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Writing Process


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Title: Writing Process

Writing Process
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/1301/1301Re
  • http//www.clubtnt.org/writingtips/writing_styles.

Steps to Writing Well
  • Wyrick, Jean

  • Readingcomprehensiononline.com/html
  • Web
  • http//depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/ma

Reflection Journals
  • http//www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/tjouguide
  • Reflection Journals

Final Portfolio
  • Portfolio
  • Each essay will be read, commented on by the
    instructor, and given a grade you must
  • keep these graded essays and the grading rubrics
    as you will use them to revise your work for the
  • You must maintain an organized portfolio of your
    work in this class. You must keep all copies of
    every assignment returned to you with a grade for
    your portfolio, including all of the essays and
    their rough drafts, all in-class writing
    assignments, and any other assignment. Failure
    to keep your returned assignments will result in
    a point deduction from the Completion Section of
    your portfolio score. Your portfolio is worth 50
  • Completion (having all returned assignments) 20
  • Final Assessment (Letter to Instructor)
    30 Points
  • You must organize the portfolio as follows
  • Diagnostic Essay
  • Journals 1-12 (7for 8wk)
  • Essay 1-4 Final drafts
  • All peer or instructor edited rough drafts,
    proposals, outlines and other assignments where
  • Reactions to Readings
  • Letter to instructor

  • Essay 1 narrative
  • Love comes in all forms. We can love our parents,
    a boyfriend or girlfriend, a favorite pet, a
    brother or sister, a place, even a thing. Think
    about someone or something you love. Write a
    story about that person or think that involves
    your feelings. WK 16
  • Everyone has a day in his or her life that
    changed them in a profound way. That helped them
    realize they wanted to change a path they may
    have been on. Think of that day where were you?
    Who was there? What did you hear? What changes
    did it have on you? From that moment tell
    someone you love or someone you know would
    benefit from your new found knowledge. Tell them
    with a story so they wont make the same mistakes
    and maybe they can learn from your story. WK8
  • 500-750 words 100oints
  • Outline
  • Additional Final Draft requirements

  • Essay 2
  • 700-850 WORDS 150 POINTS
  • Final Draft
  • Using examples, define one of the following
  • What is a hero?
  • What is prejudice?
  • A social label (skater, Goth, gang banger,
    redneck, etc.)

  • Essay 3 Multiple Writing Strategies Process
    Analysis/ Division/ Classification/ Causal
    Analysis /Comparison
  • 700-900 WORDS 175 POINTS
  • Final Draft
  • Compare two ways to earn money easily and
    legally. Analyze the differences and
    similarities in the different steps.
  • Process Analysis and Compare/Contrast
  • Compare and contrast the different types of
    employees at a two different employers (ex. Fast
    food employees to Law firm employees or Wal-Mart
    employees to Target employees).
  • Classification and Compare/Contrast
  • Contrast the components of a womens purse to a
    mans wallet.
  • Division and Compare/Contrast
  • Compare the effect of your favorite
    teacher/employer/hero/ etc. to your least
  • Causal Analysis and Compare Contrast
  • Additional Final Draft requirements
  • Use more than one writing strategy!

  • 1000-1200 Words 200 POINTS
  • Rough Draft 2 .
  • Final Draft

Part 1 The Basics of a Short Essay
  • Ch.1 Prewriting
  • Ch.2 The Thesis Statement
  • Ch.3 The Body Paragraph
  • Ch.4 Beginnings and Endings
  • Ch.5 Drafting and Revising Creative and Critical
  • Ch. 6 Effective Sentences
  • Ch.7 Word Logic
  • Ch.8 The Reading and Writing Connection

Part 1 The Basics of the Short Essay
  • Chapter 1 Prewriting
  • Select a subject
  • Start early
  • Find your best space
  • A strong interest
  • Narrow the subject
  • Find your Essays Purpose or Focus

Identify a topic
  • Your topic is the subject about which you will
    write. Your assignment may suggest several ways
    of looking at a topic or it may name a fairly
    general concept that you will explore or analyze
    in your paper.
  • Consider what your assignment asks you to do
  • Inform yourself about your topic
  • Focus on one aspect of your topic
  • Ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your

  • Listing
  • Free writing
  • Looping
  • Clustering
  • Cubing
  • Interviewing
  • Cross Examination
  • Sketching

  • http//www.jpb.com/creative/brainstorming.php
  • http//www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/plann
  • Planning Chart

  • http//www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/persu
  • Persuasion Graphic Organizer
  • http//www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/venn.
  • Venn Diagram Compare/Contrast
  • http//www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/isp.p
  • Information/Source/Page
  • http//www.eduplace.com/graphicorganizer/pdf/isp.p
  • Clustering Map
  • http//www.humboldt.edu/tdd2/Cubing.htm
  • Cubinginfo

Free writing
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/wguides/fre

Keep a Journal
  • Write in it today
  • Improves observational skills
  • Save your brilliant ideas
  • Save other peoples brilliant ideas
  • Be creative
  • Prepare for class
  • Record responses
  • Focus on the problem
  • Etc.

Identify Your Audience
  1. Does the writing assignment specify an audience?
  2. Ask yourself some questions about their reasons
    for reading your essay?
  3. What knowledge does your audience have on the
  4. Dig Deeper into the attitudes and emotional state
    of your audience.
  5. What special qualities might set your audience
    apart from any other?

Audiences continued
  • They dont want to be bored
  • They dont like confusion or disorder
  • They want to see what you see, feel what you
  • They are turned off by a phony Voice

In Summary Chapter 1
  • Before you begin writing anything, remember that
    you have valuable ideas to tell your readers.
  • Its not enough that these valuable ideas are
    clear to you, the writer. Your single most
    important goal is to communicate those ideas
    clearly to your readers, who cannot know what's
    in your mind until you tell them.
  • Whenever possible, select a subject to write on
    that is of great interest to you.
  • Try a variety of prewriting techniques to help
    you find your essays purpose and narrow the
  • Review your audiences knowledge of and attitudes
    toward your topic before you begin you first
  • Who needs to know about this topic?
  • Keep a journal.

Chapter 2 Thesis Statement
  • What is a thesis?
  • Can a thesis change?

  • Derive main point from topic
  • Once you have a topic, you will have to decide
    what the main point of your paper will be. This
    point, the "controlling idea," becomes the core
    of your argument (thesis statement) and it is the
    unifying idea to which you will relate all your
    sub-theses. You can then turn this "controlling
    idea" into a purpose statement about what you
    intend to do in your paper.
  • Look for patterns in your evidence
  • Compose a purpose statement

What is a thesis statement? 
  • How do I develop a thesis statement?
  • 1. Identify a topic
  • 2. Derive main point from topic
  • 3. Compose a draft thesis statement
  • 4. Refine and polish draft thesis statement
  • 5. Complete the final thesis statement
  • What is a thesis statement?
  • A thesis statement . . .
  • Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic
    it states the conclusions that you have reached
    about your topic.
  • Makes a promise to the reader about the scope,
    purpose, and direction of your paper.
  • Is focused and specific enough to be "proven"
    within the boundaries of your paper.
  • Is generally located near the end of the
    introduction sometimes, in a long paper, the
    thesis will be expressed in several sentences or
    in an entire paragraph.
  • Identifies the relationships between the pieces
    of evidence that you are using to support your

Defining a Thesis
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/wguides/the

  • Thesis Statement and Delivery
  • Back to Framing a Thesis Statement When
    creating the thesis statement, be sure to use a
    full sentence and frame that sentence as a
    statement, not as a question. The full sentence,
    "The purpose of this speech is to inform my
    audience about the early works of Vincent van
    Gogh," provides clear direction for the speech,
    whereas the fragment "van Gogh" says very little
    about the purpose of the speech. Similarly, the
    question "Who was Vincent van Gogh?" does not
    adequately indicate the direction the speech will
    take or what the speaker hopes to accomplish. If
    you limit your thesis statement to one distinct
    aspect of the larger topic, you are more likely
    to be understood and to meet the time

  • 3. Compose a draft thesis statement
  • If you are writing a paper that will have an
    argumentative thesis and are having trouble
    getting started, the techniques in the table
    below may help you develop a temporary or
    "working" thesis statement.
  • TechniqueDescriptionExample1. Purpose statement
    Begin with a purpose statement that you will
    later turn into a thesis statement. Assignment
    Discuss the history of the Reform Party and
    explain its influence on the 1990 presidential
    and Congressional election. Purpose Statement
    This paper briefly sketches the history of the
    grassroots, conservative, Perot-led Reform Party
    and analyzes how it influenced the economic and
    social ideologies of the two mainstream styord/

  • 4. Refine and polish the thesis statement
  • To get to your final thesis, you'll need to
    refine your draft thesis so that it's specific
    and arguable.
  • Ask if your draft thesis addresses the assignment
  • Question each part of your draft thesis
  • Clarify vague phrases and assertions
  • Investigate alternatives to your draft thesis
  • Consult the table below for suggestions on how to
    refine your draft thesis statement

  • Thesis Statement and Audience
  • Back to Framing a Thesis Statement The thesis
    appears in the introduction of the speech so that
    the audience immediately realizes the speaker's
    topic and goal. Whatever the topic may be, you
    should attempt to create a clear, focused thesis
    statement that stands out and could be repeated
    by every member of your audience. It is important
    to refer to the audience in the thesis statement
    when you look back at the thesis for direction,
    or when the audience hears the thesis, it should
    be clear that the most important goal of your
    speech is to inform the audience about your
    topic. While the focus and pressure will be on
    you as a speaker, you should always remember that
    the audience is the reason for presenting a
    public speech. Avoid being too trivial or basic
    for the average audience member. At the same
    time, avoid being too technical for the average
    audience member. Be sure to use specific,
    concrete terms that clearly establish the focus
    of your speech.

  • Framing a Thesis Statement
  • Focus on a specific aspect of your topic and
    phrase the thesis statement in one clear,
    concise, complete sentence, focusing on the
    audience. This sentence sets a goal for the
    speech. For example, in a speech about art, the
    thesis statement might be "The purpose of this
    speech is to inform my audience about the early
    works of Vincent van Gogh." This statement
    establishes that the speech will inform the
    audience about the early works of one great
    artist. The thesis statement is worded
    conversationally and included in the delivery of
    the speech.

  • Thesis Statement Purpose
  • The thesis statement is crucial for clearly
    communicating your topic and purpose to the
    audience. Be sure to make the statement clear,
    concise, and easy to remember. Deliver it to the
    audience and use verbal and nonverbal
    illustrations to make it stand out.

Power Thesis Statement
  • http//www.palomar.edu/library/guide/thesistatemen

Guidelines for Writing a Thesis
  • Clear opinion on a subject
  • Asserts one main idea
  • Something worthwhile to say
  • Limited to fit the assignment
  • Clear and with specific terms
  • Thesis recognizes the main idea and it is stated
    within the first or second paragraph

  • 5. Complete the final thesis statement
  • The Bottom Line
  • As you move through the process of crafting a
    thesis, you'll need to remember four things
  • 1) Context matters! Think about your course
    materials and lectures. Try to relate your thesis
    to the ideas your instructor is discussing.
  • 2) As you go through the process described in
    this section, always keep your assignment in
    mind. You will be more successful when your
    thesis (and paper) responds to the assignment
    than if it argues a semi-related idea.
  • 3) Your thesis statement should be precise,
    focused, and contestable it should predict the
    sub-theses or blocks of information that you will
    use to prove your argument.
  • 4) Make sure that you keep the rest of your paper
    in mind at all times. Change your thesis as your
    paper evolves, because you do not want your
    thesis to promise more than your paper actually
  • In the beginning, the thesis statement was a tool
    to help you sharpen your focus, limit material
    and establish the paper's purpose. When your
    paper is finished, however, the thesis statement
    becomes a tool for your reader. It tells the
    reader what you have learned about your topic and
    what evidence led you to your conclusion. It
    keeps the reader on track--well able to
    understand and appreciate your argument.

  • http//www.jcu.edu.au/studying/services/studyskill
  • Essay Mind Mapping

Chapter 2 summary
  • Class Practice 43-45

Chapter 3 The Body Paragraphs
  • Planningoutline

Developing an Outline
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/wguides/Sup

Essay 1 Narrative
  • I Introduce the Story
  • A. Lead in
  • B. Thesis
  • II Body
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • III Body
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • IV. Body
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.
  • V. conclusion
  • A.
  • B.
  • C.

Essay 2
  • Outline Template
  • I. Introduction Thesis
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • __________________________________________________
  • II. Body
  • A. Paragraph 1
  • 1. Supporting Point 1
  • ____________________________________
  • ____________________________________
  • 2. Evidence for Supporting Point 1 analysis of
    example to show how it supports the topic
    sentence and thesis______________________________
  • ____________________________________
  • ____________________________________
  • B. Paragraph 2                 
  • 1. Supporting Point 2
  • ____________________________________
  • ____________________________________
  • ____________________________________

Essay 2 Examples and Definitions
  • definition essay attempts to define a specific
    term. It could try to pin down the meaning of a
    specific word, or define an abstract concept. The
    analysis goes deeper than a simple dictionary
    definition it should attempt to explain why the
    term is defined as such. It could define the term
    directly, giving no information other than the
    explanation of the term. Or, it could imply the
    definition of the term, telling a story that
    requires the reader to infer the meaning.
  • 1. Topic defined
  • 2. What is ? (Abstract idea)
  • 3. Purpose or Thesis
  • 4. Ideas or examples of this definition (ask?s
    what, why, how, when, where)
  • 5. Proof that the explain these ideas, and
    questions asked in explaining the definition of
    the word.)
  • http//leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/definition.h
  • http//depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/es

Essay 3
  • Slide 84 and 85

Essay 4
  • Slide 101-104

  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/wguides/Org
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/mgarcia/writfils/p
  • Sentence Essay Pattern

Topic Sentence
  • Supports the thesis
  • Announces what each paragraph will be about.
  • Controls the topic of discussion
  • http//www.cerritos.edu/reading/mainide2.htm
  • What is a topic sentence
  • http//www.rit.edu/kecncp/Courses/Materials/Revie
  • Topic Sentence and detail sentences
  • http//www.geocities.com/fifth_grade_tpes/longfell

Paragraph Development
  • Topic Sentence
  • Main ideas
  • Details general and specific
  • http//www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/writing/sixt
    tion/paragraphguide.html Guidelines to
  • http//www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/6354/essay_
  • Essay structure/ Paragraph Development

Main Idea and Details
  • http//academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/308.HTM
    Exercise at the bottom.
  • http//www.nvcc.edu/home/lyoung/dogwood/MI.html
    main idea

Supporting Detail
  • http//www.nvcc.edu/home/lyoung/dogwood/tranwordsa

Paragraph Coherence
  • Natural or easily recognized order
  • Transitional words and phrases
    tml http//www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/Tr
  • Repetition of key words
  • Substitution of pronouns for key nouns
  • Parallelism http//www.class.uidaho.edu/druker/par
  • The order of time
  • The order of space
  • Deductive order http//www.comunicado.us/blog/2007
  • Inductive order http//wps.prenhall.com/hss_hennin
  • Interactive Activity
  • Books Home Page http//wps.prenhall.com/hss_henn
  • http//www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hyper
    grammar/parunif.html Ottawa Univ.
  • http//www.mcsd.k12.ca.us/sections/strategies/DWA_
    teaching_guide Guide to Writing

Five Paragraph Essay
  • This approach is meant for essays only. It is not
    meant for personal narratives, stories, or any
    other type of writing that does not lend itself
    to a strict structure.
  • In this approach, there are five paragraphs. The
    first is the lead, the middle three make up the
    body, and the fifth is the conclusion. The
    purpose of this approach is develop the body of
    an essay with specific details. Below is an
    explanation of each paragraph.
  • Lead Paragraph
  • This is the attention-getter, or hook. Any type
    of lead that is appropriate for the essay may be
    used. The lead must be at least three sentences
    long. It also needs to directly relate to the
    body of the essay.
  • Body Paragraph 1
  • This paragraph is the first of the body
    paragraphs. There should be some type of
    transition to connect the lead paragraph to it.
    It should also contain a topic sentence the
    states the main idea of the paragraph. There
    should be a least four more sentences containing
    specific details that support the main idea of
    the paragraph. The paragraph should end with a
    good closing sentence.
  • Body Paragraph 2
  • This paragraph is the second of the body
    paragraphs. There should be some type of
    transition to connect the second body paragraph
    to it. It should also contain a topic sentence
    the states the main idea of the paragraph. There
    should be a least four more sentences containing
    specific details that support the main idea of
    the paragraph. The paragraph should end with a
    good closing sentence.
  • Body Paragraph 3
  • This paragraph is the third of the body
    paragraphs. There should be some type of
    transition to connect the second body paragraph
    to it. It should also contain a topic sentence
    the states the main idea of the paragraph. There
    should be a least four more sentences containing
    specific details that support the main idea of
    the paragraph. The paragraph should end with a
    good closing sentence.
  • Conclusion Paragraph
  • This paragraph ties everything together. Any type
    of conclusion that is appropriate for the essay
    may be used. A transition is needed at the
    beginning of the paragraph to bridge the third
    body paragraph to it. It must be at least three
    sentences long and directly relate to the body of
    the essay.

Chapter 3 summary
  • Class Page 76 Practice D
  • Each body paragraph usually contains one major
    point in the discussion promised by the thesis
  • Each major point is presented in the topic
    sentence of a paragraph.
  • Each paragraph should be adequately developed by
    supporting detail.
  • Every sentence should support the topic sentence.
  • There should be orderly, logical flow from
    sentence to sentence.
  • The sequence of the essays paragraphs should be
    logical and effective
  • There should be a smooth flow from paragraph to
  • The body of the paragraph should be expressed in
    your thesis.

Chapter 4 Beginnings and Endings
  • Jigsaw with students
  • How to Write a Good Lead in
  • 1. An intriguing statement
  • 2. A shocking statement
  • 3. A question
  • 4. A quotation from a recognized authority
  • 5. A relevant story, joke or anecdote
  • 6. A description, for emotional appeal
  • 7. A factual statement or a summary
    who-what-where-when-why lead in
  • 8. An analogy or comparison
  • 9. A contrast or a before and after scenario
  • 10. A personal experience
  • 11. A catalog of relevant examples or facts
  • 12. Statement of a problem or a popular
  • 13. Brief dialogue to introduce the topic
  • 14. A proverb
  • 15. A recognition, revelation or insight

  • Make sure your lead in introduces your thesis.
  • Keep your lead in brief.
  • Dont begin with an apology or complaint
  • Dont assume your audience already knows your
    subject matter.
  • Stay clear of overused lead-ins.

Good Concluding Paragraph
  • 1. Summary of the theses and the essays major
  • 2. An evaluation of the importance of the essays
  • 3. A statement of the essays broader
  • 4. A recommendation or call to action
  • 5. A warning based on the essays thesis
  • 6. A quotation from an authority or someone whose
    insight emphasizes the main point
  • 7. An anecdote or brief example that emphasizes
    or sums up the point of the essay.
  • 8. An image ore description that lends finality
    to the essay.
  • A rhetorical question that makes the readers
    think about the essays main point
  • 10. A forecast based on the essays thesis
  • 11. AN ironic twist, witticism, pun or playful
    use of words.
  • 12. Return to the technique used in your lead-in.
    Answer a question you asked or circle back to a

Avoidin conclusions
  • 1. Avoid a mechanical ending
  • 2. Dont introduce new points
  • 3. Dont tack on a conclusion
  • 4. Dont change your stance
  • 5. Avoid In conclusion
  • 6. Dont insult or anger your reader

  • http//www.palomar.edu/library/guide/conclusions.h

Chapter 4 summary
  • Class Practice page 83881-3
  • Essays will profit from a good lead in
  • Essays should end convincingly.

Essay parts
  • 1. Topic
  • 2. Audience
  • 3. Thesis
  • 4. Pre-write/Outline
  • 5. Topic sentence per paragraph
  • 6. Details for each paragraph (general and
  • 7. Lead in
  • 8. Conclusion
  • 9. Development of Essay within each paragraph
  • 10. Paragraph unity, length, coherence, sequence
    and transitions.

Chapter 5 Drafting and Revising Creative and
  • What is Revision?
  • A thinking process that occurs any time you are
    working on a writing project. It means looking
    at your writing with a fresh eye

Hints in writing drafts
  • 1. Write on one side of your papercut and tape
    portions of the draft.
  • 2. Leave BIG margins on both side of handwritten
    pages or skip lines. Note is to leave room for
    jotting down new ideas as they occur.
  • 3. Have a system of symbols (circles, stars,
    checks, asterisks, etc.) This will help you with
    changes you may want to make later.
  • 4. IF you know you are going to want to write
    more later in one of your paragraphs, than leave
    some space or lines so you can fill it in later.
  • 5. If you want to omit something put a light X
    or line through it in case you want to use it
    later somewhere else.
  • 6. soon change to a typed draft so you can have a
    better idea how your paper will look.
  • 7. ALWAYS keep notes, outlines, rough drafts.
    Everything that you used up to the final piece.

A Revision Process for your Drafts
  • http//home2.btconnect.com/centurystudios/proofred
  • Take a break from your drafts and revisit the
    draft with a fresh look.
  • Dont look at all the parts of your paper, from
    ideas to organization to mechanics at the same
  • Brake your revising process into manageable steps.

Manageable Steps to Revision
  • I. Revising for purpose, thesis and audience
  • Have I fulfilled the objectives of my assignment?
  • Did I follow directions carefully?
  • Did I understand the purpose of my essay?
  • Does my essay reflect my clearly understood
    purpose by offering an appropriately narrowed
  • Do I have a clear picture of my audience?
  • Have I addressed both my purpose and my readers

II. Revising for Ideas an Evidence
  • Is there a clear relationship between my thesis
    and each of the major points presented in the
    body of my essay?
  • Did I write myself into a new or slightly
    different position? If so , do I need a new
  • Have I included all the major points necessary to
    the readers understanding of my subject?
  • Are my major points located and stated clearly in
    specific language so the reader can easily see my
  • 1. Learn to distinguish fact from opinion
  • 2. Support your opinions with evidence3.
    Evaluate the strength of your evidence.
  • 4. Use enough specific supporting evidence
  • 5. Watch for biases and strong emotions that may
    undermine evidence.
  • 6. Check your evidence for logical fallacies.

III. Revising for Organization
  • Am I satisfied with the organizational strategy
    selected for my purpose?
  • Are my major points ordered in a logical, easy to
    follow pattern?
  • Are my major points presented in topic sentences,
    clearly and specifically?
  • IS there a smooth flow between my major ideas?
    Paragraphs etc.?
  • Are any parts of my essay out of proportions? Too
    long or too brief?
  • Do my title and lead in draw readers into the
    essay and toward my thesis?
  • Does my conclusion end my discussion

IV. Revising for Clarity and Style
  • Are my sentences clear and precise as it could
  • Are there any sentences that are unnecessarily
  • Do any sentences run on for too long to be fully
  • Are all my words and their connotations accurate
    and appropriate?
  • Can I clarify and energize my prose by adding,
    showing details and by replacing bland, vague
    words with vivid specific ones?
  • Replace clichés and trite expressions with fresh,
    original phrases?
  • Is my voice authentic or am I trying to sound
    like someone else? Is it my true tone?

V. Editing for Errors
  • Correcting errors in punctuation, spelling, and
  • Read aloud
  • Know your enemieswhat are you regularly bad at
    with writing?
  • Read backwardsRead one sentence at at time
    reading backwards.
  • Learn some tricks
  • Use your tools dictionary, thesaurus, spell
    check, grammar book. Chapter 6 and 7 should help.

VI Proofreading
  • Proofread the final draft several times.
  • Look for the careless errors
  • Does the paper look professional?
  • Is the format correct?
  • No stains or marks on the paper.

Peer Response
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/wguides/pee
  • 1. Develop a constructive attitude
  • 2. Come prepared
  • 3. Evaluate suggestions carefully
  • 4. Find the good in bad advice
  • 5. Develop a constructive attitude
  • 1. Develop a constructive attitude
  • 2. Be clear and specific
  • 3. Address important issues
  • 4. Encourage the writer
  • 5. Understand your role as a critical reader

Chapter 5 summary
  • Revision is an activity that occurs in all stages
    of the writing process.
  • All good writers revise and polish their prose.
  • Revision is not merely editing or last-minute
    proofreading it involves important decisions
    about the essays ideas, organization and
  • To revise effectively, novice writers might
    review their drafts in stages to avoid the
    frustration that comes with trying to fix
    everything at once.

Chapter 6 Effective Sentences
  • Developing a clear style
  • Give your sentences content
  • Make your sentences specific
  • Avoid over packing your sentences
  • Fix fragments
  • Pay attention to work order
  • Avoid mixed constructions and faculty prediction
  • PRACTICE page 125

Developing a Concise Style
  • Avoid deadwood constructions
  • Avoid redundancy
  • Carefully consider your passive verbs
  • Avoid pretentiousness
  • PRACTICE page 131

Developing a Lively Style
  • Use specific descriptive verbs
  • Use specific, precise modifiers that help the
    reader see, hear, or feel what you are describing
  • Emphasize people when possible
  • Vary your sentence style
  • Avoid overuse of any one kind of construction in
    the same sentence.
  • Dont change your point of view between or within
  • PRACTICE page 136

Developing an Empathetic Style
  • Word order
  • Coordination
  • Subordination
  • PRACTICE page 140

Chapter 6 summary
  • All good writers revise and polish their
  • You can help clarify your ideas for your readers
    by writing sentences that are informative,
    straightforward, and precise
  • You can communicate your ideas more easily to
    your readers if you cut out deadwood,
    redundancies, confusing passives, and pretentious
  • You can maintain your readers interests in your
    ideas if you cultivate an engaging style offering
    a variety of pleasing sentences construction.

Chapter 7 Word Logic
  • Selecting the correct words
  • Accuracy confused words
  • Accuracy idiomatic phrases
  • Levels of language
  • Colloquial language, the kind of speech you use
    most often in conversation with your friends,
    classmates, and family
  • Informal language is called for in most college
    and professional assignments
  • Formal language is found in important documents
    and in serious, often ceremonial speeches.

  • Tone
  • Invective
  • Sarcasm
  • Irony
  • Flippancy or cuteness
  • Sentimentality
  • Peachiness
  • Pomposity

  • Connotation the emotional association
    surrounding its meaning.
  • Example home residence
  • denotation Literal meaning, meaning defined by
    the dictionary

  • Selecting the best words
  • Choose vigorous, active verbs and colorful,
    specific nouns and modifiers.
  • Do not use Vague wordsex. Pg.153
  • Do make your words as fresh and original as
  • Dont use trendy expression or slang in essays
  • Do select simple, direct words your readers can
    easily understand
  • Do call things by their proper name
  • Avoid sexist language
  • Do enliven your witting with figurative language
    when appropriate
  • Do vary your word choice so that your prose does
    not sound wordy, repetitious, or monotonous
  • Do remember that wordiness is a major problem for
    all writers, even the professionals.
  • PRACTICE pages 151 and 163

Chapter 8 Reading and Writing Connection
  • http//www.palomar.edu/library/guide/conclusions.h

Part 2 Purposes, Modes, and Strategies
  • Ch. 9 Exposition The writer intends to explain or
  • Ch.10 Argumentation The writer intends to
    convince or persuade
  • Ch.11 Description The writer tends to create in
    words a picture of a person, place, object or
  • Ch.12 Narration The writer intends to tell a
    story or recount an event.
  • Ch.13 Writing Essays Using Multiple Strategies
  • http//www.studygs.net/index.htm

Chapter 9 Exposition
  • http//www.studygs.net/wrtstr3.htm
  • For a guide
  • Most common example, process analysis,
    comparison and contrast, definition,
    classification, and causal analysis.
  • Rarely developed by a single strategy.

Strategy one Example
  • Here are the facts as I see them.
  • The writer is not only informing the reader but
    also convincing them that this essay explains
    the subject matter in the clearest, most logical
  • The writer wants to Support, clarify, interest,
    and persuade.
  • One of the easiest to organize.
  • Are all my examples relevant?
  • Are my examples well chosen?
  • Are there enough examples to make each point
    clear and persuasive?
  • Do not be weak in detail
  • And watch the lack of coherence.

Strategy two Process Analysis
  • Identifies and explains what steps must be taken
    to complete an operation or procedure.
    Directional and informative
  • Directional Tells the reader how to do or make
    something. Gives directions.
  • Informative Tells how something is or was made
    or done or hwo something works. This form only
    tells and does not want one to do.

  • Developing Expository essay
  • 1. Select appropriate subject
  • 2. Describe any necessary equipment and define
    special terms
  • 3. State your steps n a logical, chronological
  • 4. Explain each step clearly, sufficiently, and
  • 5. Organize your steps efectively.
  • 6. Dont forget to use enough transitional
    devices between steps to avoid the effect of a
    mechanical list.
  • 7. Dont forget a thesis 1) your reason for
    presenting the process or 2) an assertion about
    the nature of the process itself. Dont omit it.
  • 8. Pay special attention to your conclusion.

Strategy three Comparison and Contrast
  • http//www.phschool.com/atschool/writing_grammar/g
    old/scored_model_essays/pdf/09WA0211.pdf Rubric
  • Your opinion about the two elements in question
    becomes your thesis statement, the body of the
    paper then show why you arrived a that opinion.
  • http//www.admc.hct.ac.ae/hd1/english/compare/comp
    are2.htm What is Compare and what is contrast
  • Pattern One Point by point Compare and contrast
    first on point 1 than point 2 and point 3.
  • I. Thesis
  • II. Point 1
  • A.
  • B.
  • III. Point 2
  • A.
  • B.
  • IV. Point 3
  • A.
  • B.
  • V.Conclusion

  • Pattern Two The Block
  • First discussion on subject A on points one, two
    and three. Than the discussion on subject B on
    the same points.
  • I. Thesis
  • II. Subject A
  • A. Point 1
  • B. Point 2
  • C. Point 3
  • III. Subject B.
  • A. Point 1
  • B. Point 2
  • C. Point 3
  • IV. Conclusion

Which pattern should you use?
  • Not a simple decision.
  • Choosing the appropriate pattern of organization
    involves thinking time in the prewriting stage,
    before beginning a draft. The subject matter
    itself will suggest the most effective method of
  • Block method is good for a complete, overall
    picture of each subjects desirable.

Compare And Contrast Essay
  • Comparing and contrasting is a process we all do
    every day. We compare and contrast to determine
    the superiority of one thing over another. When
    we buy a car, for instance, we usually shop
    around and compare deals. We explain something
    that is unknown by comparing it to something that
    is known. We might explain what a barometer is by
    saying it looks like a thermometer but measure
    atmospheric pressure instead of temperature. We
    also compare and contrast when we want to show
    that two apparently similar things are in fact
    quite different in important ways, or to show
    that two apparently dissimilar things are really
    quite similar in significant ways. For instance,
    it might be quite enlightening to discover that
    two very different cultures have some important
    things in common. We also compare and contrast to
    show how something or someone has changed, such
    as California before and after the earthquake in
  • We have many reasons for comparing and
    contrasting, and since the process of comparison
    and contrast is such a common method of thinking
    and of developing topics, it is important to
    write well-organized comparison and contrast
    papers. There is one thing to keep in mind,
    however. With comparison and contrast, the
    purpose is not just o pint out similarities and
    differences or advantages and disadvantages the
    purpose is to persuade, explain, or inform. Think
    of comparison and contrast as a method of
    development - not as a purpose for writing. When
    you are planning a comparison and contrast essay,
    there are several points to consider.

  • Transitions for Comparison and Contrast
  • Transitional expressions give writing coherence
    that is, they help you to move smoothly from one
    idea to the next. In addition, a variety of
    transitions adds interest to an essay. In this
    lesson you will practice using transitions that
    will give a comparison-contrast essay both
    coherence and interest

  • Points of comparison
  • Support that you are asked to compare and
    contrast two people - perhaps two generals, two
    politicians, or two religious leaders. What would
    you compare an contrast about them? You could
    compare their looks, backgrounds, philosophies,
    the way they treat people, their attitudes toward
    life, their intelligence, their lifestyles, and
    so on. The list could continue, but this is the
    problem You would have just a list. When
    comparing and contrasting two things, people,
    countries, and so forth, especially for a
    standard 300- to 500-word essay, it is best to
    restrict the pint of comparison to two to four.
    Therefore, be selective and choose the most
    significant points for comparison that will
    support the central idea in your essay. For
    instance, if you wanted to compare two
    politicians in order to show that one is a better
    public servant, you would not bother comparing
    and contrasting their tastes in food because this
    point would be irrelevant.
  • Emphasis on Comparison or Contrast
  • In a comparison and contrast essay, the emphasis
    is usually on one or the other that is, you
    spend more either comparing or contrasting,
    depending on your purpose. If you are comparing
    two rather similar things, you should acknowledge
    the obvious similarities but focus on the
    differences. If you are comparing two obvious
    dissimilar things, you should acknowledge the
    obvious contrasts but emphasize the similarities.
  • http//leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/comparcontra
    st.htmlfirstcomp Comparison/contrast Essays
  • http//www.odessa.edu/dept/english/mjordan/Compare
  • More informationCompare/Contrast

Strategy Four Definition
  • What do you mean by that?
  • Sometimes a dictionary definition or a one or two
    sentence explanation is all a term needs
  • Frequently, you will find it necessary to provide
    an EXTENDED Definitiona longer, more detailed
    explanation that thoroughly defines the subject.

Why do we Define?
  • 1. To clarify an abstract term or concept
  • 2. To provide a personal interpretation of a term
    that the writer feels is vague, controversial,
    misused or misunderstood.
  • 3. To explain a new or unusual term or phrase
    found in popular culture, slang, dialect or
    within a particular geographic area or cultural
  • 4. To make understandable the language or
    technical terms of a particular field of study r
    a profession or an industry .
  • 5. To offer information about a term or an idea
    to a particu8aor 9hterstte audience.
  • 6. To inform and entertain by presenting the
    colorful history, uses effects or examples of a
    word expression or concept.

Developing your Essay
  • 1. Know your purpose
  • One persons protest march can be another
    persons street riot. So have a goal or purpose.
  • 2. Give your readers a reason to read explain
    the previous misuse, or misunderstanding of the
  • 3. Keep your audience in mind to anticipate and
    avoid problems of clarity.
  • 4. Use as many strategies as necessary to clarify
    your definition.
  • A. Describe the parts or distinguishing
  • B. Offer some examples
  • C. Compare to or contrast with similar terms
  • D. Explain an operation or process
  • E. State some familiar synonyms.
  • F. Define by negation (that is, tell what the
    term doesnt mean)
  • G. Present the history or trace its development
    or changes from the original linguistic meaning.
  • H. Discuss causes or effects
  • I. Identify times/places of use or appearance
  • J. Associate it with recognizable people, places,
    or ideas.
  • Example given on page 239 with the word

Definition Essay
  • Problems to Avoid
  • Dont present an incomplete definition
  • Dont begin the essay with a quote of the
  • Dont define vaguely or by using generalities.
  • Dont offer circular definitions.
  • Ask yourself these questions
  • What subject will your essay define?
  • Why are you interested in this topic?
  • Do you have a personal or professional connection
    to the subject?
  • Is the topic of interest to others?
  • Is your subject a controversial, ambiguous, or
    new term?
  • Writers use a variety of techniques to define
    terms. List some techniques you will use.
  • What difficulties do you foresee in the draft of
    this essay?

Strategy five Division and Classification
  • Large or complex subjects are easier to
    understand if we use division or classification.
  • Division separating something into its component
    parts so that it may be better understood or used
    by the reader. Breaking apart one subject into
    its parts to help people understand it more
  • Classification Groups a number of things into
    categories to make the information easier to
    grasp. (groups, types, kinds or categories.)
  • 1. Select one principle of classification or
    division and stick to it.
  • 2. Make the purpose of your division or
    classification clear to your audience.
  • 3. Account for all the parts in you division or

Strategy six Causal Analysis
  • Cause and effect relationship between two or more
    elements. Some essays focus primarily on the
    cause(s) of something others mainly analyze the
    effect(s) still others discuss both causes and
  • 1. Present a reasonable thesis.
  • 2. Limit your essay to a discussion of recent,
    major causes or effects.
  • Organize your essay clearly.
  • Convince your reader that a causal relationship
    exists by showing how the relationship works.

Expository Essay http//www.essaymall.com/Exposit
  • Although explaining a topic can be done in
    several ways, the most common approach to
    developing an expository paragraph requires using
    specific details and examples. No matter what
    type of paragraph you are writing, you will need
    specific details and examples to support the
    controlling idea in your topic sentences. The
    controlling idea is the word or phrase in the
    topic sentences that states an idea or an
    attitude about the topic this idea or attitude
    is frequently referred to as a generalization. A
    generalization is a statement that applies in
    most cases to a group of things, ideas, or
    people. A generalization can be a value judgment
    or an opinion. ("Mr. Mantia is a nice person") or
    a factual statement "The English language has
    borrowed many terms from French").

  • Specific details
  • The topic sentence "Going to college can be
    expensive" should yield a paragraph that provides
    some information or explanation about the
    controlling idea - expensive. The topic sentence
    might be developed as follows
  • "Going to college can be expensive. Everyone
    knows that tuition and room and board aren't
    cheap, but there are other expenses that make
    going to college even more expensive. For
    instance, the cost of books and supplies is high.
    In addition, there are all kinds of special fees
    tacked onto the bill at registration time.
    Students usually have to pay for parking and even
    for adding and dropping courses after
    registration. The fees never seem to end."

Expository Essay Continued
  • Does this paragraph effectively demonstrate that
    going to college can be expensive? Although the
    writer mentions a few of the expenses that
    students must incur, the writer has not provided
    the reader with enough hard evidence to support
    the controlling idea - expensive. Specific
    details would help support this statement more
    strongly. Just as specific descriptive details
    help to support the controlling idea in a
    description and make the description more vivid
    and interesting, specific details help "prove" or
    support the generalization in an expository
    paragraph. This paragraph can be improved by
    using specific details
  • "Going to college can be expensive. Everyone
    knows that tuition and room and board can cost
    anywhere from 3,000 to 10,000 per semester, but
    there are other expenses that make going to
    college even more expensive. For instance, books
    typically cost between 150 and 400 each term.
    Supplies, too, are not cheap, for as any students
    knows, paper, notebooks, writing utensils, and
    the many other supplies needed usually cost more
    at the college bookstore than at local discount
    department store. For instance, a package of
    notepaper costing 1 at a discount store might
    cost 2 at a college bookstore. In addition,
    there are all kinds of special fees tacked onto
    the bill at registration time. A student might
    have to pay a 30 insurance fee, a 15 activity
    fee, a 10 fee to the student government
    association, and anywhere from 20 to 100 for
    parking. If a student decides to add or drop a
    course after registration, there is yet another
    fee. The fees never seem to end."
  • Instead of just referring to the expenses of
    attending college, in this revised version the
    writer uses specific details - in this case,
    factual details ? to illustrate or prove the
  • In expository writing, the writer is like a
    lawyer who is trying to prove a point a layer
    cannot make generalization without giving proof
    to support his or her statements. Good proof is
    factual detail.

Chapter 10 Argumentive Essay
  • An argumentative essay should be composed of a
    clear thesis and body paragraphs that offer
    enough sensible reasons and persuasive evidence
    to convince your readers to agree with you.

  • Choose an appropriate topic
  • Explore the possibilitiesand your opinions.
  • Anticipate opposing views.
  • Know and remember your audience.
  • Decide which points of argument to include. (my
    side and my oppositions side)
  • Organize your essay clearly.

Pattern A
  • You devote the first few body paragraphs to
    arguing points on your side and then turn to
    refuting or answering the oppositions claims.
  • I. Thesis
  • II. Body 1. you present your first point and
    supporting evidence
  • III. Body 2. you present your second point and
    its supporting evidence.
  • IV. Body 3. you refute your oppositions first
  • V. Body 4. you refute your oppositions second
  • VI. Conclusion

Pattern B
  • You wish to clear away the oppositions claims
    before you present the arguments for your side.
  • I. Thesis
  • II. Body 1. you refute your oppositions first
  • III. Body 2. you refute your oppositions second
  • IV. Body 3. you present your first point and its
    supporting evidence.
  • V. Body4. you present your second point and its
    supporting evidence.
  • VI. Conclusion

Pattern C
  • You can argue to a refute in each paragraph.
  • I. Thesis
  • II. Body 1. you present your first pint and its
    supporting evidence, which also refutes one of
    your oppositions claims.
  • III. Body 2. you present a second point and its
    supporting evidence, which also refutes a second
    opposition claim.
  • IV. Body 3. you present a third point and its
    supporting evidence, which also refutes a third
    opposition claim.
  • V. Conclusion

  • You may feel that your topic has no opposition.
  • Remember that almost all issues have more than
    one side, so try to anticipate objections and
    then answer them.
  • I. Thesis
  • II. Body Paragraph 1 A point to your side
  • III. Body paragraph 2 One of your points, which
    also refutes an opposition claim.
  • IV. Body paragraph 3 Your refutation of another
    opposition cliam
  • V. Conclusion

  • Argue your ideas logically
  • 1. Give examples
  • 2. Present a comparison or contrast
  • 3. Show a cause-and effect relationship
  • 4. Argue by definition
  • Offer evidence that effectively support your
  • 1. personal experience
  • 2. Experiences or testimony of others
  • 3. Factual information youve gathered from
  • 4. Statistics from current, reliable sources
  • 5. Hypothetical examples
  • 6. Testimony from authorities and experts.
  • 7. Charts, graphs, or diagrams
  • Find the appropriate tone.

Consider using Rogerian techniques, if they are
  • Carl Rogers, psychologist, believed that people
    involved in a debate should strive for clear,
    honest communication so that the problems under
    discussion could be resolved. Not a win situation
  • 1. Clear objective statement of the problem or
  • 2. A clear. Objective summary of oppositions
  • 3. A clear, objective summary of your point of
    view, no threatening
  • 4. A discussion that emphasizes the beliefs,
    values, and goals that you and your 0pposion have
    in common
  • 5. A description of nay of your points
  • 6. An explanation of a plan or proposed solution
    that meets the needs of both sides.

Common Logical Fallacies
  • Hasty generalization
  • Not a logical result of the facts
  • Writer presents as truth what is not yet proven
    by the argument
  • Introduction of irrelevant point to divert the
    readers' attention from the main issue
  • Attaching the opponents' character rather than
    the opponents argument
  • Faulty use of authority.
  • Evades the issues by appealing to readers
    emotional reactions to certain subjects.
  • Writer tries to conceive the readers that there
    is only a right way and a wrong way.
  • Abstract concepts
  • Tries to get reader to join with the bandwagon
  • Writer looks for the oppositions weakest point
    to argue against it.
  • Writer uses an extended comparison as proof of a
  • Writer uses catchy phrases and empty slogans.

Persuasive Essay
  • http//www.accd.edu/sac/english/lirvin/wguides/arg
  • http//www.studygs.net/wrtstr4.htm

Chapter 11 Descriptive Essay
  • Recognize your purpose inform, clarify,
    persuade, or create a mood.
  • Describe clearly using specific details314, 315
  • Select only appropriate details
  • Make the descriptions vivid
  • Remember your audience
  • Dont jump around
  • Avoid sudden changes
  • http//ftp.ccccd.edu/andrade/1301/examples.htm
    examples of Descriptive Essays...

Descriptive Essay http//www.essaymall.com/Descri
  • What if you were asked to describe how something
    looks - a place, a thing, or a person? How should
    you arrange your ideas and sentences in the
    paragraph? Obviously, time order would not be
    logical. When you are describing the way
    something looks ? its physical appearance ? a
    place, not time, is important. Therefore, you
    should arrange your sentences and details
    according to where the objects being described
    are located. This type of organization is called
    spatial organization. In a descriptive paragraph,
    you must make very clear the location of the
    objects being described.

Description of a place
  • In describing a room, what should you describe
    first? The walls? The floor? Unlike a
    chronologically developed paragraph, there is no
    set pattern for arranging sentences in a
    descriptive paragraph. It is not necessary to
    begin with one area and then proceed to another
    one. Nevertheless, the sentences should not be
    randomly arranged. The description must be
    organized so that the reader can vividly imagine
    the scene being described. Imagine that you are
    describing a scene for an artist to paint. Would
    you have the artist paint the ceiling white and
    the bed blue and then go back and put posters on
    the walls before painting the walls? Of course
    not! Those directions might irritate the artist.
    The same applies to describing for the reader,
    for you are the describer with words, and your
    reader is the painter who mentally recreates what
    you are describing in the paragraph.

  • The arrangement of details in a descriptive
    paragraph depends on the subject. The selection
    and the description of details depend on the
    describer's purpose. Suppose that your cousin
    wrote and asked you to describe your room.
    Remember that your cousin is very interested in
    what you think about your life in United States .
    You might write your description like this
  • "My dormitory room is on the second floor of
    Bienville Hall. It is a small rectangular room
    with a white ceiling and green walls. As you
    enter the room straight ahead you will see two
    large windows with gold curtains. My bed, which
    is covered with a red and gold bedspread, is
    under the windows. On your left against the wall,
    there is a large bookcase filled with books.
    Close to the door a desk and chair sit next to
    the bookcase, with a small woven wastepaper
    basket underneath the desk. There are several
    posters on this wall. The one that is over the
    bookcase shows an interesting scene from our
    country. The one that is over the desk is of my
    favorite singer To your right built into the
    wall opposite the bookcase and desk, is a closet
    with sliding doors. Behind you on your right and
    somewhat behind the door is a dresser with a
    mirror over it."

  • Examine the description Is the location of the
    objects in the room clear? Are the details
    arranged logically? The to both of these
    questions is yet. The objects are clearly
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