manifestations of
    world evolution and the on-going evolutionary
    processes.

50
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Ontology
  • A field of Western philosophy
  • A study of reality (that which is)
  • The being of reality
  • What is real?
  • What is unreal?

51
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Student Exercises
  • Pose an ontological question
  • Offer an ontological answer using the Laoian
    theory of the natural dao (Phan 2002 73.1) as
    a theoretical resource.

52
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • A Textual Citation
  • Therefore let there always non-being wu-ccp so
    we may see their subtlety,
  • And let there always be being you-ccp so we
    may see their outcome,
  • The two are the same,
  • But after they are produced, they have
    different names. (The Daodejing, cited in Phan
    2002 73)

53
PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWING AND THINKING
  • A Textual Citation
  • Therefore let there always non-being wu-ccp so
    we may see their subtlety,
  • And let there always be being you-ccp so we
    may see their outcome,
  • The two are the same,
  • But after they are produced, they have
    different names. (The Daodejing, cited in Phan
    2002 73)
  • A Textual Analysis
  • Key concepts
  • Key ideas
  • Interpretation
  • The thesis
  • Theoretical nature
  • Is the Laoian view of an apple ontological or
    metaphysical?

54
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is an apple?
  • A Laoian Answer
  • An apple is constituted of its own being (you)
    and non-being (wu), forming into one organically
    unified thing.
  • An apple is that which is constantly
    self-becoming.

55
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What are the two key points that the Laoian
    answer emphasizes as essentially for a correct
    view of an apple?
  • The Answer
  • A theoretical distinction (you-wu)
  • Self-change/transformation

56
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • Test Question
  • Is the you-wu distinction metaphysical or
    ontological?
  • The Answer
  • Ontological
  • Why?
  • Each student should know how to answer this why
    question correctly by now.

57
How to think metaphysically about an apple?
  • Metaphysics
  • A field of Western philosophy
  • A study of reality
  • The nature of reality
  • What is real?
  • What is unreal?

58
A Metaphysical View of an apple
  • A Philosophical Question
  • What is an apple?
  • A Methodological Question
  • How to answer the What is an apple? question
    metaphysically?
  • What is a metaphysical answer for this
    philosophical question?
  • Is this a methodological question?

59
A Metaphysical View of an apple
  • The Methodological Question
  • How to make a metaphysical answer?
  • A Metaphysical Answer
  • Step 1
  • One must make a metaphysical distinction by using
    two pairs of philosophical concepts
  • form and essence (pair 1)
  • appearance and reality (pair 2)

60
A Metaphysical View of an apple
  • A Metaphysical Answer
  • Step 2
  • One distinguishes the external form of an apple
    from its internal essence and vice versa.
  • Externality vs. Internality
  • One perceives and contemplates about the nature
    of the form and the nature of the essence
    of an apple.

61
A Metaphysical View of an apple
  • A Metaphysical Answer
  • Step 3
  • One determines that the external form of an
    apple is unreal because it is only the
    appearance of an apple.
  • Appearance Unreality
  • One now has to justify this metaphysical
    determination by explaining why the form of an
    apple is simply its mere appearance and
    therefore ultimately unreal (not real).

62
A Metaphysical View of an apple
  • A Metaphysical Answer
  • Step 4
  • One then determines that the internal essence
    of an apple is real because it is the reality
    of an apple.
  • Essence Reality
  • One now proceeds to justify this metaphysical
    judgment by explaining why the essence of an
    apple is its true reality and therefore
    ultimately real.

63
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • How would Plato (an ancient Greek philosopher)
    answer the What is an apple? question?
  • A Platonic Answer
  • To be addressed by semester end

64
VIEWING/THINKING ABOUT THE APPLE
  • The Question
  • What is an apple?
  • Student Answers
  • First student
  • Second student
  • Third student

65
A METHOD OF DOING EASTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • The Question
  • What are we going to do in this class?
  • The Answer
  • CREATING A PHILOSOPHY?
  • No!
  • HOLDING A PHILOSOPHY?
  • No!
  • PHILOSOPHIZING?
  • Sometimes.
  • DOING A PHILOSOPHY?
  • YES!

66
THE METHOD OF DOING EASTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • The Question
  • How do we do Eastern philosophy?
  • The Answer
  • The Five Step Formula
  • There are two versions

67
THE METHOD OF DOING EASTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • FORMULA 1 OF A METHOD OF
  • TEXTUAL HERMENEUTICS
  • 1_ Research
  • 2_ Interpretation
  • 3_ Evaluation
  • 4_ Application
  • 5_ Self-Reflection

68
THE METHOD OF DOING EASTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • FORMULA 2 OF A METHOD OF TEXTUAL HERMENEUTICS
  • 1_ Research
  • 2_ Interpretation
  • 3_ Critique
  • 4_ Resolution
  • 5_ Self-Reflection

69
DOING PHILOSOPHY
  • The Question
  • What tools do we need for doing Eastern
    philosophy?
  • The Answer
  • WESTERN TEXTUAL HERMENEUTICS
  • WESTERN DOCTRINES OF REALITY
  • FIELDS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • METHODS OF PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • FIVE STEP FORMULA FOR DOING PHILOSOPHY

70
TOOLS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY for doing EASTERN
PHILOSOPHIES
  • TOOLS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • TEXTUAL HERMENEUTICS
  • DOCTRINES OF REALITY
  • FIELDS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • THREE WESTERN LAWS OF THINKING
  • APPLICATIONS OF WESTERN TOOLS
  • Can these tools of Western philosophy be applied
    for scholarly studies of Eastern Dao, Dhamma, and
    Darshana?
  • YES. If they can be applied selectively and
    creatively.

71
TOOLS OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY for doing EASTERN
PHILOSOPHIES
  • The Question
  • What is textual hermeneutics
  • The Answer
  • Different types of hermeneutics
  • Textual hermeneutics is herein understood as the
    science of textual interpretation.
  • Textual interpretation shall be carried out by
    the procedures of the Five Step Formula.

72
PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • THE QUESTION
  • IS THERE WHAT CAN BE CALLED THE WAY OF
    PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING?
  • THE THREE LAWS OF THINKING IN WESTERN PHILOSOPHY
  • The Law of Identity
  • The Law of Noncontradiction
  • The Law of the Excluded Middle

73
PHILOSOPHICAL THINKING
  • THE THREE LAWS OF THINKING
  • The Law of Identity
  • A true statement is a true statement.
  • The Law of Non-contradiction
  • A statement cannot be both true and false at the
    same time and in the same respect.
  • The Law of the Excluded Middle
  • Students responsibility Please search for an
    explanation of this third law of thinking.
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