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U.S. FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

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U.S. FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ... Funded through the USAID International Disaster Assistance program ... TITLE II EMERGENCY PROGRAMS TITLE II DEVELOPMENT ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS


1
U.S. FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
  • Ellen Levinson
  • Alliance for Global Food Security
  • www.foodaid.org
  • elevinson_at_elevinson.com
  • May 23, 2011

2
General Requirements for US Food Aid Donations
  • The types and amounts of commodities used will
    not result in disincentives to or interference
    with local agricultural production or marketing
    and will not disrupt commercial markets.
  • Commodities may be distributed (83 in FY 2010)
    or monetized, e.g. sold through marketing
    channels in the recipient country and the sales
    proceeds are used to support development
    activities (17 in FY 2010). Monetization may be
    used for commodities that are in short supply in
    the country and where imports are necessary to
    meet the needs.
  • Implementing organizations identify the types and
    amounts of commodities appropriate for the target
    country and population, choosing from U.S.
    agricultural commodities determined eligible by
    USAID USDA, such as bulk grains rice,
    vegetable oil, legumes dry beans, fortified
    cereals.

3
General Procedures
  • Once a program is approved, implementing
    organizations order (call forward) the
    commodities for delivery.
  • The USDA Kansas City Commodity Office procures
    the commodities by issuing a tender to U.S.
    suppliers and processors. USDA evaluates the
    commodity bids and picks the one(s) that would
    result in the lowest landed cost based on a
    combination of the cost of the commodity and the
    cost of shipping it to the destination country,
    and in accordance with cargo preference rules
    (75 of cargoes carried on US-flag vessels).
  • Implementing organizations use a tender process
    to choose the vessel arrange for shipment from
    U.S. port to the recipient country and are
    responsible for proper use and management of the
    commodities throughout the program.

4
  • FOOD FOR PEACE ACT (PL 480)
  • Authorized in the Farm Bill.
  • Purpose To promote the foreign policy of the US
    by enhancing the food security of the developing
    world by using agricultural commodities and
    accrued local currencies to-
  • Combat hunger
  • Promote broad-based development
  • Expand international trade
  • Foster private entities and democratic practices
  • Prevent conflict

5
  • DEFINITION OF FOOD SECURITY
  • Food security exists when all people, at all
    times, have access to sufficient nutritious food
    to meet their dietary needs for an active and
    healthy life.
  • The four components of food security are
  • availability of food in the marketplace or from
    production
  • access to food, the ability to buy or otherwise
    obtain sufficient amounts of food to meet dietary
    needs
  • utilization of food, including dietary intake and
    the ability to absorb and use the nutrients in
    the body and
  • stability, the ability to maintain sufficient
    nutrition over time (sometimes called
    resiliency).

6
PL 480 TITLE II, ADMINISTERED BY USAID.
OBJECTIVES
  • Address famine and food crises
  • Combat malnutrition, esp. in women, infants and
    children
  • Alleviate causes of hunger, mortality and
    morbidity
  • Promote economic and community development
  • Promote food security and sound environmental
    practices
  • Support feeding programs
  • Promote economic and nutritional security

7
TITLE II EMERGENCY PROGRAMS
  • Eligible entities Governments, public or private
    agencies, and intergovernmental organizations. In
    practice, about 80 is provided through the UN
    World Food Program (WFP), 20 through U.S.
    Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs).
  • Typically 1-year programs, but to help transition
    from emergency to recovery, 2-year PVO programs
    are possible.
  • There is an expedited process for the US to
    provide food aid to the WFP for emergencies,
    based on a standing US-WFP agreement. For PVOs,
    there are regulations, guidelines and an
    application process.
  • To respond quickly to emergencies, commodities
    are pre-positioned in warehouses overseas and
    ships carrying commodities to a program or
    warehouse overseas can be diverted to an
    emergency site.
  • In FY 2010, 1.52 billion (1,652,790 metric tons)
    was provided for 48 emergency programs in 27
    countries. Largest recipients Ethiopia, Sudan,
    Haiti, Kenya Chad.

8
TITLE II DEVELOPMENT (NONEMERGENCY) PROGRAMS
  • Eligible organizations PVOs, cooperatives and
    intergovernmental organizations.
  • In FY 2010, 401 million (500,150 metric tons)
    was provided for 42 programs in 21 countries
    through PVOs and cooperatives. Largest recipient
    countries were Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Haiti Sudan,
    Uganda.
  • USAID identifies priority countries, issues
    regulations, requests applications. Proposals
    include program rationale and market analysis
    description of target population commodity
    types, amounts delivery schedule description
    of how activities will meet stated objectives
    and management, monitoring and evaluation plans.
  • Integrated food security programs, 3-5 years
    long. Focus is on results and building local
    capacity. Must demonstrate coordination with US
    strategic objectives and USAID food security
    objectives for that country.
  • Activities include improving agricultural
    production and marketing, natural resource
    management, diets/nutrition (esp.
    maternal-child), and building capacity to
    withstand food crises and sustain benefits (e.g.
    community health organizations, cooperatives,
    farmer associations).

9
FOOD FOR PROGRESS, ADMINISTERED BY USDA
  • Authorized in the Farm Bill. Purpose Provide
    commodities for programs in developing countries
    and emerging democracies that are expanding free
    enterprise in their agricultural economies.
  • In FY 2010, 146 million provided (174,400 metric
    tons) in 14 countries.
  • Focus is on strengthening food and agricultural
    systems and private sector mechanisms. Examples
    are improving farming practices and related
    businesses creating farmer associations and
    cooperatives linking low-income farmers to
    inputs, financing, processing, markets.
  • Eligible entities Foreign governments,
    intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental
    organizations (NGOs, such as PVOs, cooperatives
    and nonprofit agricultural organizations), and
    other private entities. Most programs are
    conducted by NGOs.

10
McGOVERN-DOLE FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD
NUTRITION USDA ADMINISTERS
  • Authorized in the Farm Bill. Purpose Provide
    agricultural commodities, financing and technical
    assistance for food assistance in and through
    schools and for mothers, infants and children
    under the age of five. Primarily supports food
    for education programs that improve school
    enrollment, attendance and quality.
  • In FY 2010, 200 million (106,700 metric tons)
    was provided in 18 countries.
  • Eligible Entities Foreign governments, PVOs,
    cooperatives, intergovernmental organizations,
    and others. Funds are primarily provided for
    programs administered by PVOs and WFP.

11
USAID EMERGENCY FOOD SECURITY PROGRAM
  • Foreign Assistance Act Program. Purpose Local or
    regional procurement of commodities, or provision
    food vouchers or funds to recipients so they can
    buy on nearby markets. To complement Title II
    emergency food aid in early stages of an
    emergency and when market conditions are
    appropriate.
  • Funded through the USAID International Disaster
    Assistance program (not a Farm Bill program).
    In FY 2010, 244 million (278,870 metric tons)
    provided to 17 programs in 8 countries. Largest
    programs were in Pakistan, Niger, Haiti, Kenya,
    Krygyzstan.
  • Eligible entities Local, US or international
    NGOs, PVOs and public international
    organizations.
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