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Architecture Fundamentals of Architecture Heartland Community College Author: Migotsky 101 students Styles of Architecture Egyptian Pre-Columbian Byzantine Islamic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture

  • Fundamentals of Architecture
  • Heartland Community CollegeAuthor Migotsky 101

Styles of Architecture
  • Egyptian
  • Pre-Columbian
  • Byzantine
  • Islamic
  • Gothic
  • Cast-Iron
  • Tibetan
  • Georgian
  • Modern

Egyptian Architecture
  • Prior to 3000 BCE (before common era)
  • Abundant clay and scarce wood led to early
    development of ceramic art and brickwork

Pre-Columbian Architecture
  • 300 BCE 300 ACE (after common era)
  • Aztec and Mayan
  • Mayan culture of Central America developed
    elaborate monuments, palaces, and pyramids

Byzantine Architecture
  • 330 ACE
  • Byzantine Architecture is based on a legacy of
    Roman technical achievements
  • A mixed style, composed of Greco-Roman and Asian
    elements which, in earlier centuries, cannot be
    clearly separated

Islamic Architecture
  • 7th Century ACE
  • Islamic Architecture is a synthesis r of styles,
    with decoration on the surface as the most
    important factor in every work.
  • Interlaced lines and brilliant colors
    characterize the style

Gothic Architecture
  • 12th Century ACE
  • The Gothic Style was the dominant structural and
    aesthetic mode in Europe for 400 years.
  • It emphasized the religious mania and the logical
    formalism that were the essence of the medieval

Cast-Iron Architecture
  • After 1800s ACE
  • Used mainly as an alternative to masonry with
    the introduction of wrought-iron beams at
    mid-century, an efficient, prefabricated method
    of skeletal construction was possible

Tibetan Architecture
  • 15th Century ACE
  • Tibetan architecture was derived from Indian
    prototypes and was composed of one or more square
    bases, a square balcony, a bulbous dome, and a
    mast upholding umbrellas, surmounted by a finial
  • Famed for its enormous monastery-cities, which
    housed thousands of monks.

Georgian Architecture
  • 1714-1830 ACE
  • In the 1st half of 18th century, there was a
    countercurrent of Baroque architecture
  • The 2nd half of 18th century encouraged
    architects in Italy and Greece to draw freely,
    while incorporating classical elements .

Modern Architecture
  • Post World-War I
  • This styles mainly developed in Western countries
    after the first world war.
  • Based on the use of modern materials
  • Based on the principles of functionalist planning
    and the rejection of historical ornamentation

Four Necessities of Architecture
  • Technical Requirements
  • Functional Requirements
  • Spatial Requirements
  • Revelatory Requirements

Technical Requirements
  • It is important that the architect know the
    limits and capabilities of the materials used, so
    the structure will stand and withstand the test
    of time and the environment.
  • Example Houses in the midwest should be designed
    with tornado season in mind, roofs are peaked
    in preparation for heavy snow

Functional Requirements
  • Architects must be aware of the functional
    aspects of their creations.
  • ExampleSchools are designed to hold large
    numbers of people schoolrooms are usually
    designed to direct all eyes forward, toward the

Spatial Requirements
  • It is imperative that the architect take spatial
    surroundings into consideration when creating
    building plans.
  • Examples Zoning laws and safety must be
    considered skyscrapers should not be built near
    airport runways (for safety), and airports
    should not be built near elementary schools (so
    children arent constantly distracted)

Revelatory Requirements
  • How the architect creates the form for a building
    to reveal its function.
  • Examples Emergency facilities, such as
    hospitals, should be immediately recognizable.
    Most stores want to be recognizable to draw
    business, and many Christian and Orthodox
    churches are shaped like crosses, with a transept
    and nave.

The Space That Defines Architecture
  • Earth-Rooted
  • Sky-Oriented
  • Earth-Resting
  • Earth-Dominating

Earth-Rooted Architecture
  • Earth-rooted buildings emphasize the earth and
    natural surroundings.
  • An example would be Falling Water, by Frank
    Lloyd Wright (page 153).

Sky-Oriented Architecture
  • Sky-oriented (or sky-reaching) architecture
    emphasizes the sky as part of its space, rather
    than as just a backdrop.
  • Many churches are examples of sky-oriented
    architecture the steeples direct the eye

Earth-Resting Architecture
  • Earth-resting architecture accents neither the
    earth nor the sky, using the earth merely as a
    platform with the sky as a background.
  • Most modern subdivisions are full of
    earth-resting architecture.

Earth-Dominating Architecture
  • Earth-dominating architecture does not attempt to
    blend harmoniously with its surroundings, but
    instead looms over the landscape.
  • Earth-dominating architecture is often meant to
    portray a feeling of power, or intended to
    command attention.
  • Many palaces are earth-dominating architecture.

Urban Planning
  • A great deal of thought must go into urban
  • Urban planning must allow for residential,
    commercial, and industrial zones.
  • Examples Housing should not be located next to
    waste facilities (although this happens) prisons
    and bars must be located a specific distance from
    schools and churches.

  • There are a wide variety of historical
    architectural styles
  • There are four necessities that every architect
    must take into consideration
  • There are 4 individual types of architectural
  • Thoughtful urban planning is crucial to the
    success and livability of a city

The End
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