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Mesoamerica

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Title: Western Europe- High Middles Ages Author: User user Last modified by: Californio Created Date: 11/30/2003 10:17:54 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mesoamerica


1
Mesoamerica
  • The term Mesoamerica literally, middle
    America in Greek
  • The term was coined by Paul Kirchhoff, UCLA.
  • Olmecs first complex culture

2
Similarities in Mesoamerica
  • Pictographic and hieroglyphic writing systems.
  • The practice of various forms of sacrifice and a
    complex of shared ideological concepts.
  • Ball courts
  • The cultures were sedentary.
  • Agriculture relied on the cultivation of maize.
  • A 260 day ritual calendar
  • A number system base on the number 20

3
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4
Cultural Diversity, 2500 B.C.E.-C.E.1500
  • Mesoamerica
  • In Mesoamerica maize-cultivating societies
    emerge.
  • Olmecs first writing system
  • Trade networks and city-states follow earliest
    is Teotihuacan 100-600 C.E.
  • Teotihuacan declines, Mayan city-states spread
    through southern Mexico and Central America
    calendar, number and writing systems.
  • 1400s, Aztecs

5
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6
Cultural Diversity, 2500 B.C.E.-C.E.1500
  • The Southwest
  • Hohokam and Anasazi cultures emerge.
  • Hohokams build extensive canal systems for
    irrigation villages with several hundred people.
  • Anasazis dominate for 600 years Chaco Canyon.
  • Droughts 12th-13th cultures decline.

7
Cultural Diversity, 2500 B.C.E.-C.E.1500
  • The Eastern Woodlands
  • 1200 B.C.E. Poverty Point emerges on the
    Mississippi River, LA (population of 5,000).
  • Mississppians
  • Mississippians become first agriculturalists by
    700 C.E.
  • Incorporates ideas from Mesoamerica
  • Center Cahokia
  • 13th century food shortage leads to decline.
  • Permanent agriculture spreads the eastern tribes.

8
Cultural Diversity, 2500 B.C.E.-C.E.1500
  • Nonfarming Societies
  • From Alaska to northern California, Native
    Americans fish for salmon, dry, and store catch
    year-round established permanent villages.
  • California Native Americans reside in permanent
    villages sustain themselves by collecting and
    grinding acorns.
  • Only the Mohave and Yuma Indians practiced
    agriculture in California

9
  • 1492
  • population of Western Hemisphere 75 million
  • North America 7 to 10 million
  • Hundreds of tribes and languages, CA the most
    diverse

10
Native American Peoples
  • Kinship and Gender
  • Extended family far more important than nuclear
    family
  • Women farm (except in Southwest)
  • Spiritual and Social Values
  • All nature, including humanity, is interrelated
    suffused with spiritual powers.
  • Native Americans rely on reciprocity giving
    gifts, trading goods in exchange for prestige,
    deference, authority
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