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Title: The Taiwan Issue and Its Implication for China-Latin American Relations


1
The Taiwan Issue and Its Implication for
China-Latin American Relations
  • Professor Jiang Shixue
  • Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
  • Vice President
  • Chinese Association of Latin American Studies
  • jiangsx_at_cass.org.cn

2
  • Why is Taiwan an inalienable part of China?
  • What is the origin of the Taiwan issue?
  • What is the Chinese government's policy on
    Taiwan?
  • What is Taiwans position?
  • Why cannot Taiwan declare itself a state under
    the name of the "Republic of China?

3
  • How to understand One-China Principle in the
    international community?
  • What is the situation of the Cross-Strait
    relations now?
  • What is the implication of the Taiwan issue on
    China-Latin America relations?

4
Peoples Republic of China
  • 34 administrative divisions at provincial level
  • 23 provinces (including Taiwan Province),
  • 4 municipalities directly under the Central
    Government,
  • 5 autonomous regions and
  • 2 special administrative regions.

5
Basics about Taiwan
  • Population 23 million
  • GDP430.6 billion (2010 est.)
  • Per capita GDP 18700
  • Capital Taiwan
  • Two major political parties
  • Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party
  • Democratic Progressive Party

6
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8
1. Why is Taiwan an inalienable part of China?
  • Taiwan was known as Yizhou or Liuqiu in ancient
    times.
  • More than 1,700 years ago Shen Ying (??)
    described the development of Taiwan by the
    Chinese people in Seaboard Geographic Gazetteer
    (?????).
  • This was the world's earliest written account of
    Taiwan.

9
  • Since early 17th century the Chinese people began
    to step up the development of Taiwan.
  • By 1893 (19th year of the reign of Qing Emperor
    Guangxu) their population exceeded 2.54 million
    people in 507,000 or more households.

10
European invasions
  • In 1624 Dutch colonialists invaded and occupied
    the southern part of Taiwan.
  • Two years later Spanish colonialists seized the
    northern part of Taiwan.
  • In 1642 the Dutch evicted the Spaniards and took
    over northern Taiwan.

11
  • In 1661 General Zheng Chenggong led an expedition
    to Taiwan and expelled the Dutch colonialists
    from the island in the following year.

12
Japanese invasion
  • In April 1895, through a war of aggression
    against China, Japan forced the Qing government
    of China to sign the unequal Treaty of
    Shimonoseki, and forcibly occupied Taiwan.

13
Signing the Treaty of Shimonoseki
14
  • In July 1937, Japan launched an all-out war of
    aggression against China.
  • In 1941, the Chinese government issued the
    Proclamation of China's Declaration of War
    Against Japan, announcing to the world that all
    treaties, agreements and contracts concerning
    Sino-Japanese relations, including the Treaty of
    Shimonoseki, had been abrogated, and that China
    would recover Taiwan.

15
  • In December 1943, the Cairo Declaration was
    issued by the Chinese, U.S. and British
    governments, stipulating that Japan should return
    to China all the territories it had stolen from
    the Chinese, including Northeast China, Taiwan
    and the Penghu Archipelago.

16
Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Chiang
Kai-shek
17
  • The Potsdam Proclamation, or Proclamation
    Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender, a
    statement calling for the Surrender of Japan in
    World War II, signed by China, the United States
    and Britain in 1945 stipulated that "The terms of
    the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out."

18
  • In August 1945, Japan surrendered and promised to
    faithfully fulfill the obligations laid down in
    the Potsdam Proclamation.
  • On October 25, 1945, the Chinese government
    recovered Taiwan and the Penghu Archipelago,
    resuming the exercise of sovereignty over Taiwan.

19
2. What is the origin of the Taiwan issue?
  • The Chinese people, led by the Communist Party,
    founded the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in
    1949, replacing the government of the Republic of
    China (ROC) to become the only legal government
    of the whole of China and its sole legal
    representative in the international arena.

20
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21
  • A group of military and political officials of
    the Kuomintang (KMT), or Chinese Nationalist
    Party, took refuge in Taiwan and, with the
    support of the U.S. , created the division
    between the two sides of the Straits.

22
Chiang Kai-shek (18871975)
23
  • KMT has continued to use the designations
    "Republic of China" and "government of the
    Republic of China.
  • Thats the origin of the Taiwan issue.

24
  • In October 1971, the United Nations General
    Assembly adopted at its 26th Session Resolution
    2758, which expelled the representatives of the
    Taiwan authorities and restored the seat and all
    the lawful rights of the government of the PRC in
    the United Nations.

25
Japan
  • In 1972, China and Japan established diplomatic
    relations.
  • Japan recognizes the government of the PRC as
    the only legitimate government of China, fully
    understands and respects the Chinese government's
    position that Taiwan is an inalienable part of
    the territory of the PRC.

26
The United States
  • In December 1978, China and the U.S. established
    diplomatic relations.
  • The U.S. recognizes the government of the
    People's Republic of China as the sole legal
    government of China" and "acknowledges the
    Chinese position that there is but one China and
    Taiwan is a part of China."

27
Paul V. Kane
  • To Save Our Economy, Ditch Taiwan, New York
    Times, Nov. 11, 2011.
  • Obama should enter into closed-door negotiations
    with Chinese leaders to write off the 1.14
    trillion of American debt currently held by China
    in exchange for a deal to end American military
    assistance and arms sales to Taiwan and terminate
    the current United States-Taiwan defense
    arrangement by 2015. 

28
3. What is the Chinese government's policy on
Taiwan?
  • In 1979 the Chinese government adjusted its
    policy towards Taiwan from liberation to
    peaceful reunification and gradually the
    scientific concept of "one country, two systems"
    emerged.

29
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31
Key points of the policy 1
  • China will do its best to achieve peaceful
    reunification, but will not commit itself to rule
    out the use of force

32
Key points of the policy 2
  • China will actively promote people-to-people
    contacts and economic and cultural exchanges
    between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, and
    start direct trade, postal, air and shipping
    services as soon as possible

33
Key points of the policy 3
  • China will achieve reunification through peaceful
    negotiations and, on the premise of the One-China
    Principle, any matter can be negotiated.

34
After reunification 1
  • After reunification, the policy of "one country,
    two systems" will be practiced, with the main
    body of China (China mainland) continuing with
    its socialist system, and Taiwan maintaining its
    capitalist system for a long period of time to
    come.

35
After reunification 2
  • After reunification, Taiwan will enjoy a high
    degree of autonomy, and the Central Government
    will not send troops or administrative personnel
    to be stationed in Taiwan.

36
Internal affairs
  • While carrying out the policy of peaceful
    reunification, the Chinese government always
    makes it clear that the means used to solve the
    Taiwan issue is a matter of China's internal
    affairs.

37
Use of force 1
  • China is under no obligation to commit itself to
    rule out the use of force.
  • This is by no means directed against Taiwanese
    people, but against the scheme to create an
    "independent Taiwan" and against the foreign
    forces interfering with the reunification of
    China.

38
Use of force 2
  • It is intended as a necessary safeguard for the
    striving for peaceful reunification.
  • Resort to force would only be the last choice
    made under compelled circumstances.

39
Use of force 3
  • If Taiwan denies the One-China Principle and
    tries to separate Taiwan from the territory of
    China, the premise and basis for peaceful
    reunification will cease to exist.

40
4. What is Taiwans position?
  • In 1988, after Lee Teng-hui became the leader of
    the Taiwan authorities, he publicly stated time
    and again that the basic policy of the Taiwan
    authorities was that "there is only one China,
    not two," and "we have always maintained that
    China should be reunited, and we adhere to the
    principle of 'one China."

41
However, starting from the early 1990s,
  • Lee Teng-hui gradually deviated from the
    One-China Principle, trumpeting "two
    governments, "two reciprocal political
    entities.
  • Lee Teng-hui "Taiwan is already a state with
    independent sovereignty," and at the present
    stage the Republic of China is on Taiwan and the
    People's Republic of China is on the mainland."
  • Lee Teng-hui I have never said that there is
    only one China.

42
Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian
43
Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian
  • In foreign relations, to carry out the activities
    for "expanding the international space of
    survival" .
  • In military affairs, to buy large quantities of
    advanced weapons from foreign countries.

44
  • In ideology and culture, to destroy the Chinese
    awareness of Taiwanese and their identification
    with the motherland.

45
5. Why cannot Taiwan declare itself a state
under the name of the Republic of China?
  • First, state sovereignty is inseparable.
  • Second, the international community recognizes
    that there is only one China, that Taiwan is a
    part of China, and that the government of the PRC
    is the sole legal government of China.

46
  • Third, the reason that the Taiwan question has
    not been settled for such a long period of time
    is mainly due to the intervention of foreign
    forces and the obstruction of the separatist
    forces in Taiwan.

47
Two German states formula"
  • Why cannot the "two German states formula" be
    applied to the settlement of the Taiwan issue?
  • First, the German question arose entirely from
    external factors, while the Taiwan issue, left
    over by China's civil war, is a matter of China's
    internal affairs.

48
  • Second, Germany was divided according to a series
    of international treaties during and after the
    Second World War, while the Taiwan question
    involves provisions of the Cairo Declaration, the
    Potsdam Proclamation and other international
    treaties, stating that Japan must return Taiwan.

49
  • Third, the two German states had foreign troops
    stationing in their territories and so were
    compelled to recognize each other and co-exist in
    the international community the Chinese
    government has always persisted in the principle
    of one China.

50
Controversy about democracy and system"
  • The different social systems across the Straits
    should not constitute any barrier to peaceful
    reunification.
  • The Chinese government acknowledges the
    differences between Taiwan on the one hand and
    Hong Kong and Macao on the other so it is
    prepared to apply a looser form of the "one
    country, two systems" policy in Taiwan than in
    Hong Kong and Macao.

51
6. How to understand One-China Principle in
the International Community?
  • 1) Relations between Taiwan and those countries
    maintaining diplomatic relations with the
    mainland of China no official ties, only
    non-governmental economic or cultural exchanges.
  • As a part of China, Taiwan has no right to
    represent China in the international community,
    nor can it establish diplomatic ties or enter
    into relations of an official nature with foreign
    countries.

52
2) Relations between international organizations
and Taiwan
  • (a) Only under the principle of one China and in
    the light of the nature and statutes of the
    international organizations concerned as well as
    the specific circumstances, can the Chinese
    Government consider the question of Taiwan's
    participation in the activities of such
    organizations.

53
  • (b) All the specialized agencies and
    organizations of the United Nations system are
    intergovernmental organizations composed of
    sovereign states, and Taiwan's re-entry into the
    UN is out of the question.

54
  • (c) Aviation services State-run airlines of
    countries having diplomatic relations with China
    certainly must not operate air services to
    Taiwan. Privately-operated airlines must seek
    China's consent.

55
  • (d) Arms sales to Taiwan by countries having
    diplomatic relations with China No
  • - Chinese ambassador to the United States Zhang
    Yesui China strongly urges the United States to
    be fully aware of the high sensitivity and
    serious harm of the issue, seriously treat the
    solemn stance of China, honor its commitment and
    immediately cancel the wrong decision.

56
7. What is the situation of the Cross-Strait
relations now?
  • Ma Ying-jeou was sworn into office on May 20,
    2008.
  • The Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement
    (ECFA) is a preferential trade agreement between
    the governments of the mainland of China and
    Taiwan, signed on June 29, 2010, in Chongqing.
  • Cross-Strait economic relations are booming.

57
Three links
  • Direct postal, direct transportation and direct
    trade were officially restored on 15 December
    2008.

58
WHO
  • After 12 failed attempts since 1997 to join the
    United Nations World Health Organization (WHO)
    as an observer, Taiwan has been invited to take
    part in the WHOs World Health Assembly in Geneva
    in May 2009.

59
Diplomatic truce
  • It was reported that Ma Ying-jeou put forward the
    notion of diplomatic truce after he came to
    power.
  • Ma Ying-jeou told The Economist in June 2009 that
    he believes China has even adopted the surprising
    policy of refusing requests from countries that
    recognize Taiwan to switch their diplomatic ties
    to China instead.

60
8. What is the implication of the Taiwan issue
on China-Latin America relations?
  • Motivations behind Chinas interest in LA
  • Economic reasons
  • Natural resources
  • Potential market for Chinese products
  • Political reasons
  • - To build a harmonious world

61
  • To learn some Latin American experiences and
    lessons in the process of promoting Chinas own
    economic and social progress.
  • To strengthen Chinas soft power in an age of
    globalization.
  • The Taiwan issue

62
23 countries
  • Today there are only 23 countries that maintain
    diplomatic relations with Taiwan.
  • In Asia-Pacific 6
  • Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau,
    Solomon Islands, Tuvalu.

63
In Latin America 12
  • Central America 6
  • Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama,
    El Salvador
  • Caribbean 5
  • Dominican Republic, Haiti, Saint Christopher and
    Nevis, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and the
    Grenadines
  • South America
  • Paraguay

64
  • Africa 4
  • Burkina Faso, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland,
    Gambia.
  • Europe 1
  • Vatican

65
Question of the representation of Taiwan in the
UN
  • Taiwans move to apply for membership in the
    United Nations started in 1993.
  • Since then it has been making great efforts to
    ask its allies, including the Central American
    and the Caribbean countries, to raise the
    so-called question of the representation of
    Taiwan in the United Nations.

66
Money matters.
  • Former Costa Rican President Miguel Angel
    Rodríguez (1998-2002) resigned from his new post
    as OAS chief in 2004 after Costa Rican newspaper
    La Nación reported that he got money from a
    French company and Taiwan.
  • Many countries in Latin America get economic aid
    from mainland of China and Taiwan.

67
  • Sir Garfield Sobers
  • Gymnasium,
  • Barbados
  • The building of the Barbados government
    offices
  • Barbados GDP per capita
  • 12 000US

68
National Stadium of the Bahamas (Capacity 30
000)Chinas largest aid project in the
CaribbeanThe Bahamas GDP Per capita 24 000US,
total population 307.000
69
Saint Lucia
  • The December 2006 general election resulted in
    defeat of the Labor Party by the United Workers
    Party.
  • On April 30, 2007, Saint Lucia switched to Taiwan
    and China cut its relations on May 5.
  • PRC is against double recognition.
  • Saint Lucia established diplomatic ties with PRC
    on September 1, 1997.

70
Trinidad Express Newspaper
  • According to its article titled Taiwan's 'dollar
    diplomacy' affecting St Lucia politics, Taiwan
    seems to be creating problems for some of the
    member states of Caricom as it continues its
    long, arduous battle for international
    recognition to secure membership of the United
    Nations as a sovereign state.

71
Other switches
  • Grenada 1985/10/01 with PRC 1989/07/19 with
    Taiwan, 2005/01/20 again with PRC
  • Nicaragua 1985/12/07 with PRC, 1990/11/06 with
    Taiwan.
  • Belize 1987/02/06 with PRC, 1989/10/23 with
    Taiwan.

72
Costa Rica
  • On June 1, 2007, China made a historical
    breakthrough in its relations with Central
    America.
  • According to Joint Communiqué, The Costa Rican
    government recognizes that there is only one
    China in the world and the government of the
    People's Republic of China is the sole legitimate
    government representing the whole China. Taiwan
    is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory.

73
Diplomatic truce in LA
  • Paraguayan President Lugo said in the election
    campaign that he would shift diplomatic stance to
    Beijing if he could win the presidency.
  • According to Chiang H. John, the son of the
    former Taiwan leader Chiang Ching-kuo, Paraguay
    is the first successful example showing the
    effectiveness of the diplomatic truce.

74
Ecuador
  • After granting a contract of building a
    hydroelectric plant to the Chinese company
    Sinohydro in October 2009, Ecuador started to
    negotiate with the Export-Import Bank of China
    (Ex-im Bank) for a loan of 1.7 billion.
  • The Ex-im would like to request the Central Bank
    of Ecuador to put up its own assets as collateral
    for the loan.

75
  • President Correa Ecuador could get the funds
    from another source by changing its international
    policy.
  • The Ex-im Bank gave in, though Taiwan did not say
    that it would provide Ecuador with the loan.

76
Who will win the 2012 election?
77
  • Thank you.
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