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A Quadcopter, also called a Quadrotor is a multicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Quadcopter unmanned aerial vehicles are used for surveillance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Transcript and Presenter's Notes


  • Literature Review
  • General Introduction
  • Working Principle
  • Applications
  • Researches
  • Possibilities
  • Work carried out

A Quadcopter, also called a Quadrotor is
a multicopter that is lifted and propelled by
four rotors. Quadcopter unmanned aerial
vehicles are used for surveillance and
reconnaissance by military and law enforcement
agencies, as well as search and rescue missions
in urban environments. Cutting-edge research is
continuing to increase the viability of
quadcopters by making advances in multi-craft
communication, environment exploration, and
manoeuvrability. If all of these developing
qualities can be combined together, quadcopters
would be capable of advanced autonomous missions
that are currently not possible with any other
vehicle. One such example is the Aeryon Scout,
created by Canadian company Aeryon Labs, which is
a small UAV that can quietly hover in place and
use a camera to observe people and objects on the
ground. The company claims that the machine
played a key role in a drug bust in Central
America by providing visual surveillance of
a drug trafficker's compound deep in the jungle
. The largest use of quadcopters has been in the
field of aerial imagery although. . Using
on-board cameras, users have the option of being
streamed live to the ground.
Working Principle
Yaw (turning left and right) is controlled by
turning up the speed of the regular rotating
motors and taking away power from the counter
rotating by taking away the same amount that you
put in on the regular rotors produces no extra
lift (it wont go higher) but since the counter
torque is now less, the quadrotor rotates as
explained earlier. Roll (tilting left and right)
is controlled by increasing speed on one motor
and lowering on the opposite one. Pitch (moving
up and down, similar to nodding) is controlled
the same way as roll, but using the second set of
motors. This may be kinda confusing, but roll and
pitch are determined from where the front of
the thing is, and in a quadrotor they are
basically interchangeable but do take note that
you have to decide which way is front and be
consistent or your control may go out of control.
Recent Developments
  • Some current programs include
  • The Bell Boeing Quad TiltRotor concept takes the
    fixed quadcopter concept further by combining it
    with the tilt rotor concept for a proposed C-130
    sized military transport.
  • Flying prototype of the Parrot AR.Drone
  • Parrot AR.Drone 2.0 take-off, Nevada, 2012
  • Aermatica Spa's Anteos is the first rotary wing
    RPA (remotely piloted aircraft) to have obtained
    official permission to fly in the civil airspace,
    by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC),
    and will be the first able to work in non
    segregated airspace.12
  • AeroQuad and ArduCopter are open-source hardware
    and software projects based on Arduino for the
    DIY construction of quadcopters.1314
  • Parrot AR.Drone is a small radio
    controlled quadcopter with cameras attached to it
    built by Parrot SA, designed to be controllable
    with by smartphones or tablet devices.15 In
    June 2013, at the Paris Air Show, Parrot
    announced they have sold over 500,000 AR.Drone

Parrot AR.Drone
Bell Boeing Quad TiltRotor
Parrot AR.Drone 2.0
  • In the last few decades, small scale Unmanned
    Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become more commonly
    used for many applications.
  • The need for aircraft with greater
    maneuverability and hovering ability has led to
    current rise in quadcopter research.
  • The four-rotor design allows quadcopters to be
    relatively simple in design yet highly reliable
    and maneuverable.
  • Cutting-edge research is continuing to increase
    the viability of quadcopters by making advances
    in multi-craft communication, environment
    exploration, and maneuverability.
  • If all of these developing qualities can be
    combined together, quadcopters would be capable
    of advanced autonomous missions that are
    currently not possible with any other vehicle .


Armed Quadrotors
  • A camouflage quadrotor armed with a machine gun
    zips around a test range, destroying targets and
    setting dummies ablaze. A quadrotor is much more
    accurate in firing because it can hover in place,
    and it can be launched by an operator staying
    down behind cover.
  • Fixed-wing drones are hand-launched and the
    operator needs to be standing or running (the
    Raven needs a clear hundred-foot space.)
  •  Unlike Predator drones, armed quadrotors will
    not require enormous engineering capacity to
  • Snyder experimented with both fixed-wing and
    helicopter-type drones, using off-the-shelf
  • In the end he used two quadrotors the 8000
    Pelican made by German outfit Ascending
    Technologies and the Taiwanese GAUI 330X, which
    costs just 400.

Do-Gooder Drone
  • HLQ is not the world's first unmanned cargo
    carrier. There's the K-Max, a full-scale unmanned
    helicopter, and Matternet's infrastructure
    paradigm, which aspires to launch do-gooder
    drones in rural areas. But the latter focus on
    small payloads like medicines or lab samples, and
    max out at 4 pounds. And the K-Max costs millions
    of dollars. HLQ can lift heavy cargo and would
    cost a fraction of that.
  • Onboard the 50-pound HLQ, an open source
    Arduino board called Ardupilot that is
    pre-programmed for unmanned aerial vehicle
    control runs the show. The students will
    fabricate the arms of HLQ, which double as drive
    train, from aluminum to dissipate heat from the
    motors and have designed them to be swappable if
    they get damaged or need upgrades to carbon

Aeryon Scout Quadrotor Spies On Bad Guys From
  • The Scout has a range of 3 kilo meters and
    maximum speed of 50 kilo meters per hour. It can
    fly through wind gusts of up to 80 km/h, and even
    the brutal Canadian winter won't affect its
  • It weighs just over a kilogram, and you can
    carry it disassembled in a case and put it
    together quickly by snapping its rotors into the
    main body.
  • You can choose between an optical zoom digital
    camera or a thermal camera, for night time
    surveillance, and the machine's camera mount is
    gyro-stabilized, so even if the UAV is moving, it
    can keep it locked on a target.

  • Let A, B, C and D be the position of rotors.
  • Let moment of inertia of rotors about their
    centers be Ir and moment of inertia of the
    quadcopter about O be Iq .
  • By conservation of angular momentum before and
    after the difference in angular velocity ,
  • Since initial angular momentum is zero , the
    final momentum must be zero hence , the clockwise
    and anticlockwise angular momentum must be equal
  • Irw1 2mrw2r Iqw Irw2 2mrw2r
  • Where mr is the mass of a rotor
  • Irw1 Iqw Irw2
  • w (Ir/Iq) (w2 -w1)
  • Sensitivity of yaw a (Ir/Iq).(i)

ORIGINAL WORK Manueverebility Optimization
1. Yawing sensitivity
ORIGINAL WORK Sensitivity Optimization 1.
Rolling / Pitching sensitivity
  • For analyzing pitch sensitivity ,
  • We calculate angular acceleration of pitch/roll
    about O.
  • By Bernoulli's principle ,
  • Lift a w2 (other factors being density of air
  • and ,
  • Torque a Lift r .
  • Angular acceleration a (r/ Iq) (w12-w22)
  • Senstivity of roll /pitcha (r/ Iq) .. (ii)

Proposing design from work carried out
  • Hence , to maximize sensitivity of the UAV , the
  • (Ir/Iq) (max. value 0.25) and (r/ Iq) (max.
  • unbound) must be maximized.
  • Hence , design features to be incorporated is -gt
  • Large rotor fan with appropriately long arm
    length .
  • Low density fan material for lighter frame
  • Effective transmission of angular velocity
    change .
  • Right angle b/w arms.
  • The particular ratio depends on the area of
    application .

Constraints (Gaps in work )
  • There is a limit to maximum yaw sensitivity .
  • Increasing arm length increases roll/pitch
    sensitivity but decreases yaw sensitivity , hence
    cant be increased indefinitely.
  • Increasing rotor fan length increases yaw
    sensitivity but decreases roll/pitch sensitivity
  • There is a limit to rotor fan length and hence
    roll/pitch sensitivity .
  • Longer blade increases weight , hence more power
    is required.
  • Longer Blade wears out faster.

Research Objectives
  • To engineer a fully autonomous aerial platform
    consisting of multiple helicopter UAVs capable of
    searching for a given target in the first
    instance, a person in open countryside. The
    platform to be developed includes both computing
    hardware and software components the airframes
    themselves will be COTS products.
  • To research control theoretic principles that
    are applicable to wireless networks and to
    implement such within the context of controlling
    multiple helicopters that have several purposes
  • Platform establishment flying autonomously,
    avoiding collision, maintaining station, and
    landing safely.
  • Transmitting information to one or more ground
    receiving stations, moving, where necessary, to
    maintain an established route.

  • To research and implement distributed search
    strategies that allow a group of UAVs to
    autonomously identify a given target,
    coordinating their movement to
  • Maximize coverage of the search area in the
    minimum time, given maps as input
  • Maintain a desired level of radio connectivity
    in order to (i) exchange control information
    among UAVs to cooperatively search the area, and
    (ii) exchange sensor information among UAVs to
    detect a target cooperatively and (iii) report
    their findings to base stations, given that not
    all (and maybe no) UAVs will be within a one-hop
    radius of a commander.
  • Subject to the constraint of ensuring efficient
    resource usage, given that compute power,
    battery, and power for flight are inherently
  • To explore the principles and practice of data
    fusion as apply in these circumstances
  • Decentralised data fusion algorithms to generate
    consistent estimates of environment and robot
  • Track ownership issues to decide who has primary
    responsibility for tasking agents within the
  • Build 3D environmental models of occulters where
    radio communications are poor

  • UAVs have rapidly gained the attention of
    military commanders for good reasons. They are
    relatively inexpensive and can effectively
    accomplish vital missions without risking human
    life. We already have sufficient experience with
    UAVs to know that they will revolutionize
  • In the future, UAVs may be able to perform a
    variety of unique tasks apart from what they are
    capable of today. Engineers are currently working
    to produce remotely piloted UAVs that are capable
    of air to air combat, aerial refueling, combat
    search and rescue with facial recognition, and
    resupply to agents on the ground .
  • Quadra-copes, because of their maneuverability
    could be useful in all kinds of situations and
    environments. Quad copters capable of autonomous
    flight could help remove the need for people to
    put themselves in any number of dangerous
    positions. This is a prime reason that research
    interest has been increasing over the years.
    Quadcopters are a useful tool for university
    researchers to test and evaluate new ideas in a
    number of different fields, including flight
    control theory, navigation, real time systems,
    and robotics. 
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