Introduction to Networking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Introduction to Networking PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 73339a-YWFkO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Introduction to Networking

Description:

Introduction to Networking James R. Coakley, PhD Outline 5-layer Network Model A theoretical framework for our day-to-day interactions on the Internet Protocol stack ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:451
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: JimC107
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Networking


1
Introduction to Networking
  • James R. Coakley, PhD

2
Outline
  • 5-layer Network Model
  • A theoretical framework for our day-to-day
    interactions on the Internet
  • Protocol stack
  • Network Design and Topology

3
Theoretical Framework 5-layer network model
  • Application Layer (Layer-5)
  • Transport Layer
  • Network Layer
  • Data Link Layer
  • Physical Layer (Layer-1)

4
Five-Layer Network ModelMajor Functions
  • Application Layer (top)
  • User interface with application software
  • HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)
  • Example of an application layer address
    www.bus.oregonstate.edu

5
Five-Layer Network ModelMajor Functions
  • Transport Layer
  • Packetizing
  • Breaking large messages into smaller packets at
    source
  • Reassembling packets at final destination
  • Creates/appends TCP (Transmission Control
    Protocol) header
  • Packet
  • Source/Destination Port ID
  • 80 (Web)
  • 25 (E-mail)

6
Five-Layer Network ModelMajor Functions contd
  • Network Layer Addressing and Routing.
  • Internet Protocol prepares IP header.
  • Contents of IP header include Source/Destination
    IP Address and Routing Information
  • Example of an IP address 128.192.64.224
  • Addressing
  • DHCP Server (Dynamic Host Control Protocol
    Server)
  • Assigns IP addresses to client machines
    requesting an IP address
  • DNS Server (Domain Name Service Server)
  • Similar to directory assistance used for
    finding destination IP addresses.
  • Routing
  • Routing tables Routers (Tracert) Routing
    Protocols

7
Five-Layer Network ModelMajor Functions contd
  • Data Link Layer
  • Media Access Control (Handling message
    collisions)
  • Error Detection/Error Correction
  • Message Delineation (Identifying beginning and
    ending of packets since all computer
    transmissions go out as 0s and 1s over the
    physical layer)
  • DL layer appends a DL header and DL Trailer

8
Data Link LayerData Direction Methods
  • Methods to direct data between locations
  • Circuit switching
  • Packet switching
  • Frame relay
  • Faster, less expensive
  • Does not perform error correction

9
Data Link LayerData Direction Methods (contd)
  • ISDN
  • Worldwide digital protocol using existing
    twisted-pair telephone lines
  • Transmit voice, video and data up to 1.5 Mbps
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
  • Seamlessly and dynamically switch voice, data and
    video
  • Speeds range from 155 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps
  • Uses uniform cells (53 by 8) eliminating need for
    protocol conversion

10
Data Link LayerProtocols
  • Ethernet Bus with CSMA/CD
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
  • Fast Ethernet (100 mbps)
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • Token Ring
  • FDDI
  • Fiber Distributed Data Interface
  • Token Ring on fiber

11
(No Transcript)
12
(No Transcript)
13
(No Transcript)
14
(No Transcript)
15
FDDI
16
FDDI (Continued)
17
Data Link LayerInternetworking Devices
  • Hubs Multiplexers
  • Switches Routers
  • DSL/Cable Modems

18
Internetworking Devices
  • Connect Networks together
  • Gateway (AL)
  • Translate protocols
  • Router (NL)
  • Routes messages between same protocol
  • Bridge (DL)
  • Same protocol
  • Hubs (PL)
  • Broadcast
  • Switch (all)
  • Point-to-point
  • Multiplexers

19
Layer 1 - Physical Layer
  • Wired Media/Wireless Media Examples
  • Twisted pair Coaxial Fiber Optic Cables
  • Microwave Satellites and wireless (cell phones)

20
Physical LayerBackground on Telecommunications
  • Modem
  • Modulate demodulate
  • Multiplexing

21
Physical LayerTelecommunications Media
  • Criteria that determine ability to transmit data
  • Frequency cycles per second (baud). Hertz is
    one cycle per second. measure of speed. (assume
    send one bit per cycle)
  • Bandwidth difference between highest and lowest
    frequencies which can be transmitted. measure of
    capacity (pulse-code modulation)
  • Attenuation signal strength weakens as it
    travels over distance.
  • Interference EMI (electromagnetic) and RFI
    (radio frequency)

22
Physical LayerTelecommunications Media (contd)
  • Twisted Pair standard telephone lines
  • High availability
  • Lower speeds, poor security
  • High-speed data lines
  • T1 (1.54 mbps)
  • T3 (45 mbps)
  • Cable coaxial cable
  • Less interference, higher bandwidth
  • Higher cost, low security

23
Physical LayerTelecommunications Media (contd)
  • Microwave
  • Towers spaced 30 miles apart (line of sight)
  • Easier than trenching wires into dirt
  • Susceptible to interference
  • Satellite
  • Eliminates line-of-sight issue
  • Propagation delay
  • HF (high frequency)/RF (radio frequency)
  • Use for short range (within warehouse)

24
Physical Layer Broadband Communications
  • High-speed connections
  • Distinguish upstream and downstream
  • 56K modem has upstream of 31.2 and downstream of
    56
  • For Internet use, need higher downstream rates
  • Three options
  • DSL (telephone lines)
  • Cable Modem (cable)
  • Satellite (microwave)

25
Cable Modem
  • Send and receive data over the coaxial cable used
    in cable television system

26
Advantages of Cable Modem
  • Speed
  • The fastest home Internet connection speeds
    possible
  • Up to 30 mbps (megabits per second)
  • Ease of setup
  • As simple as installing regular cable
  • Call local provider for setup
  • Low cost
  • Add-on to Cable

27
Disadvantage
  • Must have cable
  • Speed dependent on number of users
  • High installation fee

28
DSL - Digital Subscriber Lines
  • Brings high bandwidth information to homes or
    small businesses over ordinary telephone lines
  • Can use telephone and PC on the same line and at
    the same time

29
Advantages
  • Speed --
  • Individual connections will provide from 512 Kbps
    to 1.544 Mbps downstream and about 128 Kbps
    upstream
  • These are not shared (as in cable modem)
  • Carries voice conversations and data connections
    at the same time

30
Disadvantages
  • Restricted availability
  • Must be within 3 miles of switching station
  • Attenuation of signal
  • Higher cost for higher speeds

31
Satellite Technologies
  • A device used to transmit and receive signals
    from a satellite transponder

32
How does it work?
33
Advantages
  • Speed
  • 400 Kbps downstream, upstream through modem
  • Internet and TV on one dish
  • Can be used in remote areas
  • Easy to install

34
Disadvantages
  • Slower than DSL or cable modem
  • Higher cost

35
Physical Layer Wireless Wide Area Network
  • Multiple competing technologies
  • CDMA - 1xRTT code-division multiple access
  • Verison and Sprint
  • 70 kbps data rate
  • Mostly US, Canada, Korea
  • GSM-GPRS global system for mobile communication
  • T-Mobile and ATT
  • 40 kbps data rate
  • Available world-wide
  • T-Mobile has roaming agreements in Europe
  • CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
  • Based on IP (packet switched) and conforms to ISO
    standards
  • Up to 19.2 kbps data rate

36
Physical Layer Wireless Local Area Network
  • Closer to having standards for WLAN
  • Wi-Fi 802.11 families
  • (b) wireless ethernet.
  • 2.5 Ghz band
  • 11 mbps (5 mbps data rate)
  • (a) proposed standard. 54 mbps on 5 Gig radio
    band
  • (g) works in b band, but delivers 54 mbps speed
    (20 mbps data rate)
  • Bluetooth
  • Connect devices to PC within 30 feet
  • 710 kbps
  • IR devices
  • 6 feet, 4 mbps
  • WiMax

37
Application LayerWireless Application Protocol
  • WAP
  • Format web pages for display on wireless devices
  • Move to fully synchronized PDAs
  • Providence Health Care

38
Local Area Network
  • Connects PCs together
  • Peer-to-peer
  • Server-based
  • File server
  • Distance restrictions
  • Between 1000 and 5000 feet
  • Why?

39
Wide Area Network
  • What is it?
  • How connect?
  • Leased Lines
  • Satellite
  • Other options
  • VAN
  • Private, data-only network managed by third party
  • Virtual Private Network
  • Run WAN over internet (tunneling)

40
What is the Internet?
  • Global network of LANs
  • How did Internet evolve?
  • Originated in 1969, restricted to government,
    research and education (Arpanet)
  • WWW released in 1992
  • In 1993
  • Ban on commercial use lifted
  • Mosaic released
  • Growth (different data depending on source)
  • 3 million in 94
  • 40 million in 97
  • 100 million in 98

41
What are the underlying technologies?
  • Packet Switching
  • .X25 standard uses packets of 128 bytes
  • Each packet travels independently through network
  • Protocols TCP/IP
  • Internet Protocol destination address
  • Each computer has its own IP address
  • Domain name system (DNS)
  • Transmission Control Protocol breaks
    information into data packets

42
Backbone
43
What is WWW?
  • Application that uses the internet
  • Set a standards for storing, retrieving,
    formatting and displaying information via
    client/server architecture
  • HTML standard language
  • Connection
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • Hypertext transport protocol (http)
    communication protocol to transfer pages
  • ftp File Transfer Protocol
About PowerShow.com