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The importance of music in the early childhood years

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Title: The importance of music in the early childhood years


1
The importance of music in the early childhood
years
  • Carolyn Harrod

2
Overview
  • The Australian Curriculum Phase 2
  • Connections with the rest of the curriculum
  • The need for advocacy
  • The contribution of music education
  • Practical suggestions

3
The Australian Curriculum
  • Phase 1 English, Mathematics, Science History
    (phased implementation by 2013)
  • Phase 2 The Arts, Geography, Languages

4
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Development process timeline
  • Curriculum Shaping established Reference Group
    literature review initial position paper
    completed April 2010
  • Consultation National Forum draft Shape Paper
    national consultation completed January 2011
  • Expressions of interest appointment of writing
    team and advisory panel (expertise in an arts
    area an area of schooling)

5
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Development process timeline
  • Curriculum development final Shape of the
    Australian Curriculum The Arts published (June
    11) Broad outline with scope and sequence
    (September 11) Content descriptions (and
    elaborations) and achievement standards
    completed by December 2011
  • Consultation during 2012
  • Publication Digital publication date TBA

6
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • The Arts Reference Group for the Shaping Paper
    for the Arts (Years F-12)
  • convened in September 2009
  • includes academics and curriculum, classroom and
    Arts industry experts in the disciplines of
    dance, drama, music, media and visual arts
  • Professor John OToole is the lead writer with
    four arts discipline contributors Professor
    Margaret Barrett, Dr Michael Dezuanni, Professor
    Elizabeth Grierson and Mr Jeffrey Meiners.

7
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Key points in the draft Shaping Paper for the
    Arts (Years F-12)
  • The Arts make distinct and unique contributions
    to each young persons ability to perceive,
    imagine, create, think, feel, symbolise,
    communicate, understand and become confident and
    creative individuals.
  • Students will experience study dance, drama,
    media arts, music and visual arts

8
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Art making involves three processes to be used as
    the organising strands
  • Generating using the elements of the art form to
    imagine and design artwork from an expressive or
    imaginative impulse, an idea, intention or
    stimulus
  • Realizing communicating artwork for audiences to
    experience (performing)
  • Responding apprehend the artistic experience
    itself comprehend the artwork critically
  • Together these processes comprise aesthetic
    knowledge.
  • The three strands or processes may occur
    simultaneously.

9
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • The Arts in F-8
  • Will be presented in bands (F-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8)
  • Assumes 160 hours per band for the total of the 5
    art forms
  • Provides content descriptions and achievement
    standards
  • Does not prescribe the school organisation of the
    arts learning program
  • All art forms will be taught in F-8, with ability
    to focus on one or more art form in greater depth
  • In F-2, the Arts are taught through a purposeful
    play-centred approach, mainly integrated across
    the curriculum

10
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Music in F-2 Children
  • engage imaginatively in music-making
  • draw on the resources of voice, body, musical
    instruments and sound sources
  • create, experiment, explore, trial organise
    musical ideas and material (pitch, duration,
    dynamics, tone-colour timbre)
  • understand that music can be recorded in symbol
    use invented and simple conventional notation
  • develop a repertoire of chants, songs, rhythms,
    rhymes melodies

11
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Music in F-2 Children
  • engage confidently in singing playing
  • develop aural skills
  • use music-specific language
  • engage as audience members in music experiences
  • respond to music and communicate personal and
    shared meanings using language, movement, music
    and visual presentations.
  • Music learning is continuous as children revisit
    skills, knowledge and understandings.

12
Connections with the rest of the curriculum
  • The Australian Curriculum has three
    cross-curriculum priorities
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories
    and cultures
  • Asia and Australias engagement with Asia
  • Sustainability

13
Connections with the rest of the curriculum
continued
  • The Australian Curriculum has seven general
    capabilities
  • Literacy
  • Numeracy
  • Information and communication technology
  • Critical and creative thinking
  • Personal and social competence
  • Ethical behaviour
  • Intercultural understanding

14
The Australian Curriculum cont.
  • Keep up-to-date with developments by visiting the
    ACARA website
  • www.acara.edu.au/curriculum

15
The need for advocacy
  • Music learning needs to be
  • Continuous throughout the year
  • Part of young childrens daily experiences
  • Advocate for these organisational needs with
    school administrators
  • Promote the importance of music learning to
    parents
  • Provide practical help to early childhood teachers

16
The contribution of music educationSupporting
young childrens learning
  • Children are hard-wired for musical experience
    (Trehub, 1997)
  • from birth to 6yrs is critical for the
    development of audiation, vocal development,
    rhythm movement (Levinowitz, 1998)

17
The contribution of music education
  • Supporting young childrens learning
  • active engagement
  • opportunities to learn independently and with
    others
  • negotiation and opportunities to make choices
  • sense of shared ownership
  • interactions that provide feedback
  • flexibility
  • opportunities to use all senses
  • sense of connectedness
  • respect for all learners
  • learning invites attention, exploration,
    manipulation, elaboration imagination.

18
The contribution of music education
  • Learning development promoted by music
    education
  • Facilitates learning of literacy skills (Adcock
    et al, 2008)
  • Increases childrens vocabulary (Moyeda et al,
    2006)
  • Increases auditory language (Gan Chong, 1998)
  • Promotes spatial-temporal reasoning
    (Schellenberg, 2004)
  • Assists learning mathematical concepts e.g.
    counting, direction, attributes, patterning,
    comparison (Humphrey, 1987)

19
The contribution of music education
  • Learning development promoted by music
    education
  • Develops motor skills and focuses listening
    skills (de Vries, 2004)
  • Increases socialisation amongst children
    (Henniger, 1999)
  • Provides for release of energy (de Vries, 2004)
  • Enhances emotional development and confidence
    through self-expression (de Vries, 2004)

20
The contribution of music education
  • Learning development promoted by music
    education
  • Can lift the moods of children (Jenkins, 1994)
  • Develops concentration and focus (de Vries, 2004)
  • Can be the first point of real contact for
    children with special needs (Cass-Beggs, 1990
    Samuels, 2005)

21
The contribution of music education
  • Quality musical experiences for young children
  • Provide opportunities for children to improvise
    with known songs, create and experiment with
    music using voice instruments (Miranda, 2004)
  • Create a class/centre song-book and have it
    accessible for children (de Vries, 2004)
  • In groups, accompany songs with musical
    instruments, taking turns to play verses or
    phrases
  • Sing songs, chants rhymes with actions as part
    of routines and transitions (Melville-Clark, 2005)

22
The contribution of music education
  • Quality musical experiences for young children
  • Involve children in music and movement
    experiences, experimenting with movement,
    manipulating props, creating their own movement
    play to music
  • Make props (e.g. ribbons, scarves), musical
    instruments and recorded music accessible to
    children for their self-initiated play
    (Melville-Clark, 2005
  • Encourage, respond to and talk about childrens
    spontaneous musical play (Fox, 2000)

23
The contribution of music education
  • Quality musical experiences for young children
  • Regularly listen to a variety of music and
    discuss personal responses (de Vries, 2003)
  • Provide diverse experiences, often linked to
    dance story-telling (Niland, 2007)
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