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The Doha Development Agenda State-of-Play A Brief Overview

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Title: DDA Overview Author: Seif El Yazal, Samer Created Date: 10/5/2009 1:59:02 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: WTO Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Doha Development Agenda State-of-Play A Brief Overview


1
The Doha Development AgendaState-of-PlayA
Brief Overview
  • 26-28 April 2011

2
Introduction
  • Objective of presentation
  • Brief Background of Doha Round
  • Principal elements of the DDA
  • State-of-Play in the negotiations
  • The process ahead

3
Background
  • Doha Ministerial Conference 2001
  • Background Seattle, Millennium Round Ambitions,
    New Issues, Built-in-Agenda on agriculture and
    services too limited for real trade-offs.
  • Doha Declaration (WT/MIN/(01)/DEC/1)
  • - gt Negotiation mandates other work Doha
    Development Agenda (total of 21 subjects).

4
Principal elements of the DDA
  • (1) Negotiations
  • Agriculture and Services (Cotton added in 2003)
  • Non-agricultural Market Access (NAMA)
  • TRIPS (Register)
  • WTO Rules
  • Trade and Environment
  • Trade Facilitation (added in 2004)
  • Dispute Settlement Understanding (outside SU)
  • Special and Differential Treatment for developing
    countries

5
Principal elements of the DDA
  • Work under the General Council, but not part of
    Single Undertaking
  • Electronic Commerce
  • Working Group Small Economies
  • Working Group Trade, Debt and Finance
  • Working Group Trade and Transfer of Technology
  • Relationship between TRIPS Agreement and the CBD,
    the protection of traditional knowledge and
    folklore.
  • Process Issues
  • Single Undertaking Consensus
  • Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC)
  • Doha Round conclusion 1 January 2005
  • Concept of Early Harvest
  • Transparency/Inclusiveness (TN/C/1)
  • The Development Dimension - almost 70 of Members
    are developing.

6
CURRENT NEGOTIATIONS
Pre-history(before UR) only goods
Now revised rules new commitments
Future rules revised again,more commitments
7
Why So Difficult?
  • Issues and Scope no more low-hanging fruit
  • The high Level of Ambition to end agriculture
    distortion
  • 153 Members, Consensus, SU, Active Groups
  • Doha Round style negotiating public and
    transparent
  • Economic crisis, job crisis urgency and
    priorities
  • Electoral cycles trade not an election winner,
    role of private business

8
The Development Dimension?
  • Special and Differential Treatment
  • Ubiquitous throughout the texts
  • Applied in different ways depending on levels of
    development LDCs generally exempt from making
    additional commitments
  • Less than Full Reciprocity
  • Transparent and Inclusive Negotiating Process
  • Big cuts needed in developed country farm
    subsidies
  • Technical Assistance/capacity building to
    implement.

9
Developing Country Interests
  • Solidarity among developing countries, but
    differences clear
  • No longer one size fits all
  • LDCs, SVEs, emerging economies, RAMs, land-locked
    etc.
  • North - South division not applicable
  • Preference Erosion
  • Agricultural Exporters v. Importers
  • Ambition in manufacturing/services
  • TRIPS issues, GI extension and CBD

10
Agriculture Key Issues
  • Negotiations on 3 pillars (mandate)
  • market access
  • export subsidies
  • domestic support
  • The Doha Round agriculture trade-off
  • Subsidy cuts in return for market access
  • Flexibilities (sensitive and special products,
    SSM)
  • Political cost of providing the market access for
    some
  • Food security
  • Cotton subsidies

11
NAMA - Key Issues
  • Paragraph 24 of HK Dec ambition reminder
  • Peak tariffs and tariff escalation
  • Coefficient for developing countries
  • Specific country circumstances, e.g. Argentina,
    South Africa and Venezuela
  • Sectorals (duty-free) voluntary, new Japan idea
    of baskets
  • Low tariffs threat to government revenue
  • Exchange-rate discussion

12
Services - Key Issues
  • Objectives, principles and scope
  • progressive liberalization as enshrined in
    relevant GATS provisions
  • appropriate flexibility for developing countries,
    especially LDCs
  • no sectors or modes are excluded from the scope
    of the negotiations at the outset.
  • Market access request-offer approach. Around
    30 countries active in the negotiations. Mostly
    bilateral process. 2008 Signalling Conference to
    provide comfort on range of commitments.
  • LDC waiver
  • Domestic Regulations, Subsidies, safeguards
  • Relationship with Agriculture and NAMA Modalities

13
TRIPS- Key Issues
  • Wine and Spirits Registry (Negotiation Mandate)
  • Extension of Geographical Indications
    (Implementation)
  • Link between TRIPS and Convention on Biodiversity
    (Implementation)
  • TRIPS and Public Health (separate declaration)

14
Rules Key Issues
  • Anti-Dumping
  • Subsidies
  • Fisheries Subsidies
  • Regional Trade Agreements

15
Trade Facilitation - Key Issues
  • Negotiations to harmonize and streamline customs
    procedures, red tape etc.
  • Existing Articles V, VIII and X in the GATT,
    dealing with goods in transit, fees and
    paperwork.
  • Capacity building and technical assistance linked
    to implementation
  • Links to Aid for Trade.

16
Trade and Environment - Key Issues
  • Closer co-ordination of trade and environmental
    policies no conflict to date in DSB
  • Closer co-ordination between WTO Secretariat and
    MEAs
  • Market access for environmentally related goods
    and services

17
Development Dimension - Key Issues
  • Development at the core of the DDA
  • Important element in Doha launch
  • In view of implementation debate
  • Around 70 of membership developing country
    status
  • Agreement specific SD proposals totalling 88.
    Three categories -- 32 agreed.
  • Special and Differential Treatment included in
    every segment of the negotiations
  • Capacity Building/Aid for Trade/Flexibilities

18
Dispute Settlement Reform - Key Issues
  • Not part of the Single Undertaking
  • Review of the functioning based on last 15 years
  • Examples of issues
  • Sequencing and remanding
  • Timetables, shorter response time
  • Enabling greater developing country participation
  • A systemic Issue.

19
Food for thought
  • 80 of technical negotiation done, but
    Agricultural and NAMA Modalities still bogged
    down
  • 2009 12 fall in world trade largest for 50
    years, some protectionist measures
  • ...but crisis focused minds of WTO Members on
    other roles of the Multilateral Trading System
    e.g. monitoring. 7th Ministerial Conference
  • 14 growth in world trade in 2010, but
  • Unemployment situation remains precarious
  • Stimulus packages expiring what next?
  • Few new protectionist measures, but delay in
    withdrawing others

20
Food for thought
  • March 2010 stocktaking some technical progress,
    but key political will absent.
  • G20 - Process and Impact
  • Toronto (June) - trade discussion, but vague
    reference, financial reform center stage
  • Korea (November) more substance, some change in
    positions will it translate?
  • Geneva Process
  • Cocktail Approach and the small groups
  • Next steps process, texts (Easter), Senior
    Officials, 8th Ministerial Conference

21
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