UNIT VI: Advance Network Technologies Virtualization, Software defined network, ATM (Overview, Protocol Architecture, AAL), GMPLS, Introduction of optical networks, Propagation of Signals in Optical Fiber, Client Layers of the Optical Layer - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – UNIT VI: Advance Network Technologies Virtualization, Software defined network, ATM (Overview, Protocol Architecture, AAL), GMPLS, Introduction of optical networks, Propagation of Signals in Optical Fiber, Client Layers of the Optical Layer PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 828243-NzI3N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

UNIT VI: Advance Network Technologies Virtualization, Software defined network, ATM (Overview, Protocol Architecture, AAL), GMPLS, Introduction of optical networks, Propagation of Signals in Optical Fiber, Client Layers of the Optical Layer

Description:

UNIT VI: Advance Network Technologies Virtualization, Software defined network, ATM (Overview, Protocol Architecture, AAL), GMPLS, Introduction of optical networks ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:523
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 71
Provided by: Goog6655
Learn more at: http://thirdyearengineering.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: UNIT VI: Advance Network Technologies Virtualization, Software defined network, ATM (Overview, Protocol Architecture, AAL), GMPLS, Introduction of optical networks, Propagation of Signals in Optical Fiber, Client Layers of the Optical Layer


1
UNIT VI Advance Network TechnologiesVirtualiza
tion, Software defined network, ATM (Overview,
Protocol Architecture, AAL), GMPLS, Introduction
of optical networks, Propagation of Signals in
Optical Fiber, Client Layers of the Optical Layer

8 Hrs
2
Virtualization What Is Virtualization? How does
it works? Background and evolution, Advantages
and disadvantages, Platform Virtualization,
Resources Virtualization, Hypervisor, Massively
virtualized model-cloud. Ref Operating
SystemsA Concept-Based Approach,  D. M.
Dhamdhere, McGraw-Hill, 2008
3
What is virtualization?
  • Virtualization allows one computer to do the job
    of multiple computers.
  • Virtual environments let one computer host
    multiple operating systems at the same time

4
(No Transcript)
5
How does it work?
  • Virtualization transforms hardware into software.
  • It is the creation of a fully functional virtual
    computer that can run its own applications and
    operating system.
  • Creates virtual elements of the CPU, RAM, and
    hard disk.

6
Background and Evolution
  • Virtualization arose from a need in the 1960s to
    partition large mainframe hardware.
  • Improved in the 1990s to allow mainframes to
    multitask.
  • First implemented by IBM more than 30 years ago.

7
(No Transcript)
8
Virtualization
  • It is divided into two main categories
  • Platform virtualization involves the simulation
    of virtual machines.
  • Resource virtualization involves the simulation
    of combined, fragmented, or simplified resources.

9
Platform Virtualization
  • the creation of a virtual machine using a
    combination of hardware and software is referred
    to as platform virtualization
  • Platform virtualization is performed on a given
    hardware platform by "host" software (a control
    program), which creates a simulated computer
    environment (a virtual machine) for its "guest"
    software.
  • The "guest" software, which is often itself a
    complete operating system, runs just as if it
    were installed on a stand-alone hardware
    platform.
  • Typically, many such virtual machines are
    simulated on a given physical machine.
  • For the "guest" system to function, the
    simulation must be robust enough to support all
    the guest system's external interfaces, which
    (depending on the type of virtualization) may
    include hardware drivers.

10
Resource Virtualization
  • The basic concept of platform virtualization, was
    later extended to the virtualization of specific
    system resources, such as storage volumes, name
    spaces, and network resources.

11
Resource Virtualization
  • Resource aggregation, spanning, or concatenation
    combines individual components into larger
    resources or resource pools. For example
  • RAID and volume managers combine many disks into
    one large logical disk.
  • Storage Virtualization refers to the process of
    completely abstracting logical storage from
    physical storage, and is commonly used in SANs.
    The physical storage resources are aggregated
    into storage pools, from which the logical
    storage is created. Multiple independent storage
    devices, which may be scattered over a network,
    appear to the user as a single,
    location-independent, monolithic storage device,
    which can be managed centrally.
  • Channel bonding and network equipment use
    multiple links combined to work as though they
    offered a single, higher-bandwidth link.
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN), Network Address
    Translation (NAT), and similar networking
    technologies create a virtualized network
    namespace within or across network subnets.
  • Multiprocessor and multi-core computer systems
    often present what appears as a single, fast
    processor.

12
Hypervisor
  • In computing, a hypervisor (also virtual machine
    monitor) is a virtualization platform that allows
    multiple operating systems to run on a host
    computer at the same time. The term usually
    refers to an implementation using full
    virtualization.

13
Hypervisor Types
  • Hypervisors are currently classified in two
    types
  • Type 1 hypervisor A software that runs directly
    on a given hardware platform (as an operating
    system control program
  • Examples VMware's ESX Server, and Sun's
    Hypervisor
  • Type 2 hypervisor A software that runs within an
    operating system environment.
  • Examples include VMware server and Microsoft
    Virtual Server.

14
Virtualization - Why Virtualize?
  • Reduce Real Estate Needs
  • Increase Up Time
  • Reduce CO2 Emissions, Power and Cooling
    Requirements
  • Increase Flexibility
  • Reduce Overall Costs

15
Massively Virtualized Model - Cloud
16
Cloud Computing - Services
  • Software as a Service - SaaS
  • Platform as a Service - PaaS
  • Infrastructure as a Service - IaaS

17
  • Advantages
  • Benefits include freedom in choice of operating
    system.
  • It saves time and money.
  • Consolidates server and infrastructure.
  • Makes it easier to manage and secure desktop
    environments.
  • Disadvantages
  • Only powerful computers can successfully create
    virtual environment.
  • Requires training to operate.

18
Advance Network Technologies
  • Software defined network Traditional Computer
    Networks, Limitations of Current Networks, What
    is SDN? Background, OS for networks, What is
    OpenFlow? How it helps SDN, The current status
    the future of SDN (Case studies)
  • Ref http//www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/archive/s
    pr12/cos461/

19
Traditional Computer Networks
Data plane Packet streaming
Forward, filter, buffer, mark, rate-limit, and
measure packets
20
Traditional Computer Networks
Control plane Distributed algorithms
Track topology changes, compute routes, install
forwarding rules
21
Traditional Computer Networks
Management plane Human time scale
Collect measurements and configure the equipment
22
Limitations of Current Networks
Switches
23
Limitations of Current Networks
  • Enterprise networks are difficult to manage
  • New control requirements have arisen
  • Greater scale
  • Migration of VMS
  • How to easily configure huge networks?

24
Limitations of Current Networks
  • Old ways to configure a network

Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
25
Limitations of Current Networks
  • Many complex functions baked into infrastructure
  • OSPF, BGP, multicast, differentiated
    services,Traffic Engineering, NAT, firewalls,

Feature
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Cannot dynamically change according to network
conditions
26
Idea An OS for Networks
Closed
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
27
Idea An OS for Networks
Control Programs
Network Operating System
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
Operating System
Specialized Packet Forwarding Hardware
28
Idea An OS for Networks
Control Programs
Network Operating System
Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware
Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware
Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware
Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware
Simple Packet Forwarding Hardware
OpenFlow/SDN tutorial, Srini Seetharaman,
Deutsche Telekom, Silicon Valley Innovation Center
29
Idea An OS for Networks
Software-Defined Networking (SDN)
Control Programs
Global Network View
Network Operating System
Control via forwarding interface
30
Software Defined Networking
  • No longer designing distributed control protocols
  • Much easier to write, verify, maintain,
  • An interface for programming
  • NOS serves as fundamental control block
  • With a global view of network

31
Software Defined Networking
  • Examples
  • Ethane network-wide access-control
  • Power Management

32
OpenFlow
  • OpenFlow Enabling Innovation in Campus
    Networks
  • Like hardware drivers
  • interface between switches and Network OS

33
OpenFlow
Control Path (Software)
Data Path (Hardware)
OpenFlow/SDN tutorial, Srini Seetharaman,
Deutsche Telekom, Silicon Valley Innovation Center
34
OpenFlow
OpenFlow Controller
OpenFlow Protocol (SSL/TCP)
Control Path
OpenFlow
Data Path (Hardware)
35
OpenFlow Switching
Controller
PC
OpenFlow Client
Software Layer
OpenFlow Table
Hardware Layer
port 2
port 4
port 3
port 1
1.2.3.4
5.6.7.8
35
36
OpenFlow Table Entry
Rule
Action
Stats
Packet byte counters
  1. Forward packet to port(s)
  2. Encapsulate and forward to controller
  3. Drop packet
  4. Send to normal processing pipeline

Switch Port
MAC src
MAC dst
Eth type
VLAN ID
IP Src
IP Dst
IP Prot
TCP sport
TCP dport
mask
37
OpenFlow Examples
Switching
001f..









port6
Routing






5.6.7.8



port6
Firewall









22
drop
38
OpenFlow
  • Standard way to control flow-tables in commercial
    switches and routers
  • Just need to update firmware
  • Essential to the implementation of SDN

39
  • ATM Overview, Protocol Architecture, AAL,
    GMPLS Why GMPLS?GMPLS and MPLS, Control
    interfaces, Challenges of GMPLS, Proposed
    techniques Suggested label, Bi-direction LSP
    setup, LMP, etc
  • Ref 1.ATMWilliam Stallings, Data and Computer
    Communications7thEdition
  • 2. GMPLS bnrg.cs.berkeley.edu/randy/Courses/CS29
    4.S02

40
WHATS ATM?
  • ATM is Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
  • ATM is a connection-oriented, high-speed,
    low-delay switching and transmission technology
    that uses short and fixed-size packets, called
    cells, to transport information.
  • ATM is originally the transfer mode for
    implementing Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) but it is
    also implemented in non-ISDN environments where
    very high data rates are required

41
BROADBAND AND B-ISDN
  • Broadband
  • "A service or system requiring transmission
    channel capable of
  • supporting rates greater than the primary rate.
  • Broadband-Integrated Service Digital Network
    (B-ISDN)
  • A standard for transmitting voice, video and
    data at the same time over fiber optic telephone
    lines
  • The goal of B-ISDN is to accommodate all
    existing services along with those that will come
    in the future. The services that BISDN will
    support include
  • narrowband services, such as voice, voice band
    data, facsimile, telemetry, videotex, electronic
    mail,
  • wideband services such as T1, and
  • broadband services such as video conference, high
    speed data, video on demand. BISDN is also to
    support point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and
    multipoint-to-multipoint connectivities.

42
ATM OVERVIEW
  • Used in both WAN and LAN settings
  • Signaling (connection setup) Protocol
  • Packets are called cells (53 bytes)
  • 5-byte header 48-byte payload
  • Commonly transmitted over SONET
  • other physical layers possible
  • Connections can be switched (SVC), or permanent
    (PVC).
  • ATM operates on a best effort basis.
  • ATM guarantees that cells will not be disordered.
  • Two types of connections
  • Point-to-point
  • Multipoint (Multicast)
  • Four Types of Services
  • CBR (Constant Bit Rate)
  • VBR (Variable Bit Rate)
  • ABR (Available Bit Rate) Flow Control,
    Rate-based, Credit- based
  • UBR (Unspecific Bit Rate) No Flow control.

43
ATM Characteristics
  • No error protection or flow control on a
    link-by-link basis.
  • ATM operates in a connection-oriented mode.
  • The header functionality is reduced.
  • The information field length is relatively small
    and fixed.
  • All data types are the same

44
Why ATM?
  • International standard-based technology (for
    interoperability)
  • Low network latency (for voice, video, and
    real-time applications)
  • Low variance of delay (for voice and video
    transmission)
  • Guaranteed quality of service
  • High capacity switching (multi-giga bits per
    second)
  • Bandwidth flexibility (dynamically assigned to
    users)

45
Why ATM? (cont)
  • Scalability (capacity may be increased on demand)
  • Medium not shared for ATM LAN (no degradation in
    performance as traffic load or number of users
    increases)
  • Supports a wide range of user access speeds
  • Appropriate (seamless integration) for LANs,
    MANs, and WANs
  • Supports audio, video, imagery, and data traffic
    (for integrated services)

46
ATM NETWORKS
  • Public ATM Network
  • Provided by public telecommunications carriers
    (e.g., ATT, MCI WorldCom, and Sprint)
  • Interconnects private ATM networks
  • Interconnects remote non-ATM LANs
  • Interconnects individual users
  • Private ATM Network
  • Owned by private organizations
  • Interconnects low speed/shared medium LANs (e.g.,
    Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI) as a backbone network
  • Interconnects individual users as the front-end
    LAN for high performance or multimedia
    applications

47
Switches in the middle
End systems of ATM
48
File Server
FDDI
Voice
Ethernet
Edge Switch
Video
PBX
Mainframe Computer
FDDI
Ethernet
Private ATM Switch
Edge Switch
Edge Switch
Edge Switch
Mainframe Computer
PBX
Video
Ethernet
Video
Voice
49
ATM Interfaces
Private UNI
Public UNI

B-ICI
50
How ATM Works?
  • ATM is connection-oriented -- an end-to-end
    connection must be established and routing tables
    setup prior to cell transmission
  • Once a connection is established, the ATM network
    will provide end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS)
    to the end users
  • All traffic, whether voice, video, image, or data
    is divided into 53-byte cells and routed in
    sequence across the ATM network
  • Routing information is carried in the header of
    each cell
  • Routing decisions and switching are performed by
    hardware in ATM switches
  • Cells are reassembled into voice, video, image,
    or data at the destination

51
User Applications
User Applications
Voice Video Data
Voice Video Data
BISDN Services
BISDN Services
Reassembly
Segmentation
Demultiplexing
Multiplexing
Workstation
Workstation
52
B-ISDN/ATM Protocol Reference Model
Source Stallings Data and Computer
Communications
53
MPLS and GMPLS
54
Why MPLS?
  • MPLS stands for Multi-Protocol Label Switching
  • Goals
  • Bring the speed of layer 2 switching to layer 3
  • May no longer perceived as the main benefit
    Layer 3 switches
  • Resolve the problems of IP over ATM, in
    particular
  • Complexity of control and management
  • Scalability issues
  • Support multiple layer 2 technologies

55
Basic Idea
  • MPLS is a hybrid model adopted by IETF to
    incorporate best properties in both packet
    routing circuit switching

MPLS
ATM Switch
IP Router
56
Basic Idea (Cont.)
  • Packets are switched, not routed, based on labels
  • Labels are filled in the packet header
  • Basic operation
  • Ingress LER (Label Edge Router) pushes a label in
    front of the IP header
  • LSR (Label Switch Router) does label swapping
  • Egress LER removes the label
  • The key establish the forwarding table
  • Link state routing protocols
  • Exchange network topology information for path
    selection
  • OSPF-TE, IS-IS-TE
  • Signaling/Label distribution protocols
  • Set up LSPs (Label Switched Path)
  • LDP, RSVP-TE, CR-LDP

57
MPLS Operation
58
Main features
  • Label swapping
  • Bring the speed of layer 2 switching to layer 3
  • Separation of forwarding plane and control plane
  • Forwarding hierarchy via Label stacking
  • Increase the scalability
  • Constraint-based routing
  • Traffic Engineering
  • Fast reroute
  • Facilitate the virtual private networks (VPNs)
  • Provide class of service
  • Provides an opportunity for mapping DiffServ
    fields onto an MPLS label
  • Facilitate the elimination of multiple layers

59
GMPLS
  • GMPLS stands for Generalized Multi-Protocol
    Label Switching
  • A previous version is Multi-Protocol
    Lambda/Label Switching
  • Developed from MPLS
  • A suite of protocols that provides common control
    to packet, TDM, and wavelength services.
  • Currently, in development by the IETF

60
Why GMPLS?
  • GMPLS is proposed as the signaling protocol for
    optical networks
  • What service providers want?
  • Carry a large volume of traffic in a
    cost-effective way
  • Turns out to be a challenge within current data
    network architecture
  • Problems
  • Complexity in management of multiple layers
  • Inefficient bandwidth usage
  • Not scalable
  • Solutions eliminate middle layers? IP/WDM
  • Need a protocol to perform functions of middle
    layers

61
Why GMPLS? (Cont.)
  • Optical Architectures
  • A control protocol support both overlay model and
    peer model will bring big flexibility
  • The selection of architecture can be based on
    business decision

62
Why GMPLS? (Cont.)
  • What we need? A common control plane
  • Support multiple types of traffic (ATM, IP, SONET
    and etc.)
  • Support both peer and overlay models
  • Support multi-vendors
  • Perform fast provisioning
  • Why MPLS is selected?
  • Provisioning and traffic engineering capability

63
GMPLS and MPLS
  • GMPLS is deployed from MPLS
  • Apply MPLS control plane techniques to optical
    switches and IP routing algorithms to manage
    lightpaths in an optical network
  • GMPLS made some modifications on MPLS
  • Separation of signaling and data channel
  • Support more types of control interface
  • Other enhancement

64
Control interfaces
  • Extend the MPLS to support more interfaces other
    than packet switch
  • Packet Switch Capable (PSC)
  • Router/ATM Switch/Frame Reply Switch
  • Time Division Multiplexing Capable (TDMC)
  • SONET/SDH ADM/Digital Crossconnects
  • Lambda Switch Capable (LSC)
  • All Optical ADM or Optical Crossconnects (OXC)
  • Fiber-Switch Capable (FSC)
  • LSPs of different interfaces can be nested inside
    another

65
Challenges
  • Routing challenges
  • Limited number of labels
  • Very large number of links
  • Link identification will be a big problem
  • Scalability of the Link state protocol
  • Port connection detection
  • Signaling challenges
  • Long label setup time
  • Bi-directional LSPs setup
  • Management challenges
  • Failure detection
  • Failure protection and restoration

66
Link Management Protocol
  • Problem
  • How to localize the precise location of a fault?
  • How to validate the connectivity between adjacent
    nodes?
  • Solution link management protocol
  • Control Channel Management
  • Link Connectivity Verification
  • Link Property Correlation
  • Fault Management
  • Authentication

67
GMPLS Summary
  • Provides a new way of managing network resources
    and provisioning
  • Provide a common control plane for multiple
    layers and multi-vendors
  • Fast and automatic service provisioning
  • Greater service intelligence and efficiency

68
  • Introduction to Optical Networks
  • Telecommunications Network Architecture
  • Services, Circuit Switching and Packet Switching
  • Optical Networks
  • The Optical Layer
  • Transparency and All-Optical Networks
  • Optical Packet Switching
  • Transmission Basics
  • Network Evolution
  • Propagation of Signals in Optical Fiber
  • Loss and Bandwidth Windows
  • Intermodal Dispersion
  • Optical Fiber as a Waveguide
  • Chromatic Dispersion
  • Nonlinear Effects

69
  • Client Layers of the Optical Layer
  • SONET/SDH
  • Optical Transport Network
  • Generic Framing Procedure
  • Ethernet
  • IP
  • Multiprotocol Label Switching
  • Resilient Packet Ring
  • Storage Area Networks
  • Ref Rajiv Ramaswami, Kumar Shivarajan,
    GlanShasaki, Optical Networks a Practical
    Perspective, Elsevier-Morgan Kaufmann ISBN
    978-0-12-374092-2 pdf

70
  • Thanks
About PowerShow.com