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Bloodborne Pathogens

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Peter Last modified by: Daye, Dennis Created Date: 7/22/2005 5:25:57 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bloodborne Pathogens


1
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Healthcare Workers

2
Session Objectives
  • You will be able to
  • Identify risks of exposure
  • Understand the requirements of the facilitys
    exposure control plan and OSHA regulations
  • Prevent exposure by taking proper precautions
  • Take effective action in the event of an exposure

3
What is a BB Pathogen?
Microorganisms present in Blood,
Other Potentially Infectious Materials
or
4
Bloodborne Pathogens (BBPs)
  • OPIM is
  • Semen
  • Vaginal secretions
  • Body fluids such as pleural, cerebrospinal,
    pericardial, peritoneal, synovial, and amniotic
  • Saliva in dental procedures
  • Any body fluids visibly contaminated with blood

5
What Can I Do?
  • As a student of a health related program, you are
    at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens.
  • Presence of mind is your most important
    protection against contamination.
  • Know your program policy (see student handbook)
    and follow it without exception.

6
Understanding the Risks
  • Risk of infection depends on several factors
  • The pathogen involved
  • The type/route of exposure
  • The amount of virus in the infected blood at the
    time of exposure
  • The amount of infected blood involved in the
    exposure
  • Whether post-exposure treatment was taken
  • Specific immune response of the individual

7
Common BB Pathogen
Diseases
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Hepatitis
B(HBV) Hepatitis C(HCV)
8
HIV
  • HIV is the virus that leads to AIDS
  • HIV attacks the immune system
  • HIV does not survive well outside the body
  • Symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, weight
    loss, chronic fatigue, and skin rashes or lesions
  • Victims can develop cancer or deadly infections
    in later stages
  • No cure no vaccine available yet

9
HIV
  • HIV Transmission
  • Sexual contact
  • Sharing needles and or syringes
  • From HIV-infected women to their babies during
    pregnancy or delivery
  • Breast-feeding
  • Needle sticks

10
Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis B can cause serious health problems
  • 100 times more contagious than HIV
  • Hearty can live for 7 days in dried blood
  • Symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite,
    nausea, pain, vomiting, and jaundice
  • No cure, but there is a preventative vaccine

11
HIV vs. Hepatitis B
12
Hepatitis C
  • The most common chronic bloodborne infection in
    the U.S.
  • In health care most cases are the result of
    needle sticks
  • It can be years before symptoms are recognized
  • Hepatitis C can cause chronic liver disease and
    death
  • Symptoms are similar to hepatitis B
  • There is no vaccine

13
Workplace Transmission
  • Contact with an infected persons blood or bodily
    fluids that contain blood
  • Contact with other potentially infectious
    materials
  • Contact with contaminated sharps/needles

14
Workplace Transmission (cont.)
  • Entry through non-intact skin
  • Entry through eyes, nose, and mouth
  • How bloodborne pathogens are NOT transmitted
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Touching
  • Using same equipment
  • Toilet
  • Showers
  • Water fountains

15
Health Care Workers and BBPs
Occupational Transmission
  • Risk of infection following a needle stick or cut
    from a positive (infected) source
  • HBV 6-30
  • HCV 1.8 (range 0-7)
  • HIV 0.3

16
OSHA Requirements
  • Bloodborne Pathogens Standard
  • Written exposure control plan
  • Exposure determination
  • Hazard identification and protective measures
  • Training for employees at risk
  • PPE
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine
  • Post exposure evaluation follow-up
  • Recordkeeping

Exposure Control Plan
17
Exposure Controls
Reducing your risk
  • Universal precautions
  • Equipment and Safer Medical Devices
  • Work practices
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Housekeeping
  • Laundry handling
  • Hazard communication - labeling
  • Regulated Waste

18
Universal Precautions
  • Treat all blood and bodily fluids as if they are
    infected
  • Treat potentially contaminated materials as if
    they are infected
  • The goal is to avoid all direct contact
  • Universal precautions apply to any and all
    potential exposures
  • No contact, no exposure. No exposure, no
    infection.

19
Precautions with Sharps
  • Prevent needle sticks with needleless equipment
    or special devices
  • Look for sharps less likely to cause needle
    sticks

20
Precautions with Sharps (cont.)
  • Dispose of all sharps in proper containers
  • Dont shear, break, bend, or remove needles
  • Dont recap needles unless you use a mechanical
    device
  • Dont reach into a container that might contain
    sharps
  • Use a strainer to hold sharps when cleaning
  • Dont clean up broken glass with your hands

21
Safe Work Practices
  • Take special care when you collect, handle,
    store, or transport blood or other potentially
    infectious materials
  • Transport waste, sharps, or other potentially
    contaminated items in closed, leak proof
    containers
  • Do not open, empty, or clean reusable containers
    by hand

22
Personal Hygiene
  • Wash with soap and water immediately after any
    exposure
  • Wash thoroughly after removing PPE
  • Flush eyes, nose, or mouth after exposure
  • Dont eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics, or
    handle contact lenses in any possible exposure
    areas
  • Dont keep food or drinks near potentially
    infectious materials

23
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Gloves
  • Face and eye protection
  • Safety glasses with sides shields
  • Splash goggles
  • Face shield
  • Mask
  • Protective clothing
  • Lab coat
  • Gown
  • Apron
  • Surgical cap or hood
  • Shoe cover or boot
  • Fully encapsulated suit
  • Inspecting PPE before use
  • Removing PPE after use

24
Labels and Signs
  • Labels that include the universal biohazard
    symbol and the word Biohazard must be attached
    to
  • Containers of regulated biowaste
  • Refrigerators or freezers containing blood or
    other potentially infectious materials
  • Containers used to store, transport, or ship
    these materials

25
Housekeeping
DISINFECTANT
  • Use universal precautions when cleaning
  • Wear appropriate PPE
  • Clean and decontaminate all equipment and
    surfaces (recommend 110 bleach solution)
  • Remove and replace protective coverings
  • Clean and decontaminate reusable bins, pails, and
    cans
  • Dispose of contaminated cleaning materials
    properly

26
Laundry
  • Use universal precautions
  • Wear assigned PPE
  • Bag contaminated laundry
  • Use leak-proof bags for wet laundry

27
Regulated Medical Wastes
  • Liquid or semiliquid blood or other potentially
    infectious materials
  • Contaminated items that would release infectious
    materials when compressed
  • Contaminated sharps
  • Pathological or microbiological waste

28
Exposure Incidents
  • An exposure incident is direct contact with
    blood, bodily fluids contaminated with blood, or
    other potentially infectious material
  • Wash thoroughly after any direct exposure
  • Report any exposure incident right away
  • You will be offered a blood test and medical
    evaluation

29
Hepatitis B Vaccinations
  • Safe and effective way to prevent disease
  • Offered to all potentially exposed employees
  • You can decline to have the vaccination

30
Key Points to Remember
  • Take universal precautions
  • Wear assigned PPE
  • Use safe work practices
  • Practice good personal hygiene
  • Dispose of contaminated materials properly in
    labeled containers
  • Report all direct exposures

31
  • In Conclusion
  • BB pathogen rules are in place for your
    health and safety.
  • Failure to follow them is a risk that does
    not need to be taken.

32
Questions ?
Do I really have to do BBP training every year?
YES!
33
IF YOU HAVE ADDITONAL QUESTIONS, YOU MAY
  • Talk with you instructor
  • Stop by Student Health Services for
  • additional information or handouts
  • Check out some of the great information
  • that can be found on the web
  • Refer to the student handbook for your
  • clinical program

34
DVD
  • Bloodborne Pathogens
  • A Healthcare Refresher
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