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Opportunities for participation


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Title: Opportunities for participation

Unit 1.3
  • Opportunities for participation

Concepts and Definitions
  • From Play to Sport

Characteristics and Objectives
  • Play
  • Leisure and Recreation
  • Active leisure
  • Outdoor and Adventurous activities
  • Sport
  • Physical Education

PLAY - characteristics
Play - objectives
  • Children
  • Adults
  • Test boundaries
  • Experience risk within safe limits
  • Socialisation
  • Promotes independence
  • Develops respect
  • Allows social interaction
  • Escape reality
  • To be childlike
  • Creativity and fantasy

  • Used to be for privileged few now essential for
    normal life
  • Done during FREE TIME

Recreation active positive and beneficial
similar to leisure
  • Refresh mind and body
  • Recuperate
  • re-create be creative participate in
    activities for self-fulfilment
  • Physical Recreation does all that through
    physical activity

Active Leisure
  • Physical recreation normally linked to sport
  • Sport competitive not everyone wants
  • Everyone does need physical activity for health
  • Active Leisure physically active in leisure
    time jogging, swimming, aerobics walking
  • Lifetime sports

Outdoor and Adventurous Activites
  • Popularity increased in last 70 years
  • Government support
  • More availability

  • Outdoor Recreation
  • Adventure Activities
  • Activity done in natural environment woods,
  • Not all outdoor recreation is adventure
  • Same environment
  • Element of challenge and risk
  • All adventure activities considered outdoor

Outdoor and Adventure education
  • Using natural environment as classroom
  • Children experience danger and risk in controlled
  • Benefits
  • Appreciate natural environment
  • Skills map reading etc..
  • Team work
  • leadership

Challenge and Risk
  • Difference between outdoor and adventure lies in
    the concept of challenge and risk
  • Adventure activities have an element of perceived
    or actual risk
  • Perceived risk dependent on skills and
    experience and actions they take
  • Actual Risk real danger real risk cannot be
    eliminated no matter how skilful

  • Risk relates to predictability
  • If risk is predictable it is avoidable danger
    is subjective linked to knowledge and expertise
  • At other end of scale a situation can be so
    unpredictable that danger is real and objective
  • Mortlock experience risk continuum page 131

  • Outdoor rec/education
  • Adventure activities
  • Learn to appreciate natural environment
  • Active leisure, lifetime sport
  • Experience beyond normal routine
  • Escape from mundane
  • Excitement, thrill, fear
  • Self-reliance
  • Self awareness/discovery
  • Leadership
  • Team work
  • Trust

Urban adventure
  • Cost may prevent those from cities experiencing
    outdoor and adventurous activity
  • Overcome by using parks, canals, climbing walls
  • Free running has developed to use features in the
    city to experience the thrill of outdoor education

  • Major part of modern life new religion
  • Sport England 5 million people gave 1 billion
    hours to sport on a voluntary basis
  • Billion pound industry

Defining Sport
  • Coakley defines Sport as.
  • "Sports are institutionalized competitive
    activities that involve rigorous physical
    exertion or the use of relatively complex
    physical skills by participants motivated by
    internal and external rewards."

  • Institutionalised
  • Intrinsic/Extrinsic
  • Fixed competitive structures leagues, cups-
    overseen by governing body
  • Standardised rules set by governing body
  • Rules enforced by officials
  • Strategies for play, training, positions,
  • Codes of conduct
  • Why people play
  • Intrinsic internal factors enjoyment,
  • Extrinsic external medals, prizes, money,
    trophies, praise
  • Most people motivated by a combination of the two

Categories of sport
  • Based on National curriculum activities and
    distinctive characteristic
  • Games sub divisions
  • Invasion - Football
  • Striking and Field - Cricket
  • Combat - Judo
  • Target - Golf
  • Net sports - Tennis
  • Dance - aesthetic
  • Games - outwitting opponents
  • Gymnastics - replication
  • Swimming and Water Safety
  • Athletic Activities maximising speed or
  • Outdoor and Adventurous challenge and risk

A sport is.
  • Competitive
  • Selective by ability and excellence
  • Serious commitment needed
  • Requires physical endeavour
  • Organised
  • Involves sportsmanship codes of conduct
    fair play morals
  • Is Darts a Sport?

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Physical Education - characteristics
  • learning through the physical
  • Formal body of knowledge with an educational
  • Learnt through experience of physical activity
  • Learning fundamental physical/motor skills
  • Learning rules, tactics and etiquette of a range
    of activities.
  • A means of developing positive social and
    personal values such as teamwork and cooperation.
  • To develop the ability to appreciate the quality
    of movement
  • To understand Health-Related Fitness
  • To develop a lifelong love and engagement with
    exercise, physical activity and sport.

How PE, Sport and Recreation overlap
Physical activity continuum
  • Level of organisation
  • Play Leisure Physical Rec/Active Leisure
    Outdoor PE Sport
  • Least organised most organised
  • Competition
  • Play Leisure Outdoor Physical Rec/Active
    Leisure PE Sport
  • Least competitive most competitive

Benefits of Physical activity
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Exam Questions
  • January 09 2a Mark scheme
  • June 08 1 Mark Scheme
  • June 08 2abc Mark scheme
  • June 08 4 Mark Scheme
  • Jan 08 1ab Mark Scheme
  • June 07 3a Mark Scheme

Leisure Provision
  • Physical Activity has major benefits to society
    in terms of health and the reduction of
    anti-social behaviour.
  • Provided by three sectors
  • Public
  • Private
  • Voluntary
  • What are the characteristics and goals of each?

Public Sector
  • Provided from taxation local or national
  • Or through other forms of government or public
    support e.g lottery.
  • Local authorities have responsibility for
    building and maintaining recreation facilities
  • Provided for the public good
  • Some user groups are subsidised

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Private Sector
  • Commercial companies
  • Run for profit
  • Growing sector many employment opportunities
  • Rapid expansion in last 20 years
  • High quality
  • Higher cost for membership
  • Exclusive

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Inequality of opportunity advantages and
disadvantages of each sector
  • Government keen to see more people physically
    active for 3 reasons
  • Improved health less burden on the NHS
  • Reduce crime and anti-social behaviour by
    engaging people in purposeful physical activity
  • Enhance community esteem and cohesion
  • 3 sectors because one sector alone cannot
    achieve all this
  • Inequality because..
  • Some local areas poorly provided
  • Individuals lack resources
  • Not everyone aware of the benefits
  • Social exclusion or discrimination

How good is each sector at providing sport for
allPrivate Sector
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • React quickly to demand
  • Meet individual needs
  • Restrict membership so facility is rarely
  • Costs high
  • Restrictions long waiting lists exclusive
  • Discrimination rules to prevent some people
  • Sport may suffer thought only for certain types
    of people tennis middle class

Voluntary Sector
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Just needs enthusiasm
  • Huge range of activities
  • Exist for the benefit of the people
  • Voluntary efforts keep costs low
  • Lots of financial support from government
  • Sponsors often keen to help
  • Unplanned and relatively uncontrolled relies on
  • No equal opps remit
  • Continuity not guaranteed relies on voluntary
  • No guarantee of financial support
  • Can still be socially exclusive

Public Sector
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Required to act in the public good
  • Resources allocated for this purpose
  • Not driven by profit motive
  • Funds often limited may not be enough
  • Local authorities in economically disadvantaged
    areas may have less to spend
  • Less financial freedom to borrow money to invest
    in facilities for the future

Best Value improving the public sector
  • 1980s introduced Compulsory Competitive
    Tendering (CCT) Local authorities had to invite
    private companies to tender for the provision of
    local services. The best bid won the right to
    provide the leisure services for that area.
  • Replaced in 2000 with Best Value
  • Government policy aimed to improve local
    government services including leisure and
    recreation system operates around best value
    performance indicators leisure services
    departments are inspected regularly and judged
    against criteria known as the 4Cs

4 Cs
  • Challenge are councils doing as well as they
    can, compared to the best councils
  • Consult do they ask local communities what they
  • Compare do they compare performance with other
    councils and the private and voluntary sector
  • Compete have they demonstrated that they are
    managing the services in the best way possible.

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The role of National Government
  • Department for Culture, Media and Sport
  • playground to podium
  • Sport England one of the National sports
    Councils primarily concerned with
  • Increased participation
  • UK Sport development of elite performers

  • Developing community sport and increasing
    participation nationwide
  • Major Policy National Framework for Sport
  • Key Partners NGBs, Sport Equity Alliance,
    National Sport foundation to address inequality
    for some groups
  • Liase with Youth Sport Trust and UK Sport to
    create structure from first experience to elite
  • Achieves objectives through local initiatives
    putting into practice national framework
  • Locally works with councils, schools and clubs
  • Allocates funding from taxation and the lottery
    to achieve objectives
  • Provides advice to local and national providers
  • Conducts research in levels of participation to
    find out why individuals participate or not
  • Works with other government agencies to promote
    wider social policies for community health and

Exam Questions
  • Jan 09 4c Mark Scheme
  • Jan 08 4c Mark Scheme
  • June 07 2c Mark Scheme

National Curriculum PE and School Sport
  • PE is defined as ..
  • a formalised body of knowledge and experience
    taught within educational establishments
  • Relatively new subject 100 years
  • Developed from two different strands
  • Public Schools (upper and middle class)
    emphasised team games
  • State Elementary health and fitness bias

Public School Sports (1800 -1870)
  • Upper Class
  • Bullying common
  • Large amounts of leisure time
  • Hunting, Gambling and drinking
  • Younger boys used as servants fagging
  • Played games mob sports
  • Considered violent by head-teachers
  • Some saw potential for games if controlled to
    channel boys energy
  • Thomas Arnold (Rugby School) used games as a form
    of social control
  • The importance of Leadership was emphasised
    senior boys organised the matches
  • Schools began to play each other and became more
  • Masters recognised the potential for more than
    just improving discipline
  • Promoted games, brought back old boys to coach
    standards of play improved as did facilities and
  • Success on playing field a good way of promoting

Fair Play
  • Games played with a strict code of conduct
  • Seen as a way of instilling moral qualities
  • Leadership, Discipline, Integrity, Loyalty,
    Bravery and Decision making.
  • Games played for the team not the individual
  • Ultimately the idea that games developed both the
    physical and moral side of an individual was
    given the term Athleticism physical
    endeavour with moral integrity
  • This vision was used by De Coubertin when he
    created the modern olympic games in 1896

  • Games grew in popularity
  • More schools played each other
  • Schoolboys took games to university
  • Need to agree a common set of rules
  • Groups set up to settle disputes fore-runners of
    Governing bodies

Popular Rec Rational Rec
  • Regular Participation
  • Complex rules
  • Highly structured
  • Spectator based and participation
  • Refined skills rather than force
  • Middle/upper class development
  • Regional/national
  • Sophisticated equipment
  • Occasional Feast Days
  • Few rules
  • Violent
  • Force rather than skill
  • Participation
  • Lower Class
  • Local
  • Limited structure

Rational Recreation 1850 - 1890
  • As games developed in public schools society was
  • Industrial revolution brought people to towns
    from the countryside urbanisation
  • This led to..
  • Changed work patterns
  • Less space cramped terraced housing
  • Move from seasonal time to machine time
  • 12 hour days six days a week little leisure
  • These all contributed to the decline of popular
    recreation but why did rational recreation take
    its place?

Rational Recreation the middle class
  • Industrial revolution also created the new
    middle class
  • People who had profited from industrialisation.
  • Factory owners, Doctors, clergymen.
  • Wanted their children to experience the same sort
    of education as the upper classes.
  • Created own version of public schools
  • With team games and its values central to these
  • They wanted to pass these on to wider society
    because of the physical and moral benefits
    associated with team sports.
  • Factory owners created teams and facilities as
    did churches to encourage working people to
  • They improved working conditions and gradually
    the standard of living of the working class
    improved. They had more money and with the advent
    of half-day Wednesday and Saturday more leisure
  • They hoped this would lead to a fitter and more
    moral society.
  • Most of todays sports were created between 1860
    and 1890
  • Rational Recreation was the name given to this
    new form of organised and regulated sport.

Social changes that helped the development of
rational recreation
  • Pre-industrial
  • Seasonal Time
  • Limited Transport
  • Illiteracy
  • Harsh Rural Lifestyle
  • Feudal System
  • Agricultural
  • Uncivilized
  • Lack of technology
  • Post-industrial
  • Machine Time
  • Improved transport
  • Business/Admin Skills
  • More civilized
  • Middle Class
  • Industrial
  • Increased law and order
  • Technological advancement

State School Education 1870 - 1940
  • Public Schools
  • State Schools
  • Aims
  • Develop leaders of society
  • Characteristics
  • Upper/Middle class
  • Hierarchichal
  • Prefects
  • Single Sex
  • Physical Activities
  • Team Games
  • Aims
  • Education for the masses
  • Disciplined and obedient workforce
  • Morals
  • Characteristics
  • Small, cramped spaces
  • Local and Free of charge
  • Mixed Sex

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Developments in State School Physical Education
  • Drill boys only NCOs
  • Girls later
  • 1890 Swedish Gym
  • Focus on therapeutic benefits
  • Teachers begin to takeover
  • WHY?
  • Health/Fitness
  • Instil develop discipline/accept role
  • Easy to implement
  • Military service
  • Cheap
  • Little space required

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The Model Course 1902
  • Military Drill
  • Command-Obey
  • NCOs
  • Sticks as dummy weapons
  • WHY?
  • Health/Fitness
  • Instil develop discipline/accept role
  • Easy to implement
  • Military service
  • Cheap
  • Little space required

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  • Why?
  • Improve health/physical development
  • Medical basis preventative measure
  • Rehabilitation after WW1
  • Increase enjoyment
  • Teacher uses more initiative
  • Control to Education board
  • Female PE teachers
  • How?
  • 1904 Swedish system reinstated therapeutic
  • Age/sex differences noted
  • 1909 games introduced
  • 1919 post WW1 importance of recreation

1933 -1952
  • What?
  • 1933 Introduce group work
  • Moves towards decentralisation
  • 1944/post WW2 Child centred approach
  • emphasis on skill
  • Apparatus/gyms
  • 1952/1954 moving and growing/planning the
    programme - individualised
  • Why?
  • Encourage interaction between teachers and pupils
  • Develop creativity
  • Discovery style
  • Teacher initiative
  • PE teaching developed further
  • Influence of Dance movement - Laban

POST WW2 Key words
  • Moving and Growing
  • Planning the Programme
  • Child Centred
  • Exploratory
  • Discovery
  • Obstacle
  • Movement
  • Recreative

1902 Return to military following Boer War 1904 Syllabus moved away from military towards therapeutic. 1909 1909 Syllabus became Physical Training 1919 Syllabus moved from PT to PE with educational principles 1933 World War 2 saw a lead towards Moving Growing 1954 1956 new programme
Introduction Right marker fall in stand at ease attention right turn march halt about turn march halt left turn stand at ease Fall in in 2 lines attention right turn quick march about turn etcthen free gymnastic running halt gymnastic skipping halt stand at ease Free running signal 1 large ring free running signal 4 rings free running 4 lines Running leaping change speed change direction change shape twisting turning
Arms trunk Attention arms bend up bend forward bend side bend down stand at ease Attention arms bend stretch x2 down swing forward up down with leg lunges up down halt stand at ease In lines elbow circling arms swing forwards backwards cross leg sitting knee to ear lateral reach twisting stand touch ground lying-hip turning Pulling pushing pairs obstinate calf knee boxing chinese boxing pushing pulling tug-o-war arm lock wrestling crouch tug-o-war
Body legs Attention double knee bend onto hands- down leg stretches arms bend stretch x2 knees bend up stand at ease Attention feet astride trunk forward bend swing up with arms raised down up swing sideways bend sideways with arms raised halt stand at ease Running statues farmers seeking rabbits rabbits hopping crouch hopping alternately still on signal Body curling stretching forwards backwards lying alternatives sitting alternatives kneeling alternatives standing twisting
Applied work Attention astride with cross forward, up, bend down x2 at ease Jumping astride x2 with arms raising halt stand at ease Class activity skills Through vaults in 3s Supported jumps vaults in 2s 3s exploring different alternatives.
Applied work With dumb-bells attention swing updownx2 swing upthrough x2 halt stand at ease halt right turn quick march back to class Catherine Wheel 1st line arm raised ready cartwheel stand 2nd line etc return deep breathing arms raising on breathing walk in lines back to class Corner activities Frog jump into hoops Forward roll along mattress Through vault in 3s Handstanding in pairs Game hand tennis 2 teams Apparatus work. Twisting turning on frame apparatus, boxes benches. Changing round to new apparatus.
National Curriculum
  • Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a National
    Curriculum with the aim of raising standards by
    centralising the decisions regarding what is
    taught in schools and making schools more
    accountable for their performance.
  • Since 1988 the National Curriculum has been
    revised several times most recently in 2008 when
    schools again were given more say over what they
    include in their curriculum.

New Secondary Curriculum
  • The latest version of the National Curriculum
    gives greater freedom to schools to decide what
    to include depending on the needs and interests
    of its pupils. All schools have a common goal
    to develop
  • Successful learners
  • Confident Individuals
  • Responsible Citizens
  • Every subject including Physical Education should
    be aspiring to achieve these goals. How this is
    achieved is down to individual schools.

Developing school-club links
  • Social inclusion is the driving force behind
    the governments policy for Sport and physical
  • Numerous documents have been published to outline
    how the government plans to use sport and
    physical activity in the fight against social
  • A sporting future for all 2001
  • Game Plan 2002 - 2 main objectives
  • increased participation
  • Improved success at international level

High Quality Physical Education and School Sport
  • The better students experience of Sport and
    Physical activity at school the more likely they
    are to continue into adult life.
  • To achieve high quality the government has
    implemented a number of strategies
  • Sports Colleges now over 400 receive
    additional funding to promote good practice in
    their own and partner schools.
  • Youth Sport Trust is the lead body for Sports
    Colleges and is charged with helping them to
    deliver the PE and Sport Strategy for Young
    People (PESSYP) in partnership with Sport England

Exam questions
  • Jan 09 2bcd Mark Scheme
  • Jan 09 3abc
  • June 08 1 Mark scheme
  • June 08 3a
  • Jan 08 1bc Mark Scheme
  • Jan 08 3a
  • Jan 08 4a
  • Jun 07 1 Mark Scheme

Equal opportunities
  • Sport and physical activity are of benefit to
    individuals and society.
  • Equality of opportunity means that all
    individuals have the same chance to participate
  • Inequality of opportunity exists for some groups
    of people because of a number of barriers
  • Lack of opportunity
  • Lack of personal resources
  • Discrimination - stereotyping
  • Self-discrimination
  • Group or peer pressure

Who suffers from the barriers to participation?
  • Women
  • Ethnic Minorities
  • Disabled
  • Lower socio-economic groups

Gender - Reasons for lower participation of Women
- Domestic Role - Social Stereotyping -
Sport traditionally established and controlled by
men - Less media coverage - Less money /
power - Sexism the belief that one sex is
inferior to the other - Inequalities in
sporting opportunities - Role models
  • Teenage girls Sport England 2006
  • Muslim women Womens Sport Foundation 2006
  • Perceived lack of interest of friends
  • Family uninterested
  • Concerns over weight and appearance
  • Lack of self-confidence
  • Lack of information about staying invovled
  • Negative experiences in schools
  • Mixed groups lack of single sex groups
  • Problems with dress code
  • Lack of positive role models

Solutions to Low Participation
  • Equal Opportunities - Suffragettes Right to
    Vote 1917 Sex Discrimination Act (1975)
  • Organisations - Womens Sport Foundation
  • More Facilities for women
  • Better Links between Schools and Clubs
  • Increased Media Coverage
  • Health Related Activities in schools broader

Ethnic Groups
  • Group of people who share common origins
  • Cultural, religious, racial or linguistic.
  • Sport England research revealed differing levels
    of participation by different ethnic groups.
  • Certain minority ethnic groups are under

Reasons for Low Participation
- Home and family responsibilities - Lack of
money - Work / study demands - Religious
beliefs - NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES Racism a set
of ideas or beliefs based on the assumption that
some races have distinct characteristics that
make them more superior to others.
Solutions to the lower participation rates from
ethnic minority groups
  • Sport Policies Sporting Equals/CRE
  • Information
  • Clubs
  • Sports leaders / development officers
  • Media Coverage role models
  • Campaigns to eliminate racism

  • Understand the effect of disability on
    opportunities for participation and the role of
    Disability for Sport England

Disability a term used when an impairment
adversely affects performance
Categories of Disabled Athletes
Amputee Includes athletes who have at least one
major joint in a limb missing, Cerebral palsy
A disorder of movement and posture due to damage
to an area, or areas, of the brain that control
and coordinate muscle tone, reflexes, posture and
movement.. Intellectual disability Substantial
limitation in intellectual functioning (an IQ of
70 or below), and two or more of the following
communication, self-care, home living, social
skills, community use, self-direction, health and
safety, functional academics, leisure and work
and have acquired their condition before age 18.
Categories of Disabled Athletes
Les autres 'the others'. A term used to describe
athletes with a range of conditions which result
in locomotive disorders - such as dwarfism - that
don't fit into other classifications. Vision
impaired Any condition which interferes with
'normal' vision. Wheelchair At least a 10 loss
of function of their lower limbs, e.g. traumatic
paraplegia and quadriplegia, spina bifida,
poliomyelitis, amputees, cerebral palsy and all
non ambulant les autres athletes.
  • Disabled people are more likely to participate in
    some sports than others.
  • Which sports are these?
  • Why are disabled people more likely to
    participate in them?
  • Horse riding
  • Swimming
  • Sports that tend to organize events specifically
    for people with disabilities

Key Words Key questions
Inclusiveness all people should have their needs
abilities and aspirations recognized, understood
and met within a supportive environment
Integration able bodied and disabled taking
part together in the same activity
Segregated Activity People with disabilities
participating separately from able bodied.
Which Sports can disabled athletes be integrated
with able bodied athletes? How can sports be
adapted to enable disabled athletes to
Adapted Sports
Tennis wheelchair users are allowed to let the
ball bounce twice before playing it. Wheelchair
basketball two pushes and one bounce replaces
bouncing whilst travelling / dribbling Swimming
some technique rules can be more flexible for
some classifications and visually impaired people
may need a tap on the head to let them know
theyre nearing the end of the lane.
How can opportunities for people with
disabilities be improved?
- Raise awareness amongst the disabled about
opportunities already available - Raising
awareness amongst the general public about
disability issues - Specialist training
programmes for staff wholl be involved - Make
access to and within facilities more manageable
Disability Sport England
Role - Promote participation in sport for people
with all forms of disability
  • Aims
  • provide opportunities
  • promote the benefits
  • support organizations providing opportunities
  • educate
  • enhance image, awareness and understanding
  • encourage development

Socio-economic Groups
  • Generally individuals from the lower
    socio-economic groups have poorer health and
    mortality rates therefore the benefits of
    physical activity are particularly important to
    this group. They are very likely to suffer from
    social exclusion as they have less power, less
    disposable income etc.
  • To help increase their levels of participation
    the following factors play an important role.
  • Attitudes they can afford sports. Need to
    change attitudes of other classes to the lower
    class see them as equals
  • Awareness lower classes need to be taught how
    to be physically active be provided with
    facilities and knowledge of what they can do
  • Adaptation and modification adapt rules /prices
    of clubs etc to enable less fortunate to play
  • School PE integration of different classes
    within PE at schools schools target
  • Access facilities clubs can different
    classes play together?
  • Funding government investment programmes to
    help lower classes afford sports provide more
    free provision.

Exam Questions
  • Jan 09 3d Mark Scheme
  • June 08 2cd Mark Scheme
  • June 08 3b
  • Jan 08 3b Mark Scheme
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