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APES year in review

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Title: APES year in review


1
APES year in review
2015-16, the year everyone gets a 5!
2
I. Earth systems and resources
  • Earth Science concepts
  • The atmosphere
  • Global water resources and use
  • Soil and soil dynamics
  • 10-15

3
A. Earth Science concepts
4
Geologic time scale
  • Earth 4.5 bya
  • Life 3.8 bya
  • Eukaryotes 2.1 bya
  • Cambrian explosion 542 mya
  • Modern humans 200,000 ya

5
Plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism
6
Global air circulation
7
Seasons, solar intensity, and latitude
  • Earths tilt ? different amounts of solar
    intensity at different latitudes/hemispheres ?
    seasons

8
B. The Atmosphere
9
Structure of the atmosphere
10
Troposphere
  • Where weather happens
  • 78 N2
  • 20 O2
  • Less than 2
  • H2O vapor (.01-4)
  • Argon gas (1)
  • CO2 (0.04)
  • Trace gases

11
Coriolis effect
12
ENSO
13
C. Global water resources and use
14
Earths water supply
15
Water Facts
  • The primary use for fresh water in U.S. is for
    agriculture.
  • In our homes, we use the most fresh water to
    wash, clean and flush.
  • The typical person in an industrialized nation
    uses 700-1000 gallons per week

16
Human effects on the Hydrologic Cycle
17
Rain shadow
18
The Ogallala Aquifer
  • Increasing irrigation is draining it
  • Supplies drinking water to 2.3 million peoplee

19
Human interference with water supply
  • Mono Lake
  • The water in the lake was diverted from the lake
    to the city of Los Angeles. It became a salt bed.
  • ? Salt concentration due to evaporation
  • Three Gorges Dam in China
  • China needs to meet the growing demand for energy
  • Huge environmental impact
  • Hundreds of thousands of people displaced (not to
    mention the ecosystems which will be flooded)

20
Consequences of making food
  • Air
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels
  • Other air pollutants from fossil fuels
  • Pollutions from pesticide sprays
  • Soil
  • Erosion
  • Loss of fertility
  • Salinization
  • Waterlogging
  • Desertification
  • Water
  • Aquifer depletion
  • Increased runoff and flooding from land cleared
    to grow crops
  • Fish kills from pesticide runoff
  • Surface and groundwater pollution from pesticides
    and fertilizers
  • Over fertilization of lakes -gt eutrophication

21
D. Soil and soil dynamics
22
Soil degradation
  • Formed from weathering
  • Demand for food destroys the soil
  • erosion
  • minerals in soil are depleted
  • salinization
  • increased use of pesticides
  • Overuse of fresh water

23
Soil profile
24
Texture
25
Loam
  • Theoretically ideal
  • 40 sand
  • 40 silt
  • 20 clay

26
Rock cycle
27
2
28
II. The Living World
  • Ecosystem structure
  • Energy flow
  • Ecosystem diversity
  • Natural ecosystem change
  • Natural biogeochemical cycles
  • 10-15

29
A. Ecosystem structure
30
Levels of organization of matter
  • Universe
  • Biosphere
  • Biomes
  • Ecosystems
  • Communities
  • Populations
  • Organisms
  • Cells
  • Atoms

31
Chemistry
  • Atoms basic units of matter
  • Electron
  • Proton
  • Neutron
  • Other vocab to know
  • Chemical bonds how atoms are held together
  • Ionic
  • Covalent
  • Molecule/compound two or more atoms bonded
    together
  • pH scale
  • Base alkaline
  • Acid

32
Organic Compounds
  • C-C bonds and/or C-H bonds
  • Can be natural or synthetic
  • Natural make up living systems
  • Synthetic man-made

33
Evolutionary Change
  • Vocabulary that you need to know
  • DNA
  • Chromosome
  • Gene
  • allele
  • Central Dogma
  • DNA - blueprint
  • RNA - carpenter
  • Protein - house, wood

34
Mutations
  • Mutations are naturally random events
  • Normal variation
  • Chemical
  • UV
  • Radiation
  • Genetic Trait
  • Only passed down if an organism reproduces
  • Only genetics traits can evolve through natural
    selection (traits acquired during lifetime cannot
    be acted on by natural selection)

35
Ecosystems
  • Plants and animals interacting with their abiotic
    environment
  • Exist in biomes
  • Climate avg weather over long time
  • Weather daily variations in temp and
    precipitation
  • Microclimate and Other Abiotic Factors
  • Light intensity
  • Soil type
  • Topography

36
Relationships
  • Mutualism
  • Flowers insects
  • Commensalism
  • Predator/prey
  • host parasite
  • Competition
  • Habitat vs. niche

37
Limiting Factors
  • Temperature, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide,
    precipitation
  • Synergistic effects

38
Ecosystems how they work
  • All stable ecosystems recycle matter and get
    energy from the sun
  • All matter is recycled through the lithosphere,
    hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
  • Nothing is created nothing is destroyed
  • Keystone species
  • Indicator species
  • Edge effects
  • Species diversity

39
Biomes
  • Terrestrial
  • Rainforest, tundra, etc.
  • Aquatic
  • Streams
  • Lakes
  • Wetlands

40
B. Energy flow
41
Trophic Relationship
  • Food webs
  • Trophic levels
  • Producers
  • Herbivores
  • primary carnivores

42
Biomass and Biomass Pyramid
  • All biomass gets its energy from the sun
  • Only 10 of energy from one trophic level moves
    to the next trophic level
  • Energy released is high potential energy
    molecules (like glucose) then converted to low
    potential energy molecules (like carbon dioxide)
  • Concept of eating lower on the biomass pyramid

43
Food chains
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Build up in an organisms
  • Biomagnification
  • Build up in a food chain
  • Reverse rule of 10

44
Rachel Carson
  • Rachel Carson was a scientist who wrote Silent
    Spring in 1962
  • It addressed the growing use of pesticides (DDT)
    and their unpredicted effects on song birds
  • Original users of pesticides did not know that
    the poisons used to kill insects would accumulate
    in other living things and kill them too
  • BIOACCUMULATION

45
More Cool Environmentalist
  • John Muir Sierra Club
  • Ansel Adams Photography (Yosemite)
  • Aldo Leopold Sand County Almanac
  • Henry David Thoreau Walden
  • Garrett Hardin Tragedy of the Commons

46
Photosynthesis
  • Very inefficient (Only 1 of the energy from the
    sun is used)
  • Chlorophyll absorbs light to drive
    photosynthesis
  • Formula H2O CO2 ? C6H12O6 O2
  • Cell respiration formula is the opposite
  • Plants use glucose to
  • Construct other molecules
  • Build their cell wall
  • Store energy
  • Source of energy

47
C. Ecosystem diversity
48
Why do species change?
  • Environmental resistance and biotic potential
  • Selective pressure on mutations
  • Speciation
  • Creation of a new species based on reproductive
    isolation
  • A change in an ecosystem causes 1 of 3 things
    happen to organisms
  • Evolve, migrate, or die

49
Speciation (Galapagos Finches)
50
Geological Context (space and time for
evolution)
  • Natural selection
  • Plate tectonics
  • Geological time scale
  • Selective breeding
  • Artificial selection

51
Ecosystem services
  • Benefits of biodiversity
  • Clean air
  • Clean water
  • Aesthetic value
  • Potential

52
Loss of Biodiversity
  • Habitat destruction leads to a loss of many
    species starting with the plants
  • exact of species lost is unknown because not
    all species are identified
  • strong ecosystems need biodiversity
  • 1959-1980 25 of all prescription drugs from
    natural resources
  • Wild species keep domestic species vigorous
  • Aesthetics

53
D. Natural ecosystem change
54
Population and Succession
  • Top 6 most abundant elements in living things
  • CHONPS (not in order)
  • Top 8 elements in the earths crust (in order)
  • O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, P, Mg

55
Fires in Ecosystem
  • Maintain balance of species and energy in
    ecosystems over the long run.
  • Beneficial b/c provide nutrients for soil
  • We avoid natural fires, but unnatural fire kill
    the whole tree

56
Succession - One species gradually replaced by
another in an ecosystem
  • Primary new ecosystem where there were no
    living things before. Cooled lava, receded
    glacier, mud slide
  • Secondary- ecosystem used to be there. Fire,
    humans clear an area
  • Aquatic lakes taken over by terrestrial
    ecosystem
  • Climax ecosystem- in balance only changes if
    major interference

57
Primary succession
  • Must create new soil for plants to grow
  • The first plants to come in are called pioneer
    species
  • Lichen
  • Moss
  • Microbes

58
Climate shifts
  • Ice ages

59
E. Natural biogeochemical cycles
60
Carbon cycle
  • Carbon is tied up in living things, absorbed in
    oceans and land. Released as CO2. Then Plants!
  • Photosynthesis!
  • Moving fossil fuels (which took millions of years
    to form) to the atmosphere (in hundreds of years)
    is a major component of global warming.
  • Hydrocarbon fuels to CO2

61
Nitrogen cycle
  • Main reserve in the atmosphere
  • Living things must get N from ammonium (NH4) or
    nitrate (NO3)
  • N from the atmosphere must be fixed
  • Change N2 into ammonium or nitrate
  • Rhizobium (bacteria living in roots of legumes)
    fig 3-10
  • Industrial
  • Lightning
  • Burning fossil fuels

62
Phosphorus cycle
  • No gas phase, only solid and liquid
  • Man-made fertilizers contain organic phosphates
  • Because P is a limiting factor in aquatic
    systems, it leads to eutrophication
  • The rain forest is very good at recycling P,
    except when we cut it down

63
element Main nonliving reservoir Main living reservoir Other nonliving reservoir Human-induced problem
Carbon C Atmo CO2 Carbohydrates (CH2O)n And all organic molecules Hydro Carbonate (CO3-2) Bicarbonate (HCO3-) Litho minerals Global warming Carbon from fossil fuels underground are burned and released into the air as CO2
Nitrogen N Atmo N2 Proteins and other N- containing organic molecules Hydro Ammonium NH4 Nitrate NO3- Nitrite NO2- Eutrophication Fertilizers contain human-made nitrates that end up in the water
Phos-phorous P Litho rocks as PO4-3 no gas phase DNA ATP phospholipids Hydro Phosphate PO4-3 Eutrophication Fertilizers contain human-made phosphates that end up in the water Cutting down rainforest stops recycling of P
64
Main Topics
  • Conservation of matter
  • Energy flow and the biomass pyramid
  • Population dynamics
  • Biotic potential vs environmental resistance
  • Population equilibrium and balanced herbivory
  • Introduced species effects on ecosystems

65
3
66
III. Population
  • Population biology concepts
  • Human populations
  • Human population dynamics
  • Population size
  • Impacts of population growth
  • 10-15

67
A. Population biology concepts
68
R vs K
69
Carrying capacity determined by limiting
resources
70
B. Human population
  1. Human population dynamics
  2. Population size
  3. Impacts of population growth

71
Human population growth
72
Human population distribution
73
Population growth rates
  • Crude birth rate number birth per 1000
  • Crude death rate number death per 1000
  • Growth rate natural increase in population
  • If negative, the population is shrinking
  • Immigration migration of individuals into a
    population from another area or country
  • Emigration migration of individuals from a
    population bound for another country
  • Growth rate (births immigration) (deaths
    emigration)

74
Doubling time
  • Rule of 70

 
75
Demographic transitions
76
Demographic transition
  • As countries develop their death rate drops then
    their birth rate drops because
  • Phase 2
  • Medical care
  • Nutrition
  • Technology
  • Phase 3
  • Birth control
  • Education (of women)
  • Lower infant mortality
  • Less child labor

77
Fertility rates
  • Total fertility avg of children born per
    woman
  • Fertility of 2 replacement level
  • Under 2 shrinking population
  • Over 2 growing pop.
  • For developed countries 2.1
  • For developing countries 2.6 (or higher)

78
Developed vs developing
  • Developed
  • Developing
  • Canada, U.S., Australia, Western Europe (Denmark)
  • Latin America, China, Africa (Kenya)
  • 80 of worlds pop and growing
  • 20 of the worlds pop. lives in absolute
    poverty, illiterate, lack clean H2O and dont
    have enough food

79
Population sizes to know
World 7 billion
China 1.4 billion
India 1.3 billion

US 319 million
Indonesia 250 million
80
Impacts of human population growth
  • More than 7 billion people
  • Last 25 yrs population grew by 2 billion
  • Projected population is 10 billion by 2050
  • Increasing pop ? increasing
  • Need for resources
  • Hunger drought
  • Habitat destruction
  • Disease transmission
  • Poverty

81
The human population
  • World population trends
  • Calculations
  • Demographic transition
  • Age structure diagrams
  • Developed vs. developing countries
  • Fertility rates
  • World bank
  • 1994 UN conference in Cairo- program of action

82
4
83
IV. Land and water use
  1. Agriculture
  2. Forestry
  3. Rangelands
  4. Other land use
  5. Mining
  6. Fishing
  7. Global economics

10-15
84
A. Agriculture
85
Major Environmental Effects of Food Production
  • Biodiversity Loss
  • Loss and degradation of habitat from clearing
    grasslands and forests and draining wetlands
  • Fish kills from pesticide runoff
  • Killing wild predators to protect live stock
  • Loss of genetic diversity from replacing
    thousands of wild crop strains with a few
    monoculture strains
  • Human Health
  • Nitrates pesticide residues in drinking water,
    food, and air
  • Contamination of water with disease organisms
    from livestock wastes

86
The Green Revolution
  • To eliminate hunger by improving crop performance
    by using
  • New crop cultivars
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides
  • Mechanization
  • Results
  • Did not eliminate famine
  • Population still increasing
  • Increase cost of production
  • An increased negative environmental impact
  • Didnt work for everyone

87
Endocrine Disrupters
  • Interfere with normal hormone action
  • Can interfere with development
  • Are often connected to cancer
  • Can interfere with sexual activity (alligators)
  • Are found in plastics and some pesticides

88
Risks and Pests
  • Hazard - Anything that causes
  • Injury, disease, or death to humans
  • Damage to property
  • Destruction of the environment
  • Cultural hazard - a risk that a person chooses to
    engage in
  • Risk
  • The probability of suffering as a result of a
    hazard
  • Perception
  • What people think the risks are

89
Insecticides/Pesticides
  • Integrated pest management includes
  • adjusting environmental conditions
  • chemical pesticides
  • disease resistant varieties
  • crop rotation
  • biological controls
  • Insecticides kills plants, mammals, fish, birds
  • A broad spectrum pesticide is effective towards
    many types of pests

90
DDT
  • Persistent, synthetic organic compound and a
    subject to biomagnification in food chains
  • Accumulates in fat
  • Was not used for handling weeds

91
Diseases
  • Lyme disease can be processed to humans through a
    bite from an infected tick
  • Mosquitoes causes Malaria, the vector for
    Plasmodium
  • The protozoan of the genus Plasmodium is the
    causative agent of malaria

92
Diseases contd
  • Lack of access to safe drinking water is a major
    cause of disease transmission in developing
    countries.
  • Epidemiology is the study of the presence,
    distribution and control of a diseases in a
    population
  • Morbidity is the incidence of disease in a
    population
  • Mortality is the incidence of death in a
    population

93
B. Forestry
  • Ecological services 4.7 trillion per year
  • Climate regulation, erosion control, waste
    treatment, etc.
  • Tree harvesting
  • Selective cutting vs clear-cutting vs strip
    cutting

94
Forests, fires, ecosystem maintenance
95
C. Rangelands
  • Ecological services
  • Overgrazing ? erosion, compaction
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification
  • Management federal rangelands
  • Regulate duration of organisms grazing
  • Replant areas
  • Apply fertilizer

96
(No Transcript)
97
D. Other land use
  1. Urban land development
  2. Transportation infrastructure
  3. Public and federal lands
  4. Land conservation options
  5. Sustainable land-use strategies

98
Urban land development
  • Planned development
  • Mixed zone vs separate zones
  • Suburban sprawl
  • Car centered development (separate zones)
  • Urbanization
  • Movement ? cities ? suburbs

99
Transportation infrastructure
  • Federal highways
  • Canals and channels
  • Roadless areas
  • Ecosystem impacts
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Habitat preservation

100
Public and federal lands
  • Wilderness areas
  • Most restricted (only hiking, fishing, camping,
    non-motorized boats)
  • National parks
  • Recreation areas, battlefields, historic sites
  • Wildlife refuges
  • Protect areas for animal breeding, endangered
    animals, etc.
  • Can have mining logging, oil and gas development
  • Forests Wetlands

101
Land conservation options
  • Preservation
  • Remediation
  • Mitigation
  • Restoration
  • CERCLA (superfund)

102
Sustainable land-use strategies
  • 4 principals suggested to govern public lands
  • Protect biodiversity
  • No subsidies/tax breaks for extracting resources
  • Compensate people for use of their property
  • Companies be responsible for any environmental
    damage

103
Easter Island
  • Sustainability
  • A system/process can continue indefinitely
    without depleting resources used
  • Stewardship
  • Caring for something that does not belong to you

104
Protection of Biodiversity and Ecosystems
  • Threatened
  • If trend continues, the species will be
    endangered
  • Endangered
  • If trend continues, the species will go extinct
  • 25 of drugs used as medicines come from natural
    plant sources.
  • Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)
  • 300,000 birds died as a result of that particular
    oil spill. The area, Prince William Sound, is
    still recovering

105
E. Mining
  • Surface vs subsurface
  • Acid mine drainage
  • SMCRA
  • Regulates strip mining and encourages reclamation
    of mined land

106
F. Fishing
  • Techniques
  • Line fishing, cage farming, purse-seine fishing,
    trawler fishing, drift-net fishing
  • Overfishing
  • Aquaculture
  • Shallow, near shore
  • Deep sea
  • Marine mammal protection act

107
G. Global economics
  • Globalization
  • World bank
  • Tragedy of the Commons
  • Government regulations and international treaties
    can solve

108
World Bank
  • Special agency of the UN
  • Receives from developed countries and loans to
    developing countries
  • Sometimes this backfires by increasing debt
  • Oversees all types of issues, not just
    environmental issues
  • Ex. electricity, roads, new modern technology

109
5
110
V. Energy resources and consumption
  1. Energy concepts
  2. Energy consumption
  3. Fossil fuel resources and use
  4. Nuclear energy
  5. Hydroelectric power
  6. Energy conservation
  7. Renewable energy

10-15
111
A. Energy concepts
112
Physics
  • Energy is measured in calories
  • Calorie amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram
    of water 1 degree Celsius.
  • Kilocalorie 1,000 calories
  • 1st law of thermodynamics
  • Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only
    change forms (potential ? kinetic)
  • 2nd law of thermodynamics
  • Energy transformation increases disorder
    (entropy) of the universe
  • Heat is the lowest grade of energy

113
Electricity
  • Electricity is a secondary energy source because
    it relies on another energy source to create it
  • 20 from nuclear
  • 57 from coal
  • Oil, geothermal, solar, wind, hydroelectric
  • No boiling water required for these sources
  • Basic production of electricity
  • Boil water ? produce steam ? turn turbines ?
    generate electron flow through a wire

114
B. Energy consumption
115
Energy facts
  • Brief history of energy
  • 1700-1800 Fire wood
  • 1900-1920 Coal
  • Industrial revolution medical revolution ?
    exponential growth of population and energy use
  • 1950-now Crude oil
  • Production of crude oil withdrawing it from
    reserves
  • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting
    Countries)
  • Mainly mid-east countries

116
C. Fossil fuel resources and use
117
Formation of
118
More Energy Facts
  • We get 50 of crude oil from foreign sources
  • Alaska pipeline built to help increase production
    of domestic crude oil
  • Types of coal

119
Coal
  • Environmental Consequences
  • Production
  • Ecosystem damage, reclamation difficult, acid
    mine runoff, mine tailings, erosion, black lung,
    radon
  • Transport
  • Energy intensive because of weight and number of
    train cars needed
  • Use
  • Fossil fuel with largest source of CO2 and
    greatest quantity of contaminants, large volume
    of waste, acid precipitation

120
Oil The Most Important Fossil Fuel in the
American Economy
  • Environmental Consequences
  • Production
  • Local ecosystem damage possible
  • Transport
  • Oil spills cause local and regional ecosystem
    damage
  • Use
  • Photochemical smog, particulates, acid
    precipitation, CO2

121
Natural Gas
  • Possibly a transition fuel between fossil fuel
    and alternative energy sources
  • Environmental Consequences
  • Production
  • Local ecosystem damage possible if oil or coal is
    part of the deposit
  • Transport
  • Can be explosive
  • Use
  • Produces the least air pollutants of all the
    fossil fuels

122
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123
D. Nuclear energy
124
Nuclear Power
  • Splitting of uraniums nucleus gives off heat
    that can be used to boil water and turn a turbine
    and generator to create electricity
  • Pros
  • No CO2 emissions, no particulate emissions
  • Cons
  • Radiation can lead to damaged DNA, costs,
    radioactive waste, thermal pollution

125
Nuclear important facts
  • Fusion
  • Combination of 2 atoms
  • Fission
  • Splitting an atom
  • Radioisotope
  • Unstable radioactive isotope

126
Uranium is radioactive
  • When U235 is hit by a neutron, it is split
    (fission) into two smaller elements such as Kr
    and Ba plus three neutrons which sustain the
    chain reaction.
  • Natural uranium is mined and used as fuel in
    nuclear reactors
  • Most (99.3) of the naturally occurring uranium
    is U238.
  • For a nuclear reactor, this must be purified to
    4 U235 and 96 U238. (very expensive)

127
How does a Power Plant Operate?
  • Water moderator slows down neutrons
  • Neutron-absorbing material control rod
  • Fuel Rods 1/3 replaced each year
  • Redundant safety systems
  • Heat transfer system
  • Cooling system

128
Waste Disposal
  • All fuel rods are still in cooling ponds at
    commercial nuclear facilities
  • Concerns Geological activity, Intrusion of water
    table, distances for wastes travel, radioactive
    decay and half-lives

129
Accidents
  • Chernobyl
  • 4/26/86
  • Ukraine
  • Complete meltdown
  • Three Mile Island
  • 3/28/79
  • Pennsylvania (Harrisburg)
  • Partial meltdown, no one known to be hurt

130
E. Hydroelectric power
  • Dams
  • Environmental ecological impacts
  • Flood control
  • Salmon
  • Silting

131
F. Energy conservation
  • Energy efficiency
  • CAFÉ standards
  • Regulate fuel efficiency
  • Strategies to improve conservation
  • Hybrid electric vehicles
  • Mass transit

132
G. Renewable energy
133
Renewable Energy
  • Not fossil fuels, not nuclear
  • Wind, falling H2O, geothermal, biomass, tidal,
    solar

134
Solar Energy
  • Passive solar
  • Large south-facing windows, heavy drapes to trap
    heat at night, interior bricks to trap heat
  • Shade windows in summer
  • Even though back up systems are required, and
    solar heating may only lessen the need for
    heating oil a few , it will help us adapt to
    diminishing oil supplies.
  • Active solar
  • Photovoltaic (PV) panels can be used to convert
    the energy from the sun into electricity.
  • Electrons from the silicon in the PV panel are
    pushed through a wire by photons from the sun
    creating an electric current.

135
6
136
VI. Pollution
  • Pollution types
  • Impacts on the environment and human health
  • Economic impacts
  • 25-30

137
A. Pollution types
  1. Air pollution
  2. Noise pollution
  3. Water pollution
  4. Solid waste

138
Air pollution
  • ppm vs ppb
  • Expensive health care costs, human lives
  • Acute, Chronic, Carcinogenic
  • Damages buildings, bridges, statues, books
  • Aesthetics
  • Damage to Plants
  • Agriculture crops loss 5 billion/year
  • Forests

139
Major Outdoor Air Pollutants
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Direct products of combustion and evaporation
  • Examples
  • Suspended particulate matter
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Sulfur Oxides (from combustion of coal)
  • Primary pollutants undergo rxns in atmosphere
  • Examples
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Ozone and other photochemical oxidants
  • Nitrogen Oxides (can be both)

140
Sources of air pollution
  • Natural
  • Sulfur Volcanoes, sea spray, microbial
  • Nitrogen oxides lightening, forest fires,
    microbial
  • Anthropogenic (human caused)
  • Sulfur oxides coal burning plants, industry,
    fossil fuels.
  • Nitrogen oxides power plants, industrial fuel
    combustion, transportation
  • Effect areas hundreds of miles from the source of
    emissions, generally not the whole globe

141
Temperature inversion
142
Heat islands
143
Indoor Air Pollutants
  • Types benzene, formaldehyde,
    radon, cigarette smoke
  • Sources off gassing from furniture, rugs and
    building materials, dry cleaning, cleaning
    fluids, disinfectants, pesticides, heaters
  • Buildings with too many indoor air pollutants are
    called sick buildings because more than 20 of
    the people are sick due to occupying the building.

144
Solutions Reducing Emissions
  • Best way Conservation, just use less!
  • Input Control
  • Cleaner burning gasoline
  • increased fuel efficiency
  • alternative modes of transportation
  • decrease the number of miles driven
  • changes in land use decisions
  • catalytic converter

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Output Control
  • Scrubbers exhaust fumes through a spray of H2O
    containing lime (CaCO3) SO2 ? CaSO3
  • Coal washing to get rid of sulfur
  • Fluidized bed combustion
  • Produces a waste ash that must be disposed of)

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Noise pollution
  • Source traffic in cities
  • Human health effects
  • Control measures

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Water Pollution
  • Types
  • Nutrients, fertilizers, waste
  • Microbial
  • Suspended matter
  • Oil spillage
  • Causes wastewater, runoff, spills, etc.
  • Point vs non-point
  • Eutrophication
  • Groundwater pollution

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Solid waste
  • Disposal
  • Landfill
  • Incinerator
  • Recycling
  • Recycling, composing, etc.

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Sewage treatment
  • Sewage treatment is a common practice
  • In the 1970s many cities were still dumping raw
    sewage into waterways
  • In 1972, the Clean water act provided funding for
    upgrading sewage treatment plants
  • Test for sewage contamination in drinking H2O ?
    Fecal Coliform test

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Sewage Treatment
  • Raw sewage (99 H2O)
  • Preliminary Treatment- allow grit to settle
  • 1 separating Raw Sludge from H2O
  • Raw Sludge May contain heavy metals
  • If it does it needs treatment, to remove the
    toxic chemicals
  • 2 AKA Biological Treatment- bacteria feeds on
    the organic material
  • 3 Chemical (chlorine, UV light)

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Home Septic Systems
  • Do not use chlorine
  • Do use settling tank to settle organic solids
  • Lets waste water percolate into the soil
    bacterial decomposition

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Municipal Solid Waste
  • Most is paper
  • 55 of MSW is disposed in landfills
  • 17 of MSW is combusted, mostly in
    waste-to-energy (WTE) combustion facilities
  • The best solution to solid waste problems is to
    reduce waste at its source.
  • More than 75 of MSW is recyclable

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B. Impacts on the environment and human health
  1. Hazards to human health
  2. Hazardous chemicals in the environment

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Cigarette Smoking
  • Leading cause of cancer in U.S.
  • Can cause cancer, lung disease, a bigger risk of
    death in addition with other types of air
    pollution.
  • Highest health risk in U.S.

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Love Canal, NY
  • The government allowed housing to be build over
    the toxic waste dump and people got sick
  • Problem first discovered in 1978
  • First national emergency in the US because of
    toxic waste
  • Led to the superfund legislation.
  • Superfund sites
  • comes from taxes on chemical industries
  • 50 of the spent on legal costs

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Heath effects
  • Acute vs chronic
  • Acute sudden and severe
  • Chronic gets worse and worse over time
  • Dose response

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Hazardous Waste
  • Cleaning solvents, acids and bases, wastes from
    agriculture and industry, etc.
  • Halogenated hydrocarbons
  • Organic compounds with a halogen (bromine,
    iodine, ect.) replacing a hydrogen
  • Used as pesticides
  • Used to make plastic
  • Resistant to biodegradation
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Are synthetic organic compounds

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Acids and Bases
  • pH-log of hydrogen ions in a solution. Therefore
    each number higher on the pH scale is 10X more
    basic
  • Basic OH- ions gt7
  • Acidic H ions lt7
  • Neutral pure water 7
  • Normal rain 6.4
  • Acid rain lt 5.5

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Hazardous waste disposal
  • Incinerate
  • Plasma arc torch
  • Deep well disposal
  • Pump below aquifers
  • Surface impoundments
  • Ponds ? as water evaporates waste becomes
    concentrated
  • Secure hazardous waste landfill

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C. Economic impacts
  • Cost-benefit analysis
  • Externalities
  • Costs/benefits that affect others
  • Example Air pollution from manufacturing
    activities
  • Marginal costs
  • Most efficient ? no pollution
  • Sustainability

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VII. Global change
  • Stratospheric ozone
  • Global warming
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • 10-15

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A. Stratospheric ozone
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Ozone (O3)
  • Stratospheric ozone GOOD
  • Shields us from harmful UVB rays
  • Thinning over the South Pole
  • Is like sunscreen for the earth
  • Is formed by UV light, is broken down by high
    energy UV light
  • Reaction proceeds backwards and forwards
    repeatedly
  • Tropospheric ozone BAD
  • Lung damage
  • GHG

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Ozone depletion
  • Causes
  • Chloroflurocarbons Chlorine ions strip an O from
    O3 and form ClO molecules
  • Effects
  • Increase UV light reaches earths surface
  • Sun damage to animals and humans
  • Skin cancer, cataracts, etc.
  • Crop damage
  • Prevention
  • Montreal Protocol reduction in CFCs
  • Exception CFCs not banned in developing countries

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B. Global warming
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Global warming
  • The natural greenhouse effect is important to
    keep the earth warm enough for life to exist
  • Global warming occurs when humans contribute too
    much of these greenhouse gases leading to a (1-3
    degree C) rise in the global average temperature.

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Greenhouse gases
  • Natural
  • CO2
  • Water vapor
  • Methane
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Synthetic
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
  • Hydrofluorocarbons
  • Perfluorocarbons
  • Sulfur hexafluoride

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Global Atmospheric Changes
  • Global Warming
  • CO2 produced from fossil fuel burning acts like a
    blanket around the earth.
  • Photosynthesis takes CO2 out of atmosphere
  • 6CO2 6H2O gt 602 C6H12O6
  • Atmospheric warming ? ocean warming ? changes in
    ecosystems ? warm water can hold less CO2 (and
    O2)
  • Increasing CO2 in air ? increasing CO2 in water ?
    increases acidity of water ? changes in ecosystem

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Keeling curve
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C. Loss of biodiversity
  • HIPPCO
  • Habitat loss, invasive species, pollution,
    overpopulation of humans, climate change,
    overexploitation
  • 6th mass extinction
  • Conservation Laws
  • Endangered species act
  • ID and protect endangered species
  • Penalties for jeopardizing species
  • CITES
  • Bans hunting, capturing, and selling of
    threatened/endangered species
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