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EARLY SOCIETIES OF MESOAMERICA

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Title: EARLY SOCIETIES OF MESOAMERICA


1
EARLY SOCIETIES OF MESOAMERICA
2
Possible Migration Routesindians are not only
asians
  • Genetic Evidence
  • DNA evidence indicates several different sources
    to Amerindian DNA
  • Route 1 The Bering Land Bridge
  • Asian migration across a land bridge from Asia
  • Lower sea levels made this possible, probably
    route through glaciers
  • Migration due to hunter-gatherers following game
  • Route 2 Sea-based migration down coasts of
    Western Americas
  • Strong evidence of Paleolithic sea-based
    migration in Asia
  • Would explain how humans bypassed ice, barriers
  • Currents would drive ancient sea-farers down
    coast
  • Route 3 The Ancestors of the Polynesians
  • Early humans settled Southeast Asia and Australia
    by boats and sea routes
  • They island hopped across Pacific to South
    America
  • Would account for older archaeological remains in
    South America
  • Route 4 Sea-based Migration across North
    Atlantic
  • Early humans from Europe followed islands, ice
    pack of ice shelf
  • DNA in Great Lakes area indicates someone from
    Europe migrated to this region
  • Route 5 Across the narrow passage from Africa to
    South America
  • Would presuppose a sea-based migration

3
Paleolithic Migrations To the Americas
4
What Blood Types Tell Us
  • B Allele
  • Highest occurrence is in Central Asia
  • Lowest in the Americas/Australia
  • Relatively high frequency pockets in Africa
  • B is the rarest ABO blood allele in Americas
  • A Allele
  • Highest found in small, unrelated populations in
    Americas
  • Absent among Central/South American Indians.
  • O Blood Type
  • Very common around the world
  • High in Indians of Central/South America (around
    100)
  • Also relatively high among Australian Aborigines
  • High in Europe (in populations with Celtic
    ancestors)
  • Lowest frequency found in Eastern Europe, Central
    Asia
  • Conclusion
  • Diego Negative
  • All Africans, Europeans, East Indians, Australian
    Aborigines, and Polynesians are Diego negative.
  • Diego Positive
  • The only populations with Diego positive people
    may be Native Americans (2-46) and East Asians
    (3-12).

5
Waves of Migration
  • Blood Groups
  • Use Haplogroups
  • Shows four waves
  • Patterns
  • First Wave
  • c. 20-13,000 years ago
  • Patagonians, Fuegians
  • Pericu of Baja California
  • Second Wave
  • c. 12,000 years ago
  • Amerindians
  • Third Wave
  • c. 10,000 years ago
  • Na-Dene Amerinds
  • Fourth Wave
  • c. 6,000 years ago
  • Aleut, Eskimo

6
The First Americans
  • Patagonians and Fuegians
  • Lacked A, B, N Mitochondrial DNA common to
    Amerindians
  • Clearly the first to arrive as they lacked DNA
    common to northerners
  • Arrived between 13-20 thousand years ago
  • Extensive DNA Study
  • 1-2 different migration waves in peopling of
    southern South America.
  • Three hunter-gatherer groups from Tierra del
    Fuego cluster together
  • Mesa Verde, Chile
  • Remains dated from 30,000 BCE to c. 12,000 BCE
  • Indicates earlier arrival date that previously
    thought
  • Suggests migration by canoe from SE Asia,
    Australia
  • Land-living Ona (Selknam)
  • Called Foot Indians split off from ancestral
    Patagonian group
  • Gave rise to the Tehuelche Confined to Tierra
    del Fuego
  • Walked around naked when Europeans discovered
    them
  • Boat Oriented
  • Yamana and Kawesgar
  • Distant relatives who split off 6,000 years ago
  • Use boat technology identical to oldest known to
    man

7
The Na-Dene Amerindians
  • Arrived 10,000 Years Ago
  • Likely route was by sea-route and boats, the by
    foot
  • Closest relatives are the Aleut and Inuit-Eskimo
  • Groups tend to be clanish and clickish
  • First settlements
  • Settled in Taiga area of Alaska, Northwest
    America
  • Athabaskan-Eyak Indians (Interior Regions)
  • Haida and Tlingit Coastal Indians of Alaskas
    Panhandle
  • Hunter-gatherer-fisher
  • Natural Highways of Migration
  • Yukon River
  • Great Slave Lake, Great Bear Lake River Systems
  • Later Migration
  • Languages are clear indication of migration
  • Aspects of languages are unique to Amerindians
  • Clusters exist in Canada and United States
    distant from main areas
  • Coastal Na-Dene of Pacific Northwest
  • New Mexico and Texas
  • Navaho (Pueblo Indians) of New Mexico, Arizona

8
Largest Group Amerind
  • Came From Asia
  • Mitochondrial DNA indicates
  • Likely Asian origin
  • Two likely routes
  • Down the West Coast of the Americas
  • Across central regions of North America
  • Creation myths
  • Tell of a variety of originations of their
    respective peoples.
  • Sometimes people were "always there
  • Other times humans were created by gods or
    animals
  • Some migrated from a specified compass point
  • Others came from "across the ocean
  • Geographic Distribution of Languages
  • Indicates waves of migration
  • Indicates clusters of similar, related settlers
    in a given area

9
Amerindian Language Families
10
The Last to Arrive
  • Aleuts of Alaska
  • Inuit (Eskimo) of Arctic
  • Very close relatives exist in Arctic Asia
  • DNA/Blood Types identical to North Asians
  • Languages have close Asian relatives
  • Arrived 6000 years ago
  • Ice-Age had ended long ago
  • Migratory Hunter-Gatherers
  • Seasonal hunters of sea lion, whales, walrus
  • Followed game across northern coasts
  • Settled Arctic area all the way to Greenland
  • Still today semi-nomadic
  • Tended to inhabit coastal islands, tundra
  • Stopped penetration at forests of north

11
What about Europeans?
  • The Solutrean Hypothesis
  • Suggests an early Cro-Magnon migration into the
    America
  • DNA Evidence exists
  • Technological Remains
  • Lack of certain archeological remains
  • Stone tool technology of Solutreans in
    prehistoric Europe
  • May have later influenced the development of the
    Clovis tool-making culture
  • Clovis spear points found all throughout North
    America
  • Strong similarities between Solutrean and Clovis
    toolmaking styles
  • No predecessors of Clovis Technology in Eastern
    Asia, Siberia, or Berinigia
  • Probable Migration
  • Came From Ice Age Europe probably by boat like
    Eskino (Inuit) hunt
  • By way of British Isles, Iceland, Greenland
    island hopping
  • Which Amerindians?
  • Paleo-Indians who produced the Clovis Point in
    North America
  • Some Indians from Great Lakes have European
    mitochondrial DNA

12
THE FACE OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN
Inuit
Aleut
Incan
Fuegian
13
EARLY PRE-HISTORY
  • Migration to Mesoamerica
  • Humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska, 40,000
    years ago
  • Probably came in search of big game
  • By 7000 B.C.E., reached southern-most part of
    South America
  • As hunting became difficult, agriculture began,
    7500 B.C.E.
  • Modern theorists question Bering Strait migration
  • Early agriculture in Mesoamerica
  • Valley of Mexico was first center of agriculture
  • Beans, chili peppers, avocados, squashes, gourds
    cultivated
  • By 5000 B.C.E., discovered potential of maize,
    the staple food
  • Later, developed tomatoes
  • Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E.
  • No large animals, no wheeled vehicles
  • Ceremonial centers, by the end of the 2nd
    millennium B.C.E.

14
Migration in Meso-America
  • Migration
  • A common them in legends, writings of
    Pre-Columbian Age
  • Linguistic distributions clearly show migration
  • In Mesoamerica
  • Commoners required to migrate seasonally to labor
    on lands of
  • Nobility, state, religious centers
  • People exited from existing communities to
    establish new ones
  • Quite common amongst tribes of both continents
  • Major way new tribes were formed
  • Dynastic Migration
  • Ruling elites are said to have come from
    somewhere else
  • They migrate, take over and assimilate into the
    society
  • Migrations from town to town were common
  • Often accompanied a change in status or wealth
  • Rapid growth of cities
  • Shows that numbers migrated from rural to urban
  • Common in the Mayans
  • Northern Mesoamerica semi-nomadic groups moved
    almost daily
  • People captured in war were forced to migrate as
    captives

15
The Linguistic Matrix
16
THE OLMECS
  • Olmecs The "rubber people"
  • Earliest center, on the coast of Mexico Gulf,
    1200 B.C.E.
  • The other two later centers La Venta and Tres
    Zapotes
  • Olmec society
  • Authoritarian in nature
  • Colossal heads possibly rulers
  • Power shown in pyramid construction
  • Trade in jade and obsidian
  • Decline and fall of Olmec society
  • The cause remains a mystery
  • Olmecs destroyed ceremonial centers
  • Most likely, civil conflict ruined their society
  • By 400 B.C.E., other societies eclipsed the
    Olmecs
  • Influence of Olmec traditions
  • Maize, ceremonial centers were common to later
    societies
  • Other legacies Calendar, rituals of human
    sacrifice, ballgame
  • Olmecs did not leave written records

17
OLMEC ART
18
TEOTIHUACAN
  • The city of Teotihuacan
  • Built in the highlands of Mexico
  • Colossal pyramids of sun and moon dominated the
    skyline
  • Between 400 and 600 C.E., the city had 200,000
    inhabitants
  • Paintings and murals reflect the importance of
    priests
  • Teotihuacan society
  • Rulers and priests dominated society
  • Two-thirds of inhabitants worked in fields
  • Famous for obsidian tools, orange pottery
  • Professional merchants traded widely
  • No sign of military organization
  • Cultural traditions
  • Inherited Olmecs' culture
  • Honored earth god, rain god
  • Decline of Teotihuacan
  • Military pressure from other peoples since 500
    C.E.
  • Began to decline 650 C.E. Invaders sacked city,
    mid-8th century

19
TEOTIHUACAN THE CITY
20
Teotihuacan and Tula among the Maya
  • Mayan Origins
  • Original home southern Mexico, Yucatan, Central
    America
  • Tikal 600-900 CE expanded from Belize into
    Yucatan, Mexico
  • Evidence that a group, its ideas (Teotihuacan?)
    migrated into area to establish states
  • Toltec Origins
  • Several lineages such as Cocom, Xiu, Itza were
    called dzulob or foreigners
  • Chronicles of Chilam Balam kept by villages
    indicate this origin
  • Founders had special knowledge that gave them
    right to establish a state
  • Many leaders recorded in Mayan records for 700
    years but had Nahua names
  • Popul Vu and Chronicles of Cakchiquels
  • Show migration as common in region and in
    founding of cities in area
  • Indicate Nahua or Tolan connections
  • Teotihuacan Influences
  • Use of aspects of Teotihuacan writing and
    phraseology suddenly appear in Mayan
  • In 378 CE in Mayan Long Count, Tikal conquered
    Uaxacatun
  • A stella erected to commemorate the event its
    iconography is from Teotihuacan
  • After that the iconography occurs in other Mayan
    stella
  • Chichen Itza
  • Early founders are clearly Toltec

21
EARLY GEOGRAPHY
22
The Mayans
23
THE MAYA
  • The Maya
  • Earliest heir of the Olmecs, lived in highlands
    of Guatemala
  • Kaminaljuyú, a ceremonial center, but not a
    full-fledged city
  • Teotihuacan became dominant during the 4th
    century C.E.
  • After the 4th century, society flourished in
    lowlands
  • Besides maize, also cultivated cotton and cacao
  • Tikal
  • Most important Maya political center, 300 to 900
    C.E.
  • A bustling city of 40,000 people
  • Enormous plazas, scores of temples, pyramids,
    palaces
  • Maya warfare
  • Victorious warriors won enormous prestige
  • War captives became slaves or sacrificial victims
    to gods
  • Chichén Itzá
  • Rose as a power by the 9th century
  • Organized a loose empire in the northern Yucatan
  • Maya decline
  • Began in 800 C.E., the Mayas (except in Chichén
    Itzá) deserted their cities
  • Causes of decline remain unclear

24
MAYAN SOCIETY
  • Maya society
  • Kings, priests, and hereditary nobility at the
    top
  • Merchants were from the ruling class, served also
    as ambassadors
  • Professional architects and artisans were
    important
  • Peasants and slaves were majority of population
  • The Maya calendar
  • Maya priests understood planetary cycles and
    could predict eclipses
  • Besides the solar year, also had a ritual year of
    260 days and 20 months
  • Combined attributes of two calendars determined
    the fortune of activities
  • Maya writing
  • Contained both ideographic elements and symbols
    for syllables
  • Maya scribes used writing extensively
  • Only four books survived the destruction by
    Spanish conquerors
  • The Maya ballgame
  • Played by two individuals or two teams
  • Very popular, every ceremonial center had
    stone-paved courts

25
MAYAN RELIGION
  • Religious thought
  • Popol Vuh, a Maya creation myth
  • Gods created humans out of maize and water
  • Gods maintained agricultural cycles
  • Gods placated
  • Exchanged for honors and sacrifices
  • Priests interpreted calendars
  • Bloodletting rituals
  • Most important rituals, to honor the gods for
    rains
  • Sacrificing captives let to many wars for victims
  • Also voluntary bloodshedding

26
MAYAN TRADEMayan Weaving
27
EARLY Migrations in Central Mexico
  • c. 800 Chichimeca and Nonoalca
  • Migrated into valley may have sacked Teotihuacan
  • Created Tulan Empire, a militaristic state
  • After fall of Tula, Tolteca people became
    migratory
  • 987 CE conquer or found Maya city of Chichen Itza
  • Chichimecs were nomadic wanders in Central Mexico
  • Tolteca and Chichimeca became progenitors of
    later royal dynasties
  • Quetzalcoatl was a prince of Tula, perhaps a god
    worshipped by Toltecs
  • Either the hero was deified or the gods worship
    spread
  • It spread throughout Mesoamerica including the
    Maya as Kukulcan
  • Michoacan
  • Tarascan monarchy looked back to Chichimeca
  • They had settled among the lake dwellers
  • The Michoaque or Tarascans are linked with the
    Nahua and Otomi
  • Toltec ancestry different from Chichimec

28
TOLTECS AND TULA
  • Toltecs
  • Collapse of Teotihuacan in central Mexico, 9th to
    10th century
  • Toltecs migrated to central Mexico about the 8th
    century
  • Established large state, powerful army from
    mid-10th to 12th century
  • Tula
  • Capital city of Toltecs
  • Center of weaving, pottery, obsidian work
  • Close relations with societies of coast, Yucatan
  • Toltec decline
  • Civil strife at Tula, beginning in 1125
  • Nomadic incursion of 1175
  • End of 12th c., no longer powerful
  • Quetzalcoatl
  • Originally a human prince of Tula, dedicated to
    his people
  • Tricked, driven from power
  • Gradually became a hero, god in struggle with
    evil deities

29
The Mythical Migration of Roots
  • Aztecs or Mexica
  • Migration of the Aztecs from the north towards
    Mexico valley
  • Began c. 1000 CE reached Central Valley c. 1250
    CE
  • Glorifying their Chichimec ancestry
  • The Aztec rulers chose a member of the Colhua
    royal family, Acamapichtli
  • He became their first emperor (tlatoani) after
    the foundation of Tenochtitlan
  • The Aztecs
  • Circular Migration
  • Sometimes it starts in Basin of Mexico at
    Colhuacan
  • Means the Place of the Owners of Grandfathers
  • Often disguised as Teo- (true) Colhuacan
  • Aztlan
  • Situated on an island in a lake like Lake Texcoco
  • Duran, Spanish Chronicler records Mexica account
  • Moteuczoma sent envoys to locate Chicomoztoc,
    Colhuacan
  • His accounts indicate a primitive, idyllic
    version of Tenochtitlan
  • Account indicates Aztecs could not go back after
    fall from grace

30
EARLY AZTECS
  • The Mexica
  • Known as Aztecs, arrived in central Mexico about
    mid-13th century
  • Tough people, wandering, fighting for century in
    central Mexico
  • Settled at Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City)
    about 1345
  • Plentiful food supplies and chinampas by Lake
    Texcoco
  • The Aztec empire
  • Military campaigns against neighboring societies,
    mid-15th century
  • Conquered and colonized Oaxaco in southwestern
    Mexico
  • Made alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan
  • Empire ruled 12 million people and most of
    Mesoamerica
  • Tribute and trade
  • Tribute obligations were very oppressive
  • Empire had no bureaucracy or administration
  • Allies did not have standing army
  • Tribute from 489 subject territories
  • Tribute flowed into Tenochtitlan

31
AZTEC WORLD
32
MEXICA SOCIETY
  • Warriors
  • Military elite at top of rigid social hierarchy
  • Mostly from the Mexica aristocracy
  • Enjoyed great wealth, honor, and privileges
  • Mexica women
  • No public role, but enjoyed high honor as mothers
    of warriors
  • Honor of bearing children was equal to that of
    capturing enemies in battle
  • Priests
  • Ranked among the Mexica elite specialized in
    calendrical and ritual lore
  • Advisers to Mexica rulers, occasionally, became
    supreme rulers themselves
  • Cultivators and slaves
  • Cultivators worked on chinampas (small plots of
    reclaimed land)
  • Often worked on aristocrats land
  • Paid tribute and provided labor service for
    public works
  • Large number of slaves, worked as domestic
    servants
  • Craftsmen and merchants
  • Skilled craftsmen enjoyed some prestige
  • Tenuous position of merchants
  • Supplied exotic goods and military intelligence

33
MEXICA RELIGION
  • Mexica gods
  • Tezcatlipoca giver/taker of life, patron deity
    of warriors
  • Quetzalcóatl supporter of arts, crafts, and
    agriculture
  • Ritual bloodletting common to all Mesoamericans
  • Huitzilopochtli the war god
  • Human sacrifice encouraged by devotion to
    Huitzilopochtli
  • Large temple at the center of Tenochtitlan
  • Hundreds of thousands sacrificed to this war god
  • Rivalry between Huitzilpochtli, Quetzalcoatl
  • Quetzalcoatl protector of humans
  • Tricked by some gods, fall from grace
  • Driven into exile with promise to return

34
Caribbean Migrations
  • The Saladoids
  • Migrated c. 6000 BCE to islands
  • Known by the style of the pottery they made
  • Ancestors of the Taino
  • Arawak and Carib Indians
  • Arawak
  • Migrated from north coast of South America c.
    1000 CE
  • Settled the islands of the Caribbean
  • Largely peaceful, traded with other islands,
    mainland
  • Carib
  • Originated in the Orinoco Area
  • Language indicate they migrated from interior of
    Brazil
  • Master boat builders, sailors
  • Traded goods for gold, silver of mainland
  • Very warlike and aggressive

35
EARLY ANDEAN SOCIETY
  • Geography
  • Impacted north-south movement and communication
  • Created micro-cultures small cultures isolated
    within region
  • Early migration
  • By 12,000 B.C.E. hunter-gathers reached South
    America
  • By 8000 B.C.E. began to experiment with
    agriculture
  • Complex societies appeared in central Andean
    region 1000 B.C.E.
  • Andean societies located in modern day Peru and
    Bolivia
  • Early agriculture in South America
  • Main crops beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes,
    cotton
  • Fishing supplemented agricultural harvests
  • By 1800 B.C.E., produced pottery,
  • Temples and pyramids appeared

36
CHAVIN AND MOCHE
  • The Chavín Cult
  • Very popular around 900 to 800 B.C.E.
  • Vanished completely by about 300 B.C.E.
  • Cult was probably related to introduction of
    maize
  • Cult left large temple complexes and elaborate
    art works
  • Complexity of Andean society
  • Techniques of producing cotton textiles and
    fishing nets
  • Discovered gold, silver, and copper metallurgy
  • Cities began to appear shortly after Chavíncult
  • Early Andeans did not make use of writing
  • Mochica (300-700 C.E.)
  • One of several early Andean states, located in
    northern Peru
  • Mochica ceramics lives of different social
    classes
  • Mochica did not integrate the whole Andean region

37
ANDEAN GEOGRAPHY
38
COMING OF THE INCA
  • After Chavin and Moche
  • Several regional states dominated Andean South
    America
  • All built upon previous accomplishments,
    civilizations
  • Chucuito
  • Chucuito dominated highlands around Lake Titicaca
  • Cultivation of potatoes, herding llamas and
    alpacas
  • Traded with lower valleys, chewed coca leaves
  • Chimu
  • Powerful kingdom in lowlands of Peru
  • Arose prior to mid-15th century
  • Extensive Irrigation networks
  • Cultivation of maize and sweet potatoes
  • Capital city at Chanchan, massive brick buildings

39
THE INCA
  • The Inca empire
  • Settled first around Lake Titicaca among other
    peoples
  • Ruler Pachacuti launched campaigns against
    neighbors, 1438
  • Built a huge empire stretching 4000 kilometers
    from north to south
  • Ruled the empire with military and administrative
    elite
  • Inca bureaucrats relied on quipu
  • Mnemonic aid made of an array of small cords to
    keep track of information
  • Cuzco and Machu Picchu
  • Capital of the Inca had 300,000 people in the
    late 15th century
  • Machu Picchu hidden in mountain, jungles last
    retreat of Inca
  • Inca roads
  • Two major roads linked the south and north
  • Runners carried messages across empire
  • Paved with stone, shaded by trees
  • Supported centralized government, facilitated
    spread of Quechua

40
INCA MAP
41
INCA SOCIETY
  • Trade
  • No large merchant class
  • Incas bartered agricultural surplus locally
  • Not much specialization
  • The chief ruler
  • Chief ruler was viewed as descended from the sun
  • In theory, the god-king owned everything on earth
  • After death, mummified rulers became
    intermediaries with gods
  • Aristocrats and priests
  • Aristocrats enjoyed fine food, embroidered
    clothes, and wore ear spools
  • Priests led celibate and ascetic lives, very
    influential figures
  • Peasants
  • Delivered portion of their products to
    bureaucrats
  • Besides supporting ruling classes, revenue also
    used for famine relief
  • Provided heavy labor (mita) for public works
  • Society ruled as a socialist type centralized
    state

42
INCA RELIGION
  • Inca gods Inti and Viracocha
  • Venerated sun god called Inti
  • Considered other natural forces divine
  • Also honored the creator god, Viracocha
  • Sacrifices of animals, agricultural products, not
    humans
  • Moral thought
  • Concept of sin
  • Violation of established order
  • Concept of after-death
  • Punishment and reward
  • Rituals of absolving sins
  • Through confession, penance

43
The Inca
  • Emergence, c. 1200 CE
  • Emerged in the area of Cuzco
  • Originated as city-state, small population
  • Wide-ranging Expansion, 1438 CE
  • Significance of Conquest, Expansion
  • Each Inca had to conquer land, goods
  • Booty became treasury for mortuary temple
  • No conquest, no treasure, lousy temple to gods
  • Movements
  • Transportation
  • Empire was linked by roads and royal runners
  • Roads used to transport goods to and from
    capital, store houses
  • Social Movement
  • Local nobles educated in capital and returned to
    lands to rule
  • Local nobles sent tribute to Incas capital
  • Labor Movement
  • Mita each village owed specific number of
    laborers, days to Inca
  • Workers moved to work on projects for the Inca
  • Mita also provided soldiers to the Incas armies
    to expand the state

44
Ayllu Mitmaq as Colonies
  • Ayllu
  • All Inca divided into social groups
  • Kinship groups spread across geography
  • Each Ayllu
  • Claimed land at different elevations
  • This insured a variety of produce
  • Grazing land within ayllu held in common
  • Farming land given to families based on size
  • Conquered peoples had their own ayllus similarly
    structured
  • Mitmaq
  • Inca colonies
  • Each ayllu contributed people
  • Relocated to new territories
  • Each new mitmaq required to bring lands under
    cultivation
  • Each mitmaq served as a garrison to control new
    lands
  • Each mitmaq spoke Quechua, Amyara, the Incan
    languages

45
Quechua Shows Colonization
46
INDIGENOUSAMERICANCULTURALREGIONS
47
SOCIETIES OF THE NORTH
  • Pueblo and Navajo societies
  • Two large settled societies in the contemporary
    American southwest
  • By about 700 C.E., began to build stone and adobe
    buildings
  • Iroquois peoples
  • Agricultural society in the woodlands east of the
    Mississippi River
  • Five Iroquois nations emerged from Swasco
    society, 1400 C.E.
  • Women were in charge of Iroquois villages and
    longhouses
  • Mound-building peoples
  • Built earthen mounds throughout eastern North
    America
  • Mounds used for ceremonies, rituals, dwelling,
    burial sites
  • Showed influence of contacts with Mesoamericans,
    Mayans
  • Cahokia
  • The largest mound at Cahokia, Illinois
  • 15-38,000 people lived in Cahokia society, c.
    12th century
  • Burial sites reveal existence of social classes
    and trade

48
American Southwest
  • The Anasazi
  • Nomadic Hunter Gathers became Sedentary farmers
  • Semi-permanent farming villages later arose with
    extensive trade
  • Settlements linked by extensive pedestrian roads
    like Inca roads
  • Original trade goods were surplus foods
  • Area lacks trees, metals, etc. for which Anasazi
    traded food, finished goods
  • Trade goods from the Great Basin, North Mexico,
    Pacific, Mississippi area
  • Many trade goods (copper, feathers) from Central
    Mexico
  • Mined turquoise for trade to Mesoamerica
  • 300 Year Great Drought c. 1200 forced abandonment
    of towns
  • Semi-sedentary, farming an area for 30 years and
    migrating to new site
  • Environmental stress could have weakened
    civilization
  • Area had thin soil, little water so overfarming
    relatively easy
  • Internal conflict, invasion by new nomads likely
    cause of migration
  • Descendents
  • Likely Descendents Hopi, Navajo, Zuni
  • Pueblo Indians have similar building techniques,
    farming, pottery
  • They also had trade contacts with Mesoamerica

49
The Anasazi MovementArchaeology andSpace
Age Technology have revealed an extensive
network of roads
50
GEOGRAPHIC MAP
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