APES LAB Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: APES LAB Review


1
APES LAB Review
  • Brian Kaestner
  • Saint Marys Hall

2
Introductory Environmental Journal
Basic Lab Format Purpose/Hypothesis Materials
Procedure Data Collection Data
Analysis Conclusion
3
The Dynamics of Plate Tectonics Earthquakes and
Volcanic Activity
4
Features of the Crust
Fig. 10.3, p. 213
5
Reykjanes Ridge
EURASIAN PLATE
EURASIAN PLATE
Mid- Atlantic Ocean Ridge
ANATOLIAN PLATE
JUAN DE FUCA PLATE
NORTH AMERICAN PLATE
CARIBBEAN PLATE
CHINA SUBPLATE
Transform fault
ARABIAN PLATE
PHILIPINE PLATE
PACIFIC PLATE
AFRICAN PLATE
COCOS PLATE
Mid- Indian Ocean Ridge
SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE
Transform fault
Carlsberg Ridge
East Pacific Rise
AFRICAN PLATE
INDIAN-AUSTRLIAN PLATE
Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge
Transform fault
Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge
ANTARCTIC PLATE
Plate motion at convergent plate boundaries
Plate motion at divergent plate boundaries
Convergent plate boundaries
Fig. 10.5b, p. 214
6
Internal EarthProcesses
  • Plate tectonics
  • Divergent boundary
  • Convergent boundary
  • Subduction zone
  • Transform fault
  • Ring of Fire
  • Fig. 10.6, p. 215
  • Refer to Fig. 10-5 p. 214

7
The Rock Cycle and Soil Formation
8
The Rock Cycle
Sedimentary Rock Shale, Sandstone, Limestone
Heat, Pressure
External Processes Internal Processes
Metamorphic Rock Slate, Quartzite, Marble
Heat, Pressure
Igneous Rock Granite, Pumice, Basalt
Magma (Molten Rock)
Fig. 10.8, p. 217
9
Soils Formation
  • Soil horizons
  • Soil profile
  • Humus

Fig. 10.12, p. 220
10
Rove beetle
Pseudoscorpion
Flatworm
Centipede
Ant
Ground beetle
Mite
Roundworms
Adult fly
Fly larvae
Beetle
Springtail
Mites
Protozoa
Millipede
Bacteria
Sowbug
Slug
Fungi
Actinomycetes
Snail
Mite
Earthworms
Organic debris
Fig. 10.13, p. 221
11
Mosaic of closely packed pebbles, boulders
Alkaline, dark, and rich in humus
Weak humus- mineral mixture
Dry, brown to reddish-brown with
variable accumulations of clay,
calcium carbonate, and soluble salts
Clay, calcium compounds
Desert Soil (hot, dry climate)
Grassland Soil (semiarid climate)
Fig. 10.15a, p. 223
12
Forest litter leaf mold
Acid litter and humus
Acidic light- colored humus
Humus-mineral mixture
Light-colored and acidic
Light, grayish- brown, silt loam
Iron and aluminum compounds mixed with clay
Dark brown Firm clay
Humus and iron and aluminum compounds
Tropical Rain Forest Soil (humid, tropical
climate)
Deciduous Forest Soil (humid, mild climate)
Coniferous Forest Soil (humid, cold climate)
Fig. 10.15b, p. 223
13
Environmental Influences on Population
Distribution
14
Population Dispersion
Clumped (elephants)
Uniform (creosote bush)
Random (dandelions)
Fig. 9.2, p. 199
15
Factors Affecting Population Size
POPULATION SIZE
Growth factors (biotic potential)
Decrease factors (environmental resistance)
Abiotic
Abiotic
Too much or too little light Temperature too high
or too low Unfavorable chemical environment (too
much or too little of critical nutrients)
Favorable light Favorable temperature Favorable
chemical environment (optimal level of critical
nutrients)
Biotic
Biotic
High reproductive rate Generalized niche Adequate
food supply Suitable habitat Ability to compete
for resources Ability to hide from or
defend against predators Ability to resist
diseases and parasites Ability to migrate and
live in other habitats Ability to adapt to
environmental change
Low reproductive rate Specialized
niche Inadequate food supply Unsuitable or
destroyed habitat Too many competitors Insufficien
t ability to hide from or defend against
predators Inability to resist diseases and
parasites Inability to migrate and live in other
habitats Inability to adapt to
environmental change
Fig. 9.3, p. 200
16
Reproductive Patterns and Survival
  • Asexual reproduction
  • r-selected species
  • Sexual reproduction
  • K-selected species

Fig. 9.10b, p. 205
17
Survivorship Curves
Fig. 9.11, p. 206
18
Environmental Stress
Organism Level
Population Level
Population Level
Disruption of energy flow through food chains
and webs Disruption of biogeochemical
cycles Lower species diversity Habitat loss or
degradation Less complex food webs Lower
stability Ecosystem collapse
Physiological changes Psychological
changes Behavior changes Fewer or no
offspring Genetic defects Birth
defects Cancers Death
Change in population size Change in age
structure (old, young, and weak may
die) Survival of strains genetically resistant
to stress Loss of genetic diversity and
adaptability Extinction
Fig. 9.12, p. 208
19
Population Studies
Sampling Population Species Diversity
Index Population Distribution Population
Density Doubling Time Carrying Capacity
Limiting factors Population Growth
Rate Succession Food Webs
20
Human Population Demographics
DT 70/pgr DT doubling time pgr population
growth rate ()
21
Factors Affecting Human Population Size
  • Population change equation
  • Zero population growth (ZPG)
  • Crude birth rate (BR)
  • Crude death rate (DR)

Refer to Fig. 11-2 p. 239
22
The Demographic Transition
Fig. 11.26, p. 255
23
Factors Affecting Natural Rate of Increase
Fig. 11.13, p. 245
24
Population Age Structure
Fig. 11.16a, p. 247
25
Soil Analysis
26
Soil Properties
  • Infiltration
  • Leaching
  • Porosity/permeability
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • pH

Fig. 10.16, p. 224
27
Water
Water
High permeability
Low permeability
Fig. 10.17, p. 224
28
Fig. 10.16, p. 224
29
Energy Consumption
30
The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency
Energy Inputs
System
Outputs
  • Net useful energy

9
7
  • Life cycle cost

41
U.S. economy and lifestyles
84
Least Efficient
  • Incandescent lights

43
7
  • Internal combustion engine

5
4
Useful energy
Nonrenewable fossil fuels
Petrochemicals
Nonrenewable nuclear
  • Nuclear power plants

Unavoidable energy waste
Hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar
Biomass
Unnecessary energy waste
Fig. 15.2, p. 359
31
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Insulation
  • Elimination of air leaks
  • Air to air heat exchangers
  • Cogeneration
  • Efficient electric motors
  • High-efficiency lighting
  • Increasing fuel economy

32
Solutions A Sustainable Energy Strategy
Fig. 15.42, p. 392
33
Air Pollution
34
Outdoor Air Pollution
  • Primary pollutants
  • Secondary pollutants
  • Fig. 17.4, p. 422
  • See Table 17-1 p. 421
  • See Table 17-2 p. 422

35
Temperature Inversions
  • Subsidence inversion
  • Radiation inversion

Fig. 17.8, p. 426
36
Regional Outdoor Air Pollution from Acid
Deposition
  • Acid deposition
  • Wet deposition
  • Dry deposition

Fig. 17.9, p. 428
37
Solutions Preventing and Reducing Air Pollution
  • Clean Air Act
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
  • Primary and secondary standards
  • Output control vs. input control

38
Emission Reduction
Fig. 17.21, p. 442
Fig. 17.22, p. 442
39
Reducing IndoorAir Pollution
Fig. 17.24, p. 443
40
Toxicity Testing
41
Risk and Probability
  • Risk
  • Probability
  • Riskassessment
  • Riskmanagement

Fig. 16.2, p. 297
42
Poisons
  • Poison
  • LD50
  • Median lethal dose

25
See Table 16-1 p. 400
  • Fig. 16.5, p. 400
  • See Table 16-1 p. 400

43
Risk Analysis
  • Risk analysis
  • Comparative riskanalysis
  • Cost-benefitanalysis
  • Risk management
  • Risk perception

Fig. 16.14, p. 412
44
Water Quality Testing
DO BOD Temp Phosphates Nitrates Turbidity
45
Types and Sources of Water Pollution
  • Point sources

Refer to Tables 19-1 and 19-2 p. 477 and 478
  • Nonpoint sources
  • Biological oxygen demand
  • Water quality

Fig. 19.2, p. 478
46
Pollution of Streams
  • Oxygen sag curve
  • Factors influencing recovery

Fig. 19.3, p. 479
47
Pollution of Lakes
  • Eutrophication
  • Slow turnover
  • Thermal stratification

Fig. 19.5, p. 482
48
Water/Wastewater Treatment
49
Technological Approach Sewage Treatment
  • Mechanical and biological treatment

50
Technological Approach Advanced Sewage Treatment
  • Removes specific pollutants

Fig. 19.16, p. 495
51
Solid Waste Management
52
Fig. 21.4, p. 521
53
Reduces global warming
Reduces acid deposition
Reduces urban air pollution
Make fuel supplies last longer
Reduces air pollution
Saves energy
Reduces energy demand
Reduces solid waste disposal
Recycling
Reduces mineral demand
Reduces water pollution
Reduces habitat destruction
Protects species
Fig. 21.7, p. 530
54
Source materials Natural gas Petroleum
Coal
Refining
Feedstocks Monomers (small molecules)
Polymerzation
Polymers Resins (giant molecules)
Manufacturing
Blow molding (hollow objects)
Molding (solid objects)
Extrusion (Flat, rolled, and tubular shapes)
Products bottles, milk jugs, Soda bottles,
drums, containers
Products appliance housing, CDs, toys, plastic
parts, aircraft, boats
Products Vinyl, siding, plastic film and bags,
pipe
Fig. 21.9, p. 534
55
Power plant
Steam
Smokestack
Electricity
Turbine
Generator
Crane
Wet scrubber
Boiler
Electrostatic precipitator
Furnace
Conveyor
Dirty water
Fly ash
Water
Bottom ash
Waste pit
Conven- tional landfill
Hazardous Waste landfill
Waste treatment
Fig. 21.10, p. 536
56
When landfill is full, layers of soil and
clay seal in trash
Electricity generator building
Methane storage and compressor building
Topsoil
Leachate treatment system
Sand
Clay
Garbage
Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as
fuel to generate electricity
Methane gas recovery
Leachate storage tanks
Compacted solid waste
Garbage
Sand
Synthetic liner
Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks
pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill
Sand
Clay
Fig. 21.12, p. 537
Subsoil
57
The Greenhouse Effect
58
The Natural Greenhouse Effect
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Greenhouse gases(Refer to Table 18-1 p. 448)

Fig. 6.13, p. 128
59
380
360
340
320
300
Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
(ppm)
280
Carbon dioxide
260
240
2.5
220
0
200
Variation of temperature (C) from current level
2.5
180
5.0
7.5
Temperature change
10.0
End of last ice age
160
120
80
40
0
Fig. 18.3, p. 449
Thousands of years before present
60
410
360
Parts per million
310
260
1800
1900
2000
2100
Year
Fig. 18.4a, p. 450
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
61
2.4
1.8
Parts per million
1.2
0.6
1800
1900
2000
2100
Year
Fig. 18.4b, p. 450
Methane (CH4)
62
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Nitrous oxide
250
200
Index (1900 100)
150
100
1990
2000
2025
2050
2075
2100
Fig. 18.5, p. 451
Year
63
Human Activities and Earths Climate
  • Increased use of fossil fuels
  • Deforestation
  • Global warming
  • Melting icecaps and glaciers
  • Coral reef bleaching

64
Some Possible Effects of a Warmer World
Fig. 18.12, p. 458
65
Solutions Dealing with the Threat of Climate
Change
Fig. 18.14, p. 461
Options
  • Do nothing
  • Do more research
  • Act now to reduce risks
  • No-regrets strategy

66
Acid Deposition
67
Regional Outdoor Air Pollution from Acid
Deposition
  • Acid deposition
  • Wet deposition
  • Dry deposition

Fig. 17.9, p. 428
68
Acid Deposition and Humans
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Toxic metal leaching
  • Decreased visibility
  • Damage to structures, especially containing
    limestone
  • Decreased productivity and profitability of
    fisheries, forests, and farms

69
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Fish declines
  • Undesirable species
  • Aluminum toxicity
  • Acid shock

Fig. 17.13, p. 430
70
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Nutrient leaching
  • Heavy metal release
  • Weakens trees
  • Fig. 17.14, p. 432
  • See Connections p. 431

71
The Effects of Radiation on Growth
Calculate growth rate Graph exp and control
data Analyze effects Predict effects due to
natural exposure and nuclear accidents
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Title: APES LAB Review


1
APES LAB Review
  • Brian Kaestner
  • Saint Marys Hall

2
Introductory Environmental Journal
Basic Lab Format Purpose/Hypothesis Materials
Procedure Data Collection Data
Analysis Conclusion
3
The Dynamics of Plate Tectonics Earthquakes and
Volcanic Activity
4
Features of the Crust
Fig. 10.3, p. 213
5
Reykjanes Ridge
EURASIAN PLATE
EURASIAN PLATE
Mid- Atlantic Ocean Ridge
ANATOLIAN PLATE
JUAN DE FUCA PLATE
NORTH AMERICAN PLATE
CARIBBEAN PLATE
CHINA SUBPLATE
Transform fault
ARABIAN PLATE
PHILIPINE PLATE
PACIFIC PLATE
AFRICAN PLATE
COCOS PLATE
Mid- Indian Ocean Ridge
SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE
Transform fault
Carlsberg Ridge
East Pacific Rise
AFRICAN PLATE
INDIAN-AUSTRLIAN PLATE
Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge
Transform fault
Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge
ANTARCTIC PLATE
Plate motion at convergent plate boundaries
Plate motion at divergent plate boundaries
Convergent plate boundaries
Fig. 10.5b, p. 214
6
Internal EarthProcesses
  • Plate tectonics
  • Divergent boundary
  • Convergent boundary
  • Subduction zone
  • Transform fault
  • Ring of Fire
  • Fig. 10.6, p. 215
  • Refer to Fig. 10-5 p. 214

7
The Rock Cycle and Soil Formation
8
The Rock Cycle
Sedimentary Rock Shale, Sandstone, Limestone
Heat, Pressure
External Processes Internal Processes
Metamorphic Rock Slate, Quartzite, Marble
Heat, Pressure
Igneous Rock Granite, Pumice, Basalt
Magma (Molten Rock)
Fig. 10.8, p. 217
9
Soils Formation
  • Soil horizons
  • Soil profile
  • Humus

Fig. 10.12, p. 220
10
Rove beetle
Pseudoscorpion
Flatworm
Centipede
Ant
Ground beetle
Mite
Roundworms
Adult fly
Fly larvae
Beetle
Springtail
Mites
Protozoa
Millipede
Bacteria
Sowbug
Slug
Fungi
Actinomycetes
Snail
Mite
Earthworms
Organic debris
Fig. 10.13, p. 221
11
Mosaic of closely packed pebbles, boulders
Alkaline, dark, and rich in humus
Weak humus- mineral mixture
Dry, brown to reddish-brown with
variable accumulations of clay,
calcium carbonate, and soluble salts
Clay, calcium compounds
Desert Soil (hot, dry climate)
Grassland Soil (semiarid climate)
Fig. 10.15a, p. 223
12
Forest litter leaf mold
Acid litter and humus
Acidic light- colored humus
Humus-mineral mixture
Light-colored and acidic
Light, grayish- brown, silt loam
Iron and aluminum compounds mixed with clay
Dark brown Firm clay
Humus and iron and aluminum compounds
Tropical Rain Forest Soil (humid, tropical
climate)
Deciduous Forest Soil (humid, mild climate)
Coniferous Forest Soil (humid, cold climate)
Fig. 10.15b, p. 223
13
Environmental Influences on Population
Distribution
14
Population Dispersion
Clumped (elephants)
Uniform (creosote bush)
Random (dandelions)
Fig. 9.2, p. 199
15
Factors Affecting Population Size
POPULATION SIZE
Growth factors (biotic potential)
Decrease factors (environmental resistance)
Abiotic
Abiotic
Too much or too little light Temperature too high
or too low Unfavorable chemical environment (too
much or too little of critical nutrients)
Favorable light Favorable temperature Favorable
chemical environment (optimal level of critical
nutrients)
Biotic
Biotic
High reproductive rate Generalized niche Adequate
food supply Suitable habitat Ability to compete
for resources Ability to hide from or
defend against predators Ability to resist
diseases and parasites Ability to migrate and
live in other habitats Ability to adapt to
environmental change
Low reproductive rate Specialized
niche Inadequate food supply Unsuitable or
destroyed habitat Too many competitors Insufficien
t ability to hide from or defend against
predators Inability to resist diseases and
parasites Inability to migrate and live in other
habitats Inability to adapt to
environmental change
Fig. 9.3, p. 200
16
Reproductive Patterns and Survival
  • Asexual reproduction
  • r-selected species
  • Sexual reproduction
  • K-selected species

Fig. 9.10b, p. 205
17
Survivorship Curves
Fig. 9.11, p. 206
18
Environmental Stress
Organism Level
Population Level
Population Level
Disruption of energy flow through food chains
and webs Disruption of biogeochemical
cycles Lower species diversity Habitat loss or
degradation Less complex food webs Lower
stability Ecosystem collapse
Physiological changes Psychological
changes Behavior changes Fewer or no
offspring Genetic defects Birth
defects Cancers Death
Change in population size Change in age
structure (old, young, and weak may
die) Survival of strains genetically resistant
to stress Loss of genetic diversity and
adaptability Extinction
Fig. 9.12, p. 208
19
Population Studies
Sampling Population Species Diversity
Index Population Distribution Population
Density Doubling Time Carrying Capacity
Limiting factors Population Growth
Rate Succession Food Webs
20
Human Population Demographics
DT 70/pgr DT doubling time pgr population
growth rate ()
21
Factors Affecting Human Population Size
  • Population change equation
  • Zero population growth (ZPG)
  • Crude birth rate (BR)
  • Crude death rate (DR)

Refer to Fig. 11-2 p. 239
22
The Demographic Transition
Fig. 11.26, p. 255
23
Factors Affecting Natural Rate of Increase
Fig. 11.13, p. 245
24
Population Age Structure
Fig. 11.16a, p. 247
25
Soil Analysis
26
Soil Properties
  • Infiltration
  • Leaching
  • Porosity/permeability
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • pH

Fig. 10.16, p. 224
27
Water
Water
High permeability
Low permeability
Fig. 10.17, p. 224
28
Fig. 10.16, p. 224
29
Energy Consumption
30
The Importance of Improving Energy Efficiency
Energy Inputs
System
Outputs
  • Net useful energy

9
7
  • Life cycle cost

41
U.S. economy and lifestyles
84
Least Efficient
  • Incandescent lights

43
7
  • Internal combustion engine

5
4
Useful energy
Nonrenewable fossil fuels
Petrochemicals
Nonrenewable nuclear
  • Nuclear power plants

Unavoidable energy waste
Hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar
Biomass
Unnecessary energy waste
Fig. 15.2, p. 359
31
Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency
  • Insulation
  • Elimination of air leaks
  • Air to air heat exchangers
  • Cogeneration
  • Efficient electric motors
  • High-efficiency lighting
  • Increasing fuel economy

32
Solutions A Sustainable Energy Strategy
Fig. 15.42, p. 392
33
Air Pollution
34
Outdoor Air Pollution
  • Primary pollutants
  • Secondary pollutants
  • Fig. 17.4, p. 422
  • See Table 17-1 p. 421
  • See Table 17-2 p. 422

35
Temperature Inversions
  • Subsidence inversion
  • Radiation inversion

Fig. 17.8, p. 426
36
Regional Outdoor Air Pollution from Acid
Deposition
  • Acid deposition
  • Wet deposition
  • Dry deposition

Fig. 17.9, p. 428
37
Solutions Preventing and Reducing Air Pollution
  • Clean Air Act
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
  • Primary and secondary standards
  • Output control vs. input control

38
Emission Reduction
Fig. 17.21, p. 442
Fig. 17.22, p. 442
39
Reducing IndoorAir Pollution
Fig. 17.24, p. 443
40
Toxicity Testing
41
Risk and Probability
  • Risk
  • Probability
  • Riskassessment
  • Riskmanagement

Fig. 16.2, p. 297
42
Poisons
  • Poison
  • LD50
  • Median lethal dose

25
See Table 16-1 p. 400
  • Fig. 16.5, p. 400
  • See Table 16-1 p. 400

43
Risk Analysis
  • Risk analysis
  • Comparative riskanalysis
  • Cost-benefitanalysis
  • Risk management
  • Risk perception

Fig. 16.14, p. 412
44
Water Quality Testing
DO BOD Temp Phosphates Nitrates Turbidity
45
Types and Sources of Water Pollution
  • Point sources

Refer to Tables 19-1 and 19-2 p. 477 and 478
  • Nonpoint sources
  • Biological oxygen demand
  • Water quality

Fig. 19.2, p. 478
46
Pollution of Streams
  • Oxygen sag curve
  • Factors influencing recovery

Fig. 19.3, p. 479
47
Pollution of Lakes
  • Eutrophication
  • Slow turnover
  • Thermal stratification

Fig. 19.5, p. 482
48
Water/Wastewater Treatment
49
Technological Approach Sewage Treatment
  • Mechanical and biological treatment

50
Technological Approach Advanced Sewage Treatment
  • Removes specific pollutants

Fig. 19.16, p. 495
51
Solid Waste Management
52
Fig. 21.4, p. 521
53
Reduces global warming
Reduces acid deposition
Reduces urban air pollution
Make fuel supplies last longer
Reduces air pollution
Saves energy
Reduces energy demand
Reduces solid waste disposal
Recycling
Reduces mineral demand
Reduces water pollution
Reduces habitat destruction
Protects species
Fig. 21.7, p. 530
54
Source materials Natural gas Petroleum
Coal
Refining
Feedstocks Monomers (small molecules)
Polymerzation
Polymers Resins (giant molecules)
Manufacturing
Blow molding (hollow objects)
Molding (solid objects)
Extrusion (Flat, rolled, and tubular shapes)
Products bottles, milk jugs, Soda bottles,
drums, containers
Products appliance housing, CDs, toys, plastic
parts, aircraft, boats
Products Vinyl, siding, plastic film and bags,
pipe
Fig. 21.9, p. 534
55
Power plant
Steam
Smokestack
Electricity
Turbine
Generator
Crane
Wet scrubber
Boiler
Electrostatic precipitator
Furnace
Conveyor
Dirty water
Fly ash
Water
Bottom ash
Waste pit
Conven- tional landfill
Hazardous Waste landfill
Waste treatment
Fig. 21.10, p. 536
56
When landfill is full, layers of soil and
clay seal in trash
Electricity generator building
Methane storage and compressor building
Topsoil
Leachate treatment system
Sand
Clay
Garbage
Pipe collect explosive methane gas used as
fuel to generate electricity
Methane gas recovery
Leachate storage tanks
Compacted solid waste
Garbage
Sand
Synthetic liner
Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks
pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill
Sand
Clay
Fig. 21.12, p. 537
Subsoil
57
The Greenhouse Effect
58
The Natural Greenhouse Effect
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Greenhouse gases(Refer to Table 18-1 p. 448)

Fig. 6.13, p. 128
59
380
360
340
320
300
Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
(ppm)
280
Carbon dioxide
260
240
2.5
220
0
200
Variation of temperature (C) from current level
2.5
180
5.0
7.5
Temperature change
10.0
End of last ice age
160
120
80
40
0
Fig. 18.3, p. 449
Thousands of years before present
60
410
360
Parts per million
310
260
1800
1900
2000
2100
Year
Fig. 18.4a, p. 450
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
61
2.4
1.8
Parts per million
1.2
0.6
1800
1900
2000
2100
Year
Fig. 18.4b, p. 450
Methane (CH4)
62
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Nitrous oxide
250
200
Index (1900 100)
150
100
1990
2000
2025
2050
2075
2100
Fig. 18.5, p. 451
Year
63
Human Activities and Earths Climate
  • Increased use of fossil fuels
  • Deforestation
  • Global warming
  • Melting icecaps and glaciers
  • Coral reef bleaching

64
Some Possible Effects of a Warmer World
Fig. 18.12, p. 458
65
Solutions Dealing with the Threat of Climate
Change
Fig. 18.14, p. 461
Options
  • Do nothing
  • Do more research
  • Act now to reduce risks
  • No-regrets strategy

66
Acid Deposition
67
Regional Outdoor Air Pollution from Acid
Deposition
  • Acid deposition
  • Wet deposition
  • Dry deposition

Fig. 17.9, p. 428
68
Acid Deposition and Humans
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Toxic metal leaching
  • Decreased visibility
  • Damage to structures, especially containing
    limestone
  • Decreased productivity and profitability of
    fisheries, forests, and farms

69
Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems
  • Fish declines
  • Undesirable species
  • Aluminum toxicity
  • Acid shock

Fig. 17.13, p. 430
70
Acid Deposition, Plants, and Soil
  • Nutrient leaching
  • Heavy metal release
  • Weakens trees
  • Fig. 17.14, p. 432
  • See Connections p. 431

71
The Effects of Radiation on Growth
Calculate growth rate Graph exp and control
data Analyze effects Predict effects due to
natural exposure and nuclear accidents
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