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YEARS OF CRISIS

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years of crisis 1919-1939 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: YEARS OF CRISIS


1
YEARS OF CRISIS
  • 1919-1939

2
SCIENCE AND ART IMPACT SOCIETY
  • ALBERT EINSTEIN
  • THEORY OF RELATIVITY WHILE THE SPEED OF LIGHT IS
    CONSTANT ( 186,000MILES PER SECOND ), OTHER
    THINGS SUCH AS SPACE AND TIME ARE NOT CONSTANT.

3
SCIENCE AND ART IMPACT SOCIETY
  • SIGMUND FREUD AUSTRIAN DOCTOR THAT BELIEVED
    EVERYONE HAS AN UNCONCIOUS MIND THAT SEEKS THINGS
    YOUR CONCIOUS MIND IS UNAWARE OF.
  • EXISTENTIALISM PHILOSOPHY THAT THERE IS NO
    UNIVERSAL MEANING IN LIFE AND THAT EACH PERSON
    GAVE THEIR OWN MEANING TO LIFE THROUGH CHOICES
    MADE.
  • FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE EXISTENTIALIST THAT THOUGHT
    WESTERNERS PUT TOO MUCH EMPHASIS ON REASON,
    DEMOCRACY, AND PROGRESS AND NOT ENOUGH ON PRIDE,
    ASSERTIVENESS, AND STRENGTH.

4
SCIENCE AND ART IMPACT SOCIETY
  • SURREALISM AN ART MOVEMENT THAT SOUGHT TO LINK
    THE WORLD OF DREAMS WITH THAT OF REAL LIFE.
  • FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT AMERICAN ARCHITECT THAT
    PIONEERED FUNCTIONALISM.
  • FUNCTIONALISM ARCHITECTUAL STYLE OF DESIGNING
    BUILDINGS W/ CLEAN, LOW LINES AND OPEN INTERIORS.
  • JAZZ POPULAR NEW MUSIC STYLE OF THE 1920S THAT
    WAS DEVELOPED IN NEW ORLEANS, MEMPHIS, AND
    CHICAGO.

5
LINDBURG THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS AMERICAN
PILOT THAT FLEW FROM NEW YORK TO PARIS IN 1927.
6
ROARING TWENTIES
  • YOUTH REBELLION OF THE 1920S WAS DUE IN PART BY
    THE NEW ROLE OF WOMEN IN WWI. Roaring 20's video
    clip.asf
  • WOMEN STOPPED WEARING RESTRICTIVE CLOTHING AND
    CHANGED HAIRSTYLES.
  • REBELLION IN THE US WAS IN FULL SWING.

7
ROARING TWENTIES
  • Thanks to Henry Ford and mass production, one
    could buy a ford for 290.  The Volstead Act
    became effective Jan 16, 1920 and made the sale
    of a drink containing as much as one half-ounce
    of alcohol unlawful. This one unsuccessful act
    brought about much of the flavor of the Jazz Age
    or Roaring Twenties as we know them. This was a
    period of  prohibition and intolerance,
    speakeasies, flappers, gangsters, and crime.

8
ROARING TWENTIES
  • Hootch was supplied by Dutch Schultz and Al
    Capone.  The Nineteenth Amendment had passed the
    previous year allowing women the right to vote in
    national elections.  At the beginning of the
    decade the US was paralyzed by the grip of the
    red scare . Racial tensions were high and quotas
    were set for immigrants coming into America. The
    Klan was very active during this period.

9
ROARING TWENTIES
  • The decade was a wonderful one for all of the
    arts and literature in America. Technology grew -
    the country shrunk - as popularity of
    automobiles, radios, and movies exploded. Buying
    on credit or installments was an outcome of the
    industrial age. In the fall of 1929, the New York
    Stock Exchange was more active than it had ever
    been. Economists predicted a permanent high
    plateau. By October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday, the
    stock market crashed and panic broke out. Banks
    closed. The nation stayed in this depression
    through the end of the twenties and most of the
    thirties. 

10
ROARING TWENTIES
  • Black Tuesday or the Wall Street Crash refers to
    October 29, 1929, the day when the New York Stock
    Exchange crashed, leading eventually to the Great
    Depression. The crash followed a speculative boom
    which had taken hold in the late 1920s, which had
    led millions of Americans to invest heavily in
    the stock market.

11
  • This investment drove share prices up to
    artificially high levels, the rising share prices
    encouraged more people to invest, as they hoped
    the shares would rise further, thus fueling
    further rises, and creating an economic bubble.
    The banks lent heavily to fund this share buying
    spree.

12
  • On October 29, 1929, the bubble finally burst and
    panic selling set in. Thirteen million shares
    were sold in the space of one day, as people
    desperately tried to dispose of their shares
    before they became worthless.
  • Over the following few days another thirty
    million shares were sold, and share prices
    collapsed, ruining millions of investors.

13
  • The banks who had lent heavily to fund share
    buying, found themselves saddled with debt, which
    caused many banks to go bankrupt. Millions of
    people lost their savings, businesses lost their
    credit lines and failed, causing massive
    unemployment.
  • The crash dramatically worsened an already
    fragile economic situation, and was a major
    contributing factor to the Great Depression.

14
DUKE ELLINGTON

                                    
  • LEADER OF THE HOUSE BAND OF THE COTTON CLUB OF
    NEW YORK CITY.

15
BABE RUTH
  • In 1931, the Babe made 80,000, the top salary of
    his 21-year career. At the time, President
    Herbert Hoover made 75,000. -RUTH BROUGHT BACK
    BASEBALL AFTER THE 1919 WORLD SERIES SCANDAL.

16
A GLOBAL DEPRESSION
  • THE GREAT WAR LEFT NEARLY EVERY MAJOR EUROPEAN
    COUNTRY BANKRUPT.
  • US AND JAPAN CAME OUT OF WWI IN BETTER FINANCIAL
    SHAPE THAN THEY ENTERED IT.
  • COALITION GOVT TEMPORARY ALLIANCE OF SEVERAL
    PARTIES THAT COME TOGETHER TO FORM A TEMPORARY
    PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY.

17
GERMAN SLIDE
  • WEIMAR REPUBLIC GERMANYS NEW DEMOCRATIC GOVT.
  • WEIMAR REBUBLICS 3 WEAKNESSES
  • GERMANY LACKED A STRONG DEMOCRATIC TRADITION.
  • GERMANY HAD TOO MANY POLITICAL PARTIES.
  • MANY GERMANS BLAMED THE WEIMAR REBUBLIC FOR
    GERMANYS POST WAR HUMILIATION.

18
GERMAN SLIDE
  • GERMANYS UNSTABLE ECONOMY
  • UNLIKE BRITAIN AND FRANCE GERMANY DID NOT
    INCREASE ITS WAR TIME TAXES.
  • INSTEAD, TO PAY THEIR WAR EXPENSE, THEY PRINTED
    MORE MONEY.
  • THIS RESULTED IN THE VALUE OF THE MARK (
    GERMANYS CURRENCY ) DROPPING DRASTICALLY.
  • FOR EXAMPLE, IN BERLIN A LOAF OF BREAD COST LESS
    THAN A MARK IN 1918, MORE THAN 160 MARKS IN 1922,
    AND 200 BILLION MARKS IN 1923.

19
GERMAN RECOVERY
  • CHARLES DAWES US BANKER THAT PROVIDED A PLAN TO
    LIFT GERMAN INFLATION AND STABILIZE GERMAN
    CURRENCY AND ECONOMY.

20
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
21
THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Causes of The Great depression
  • Unequal distribution of wealth
  • High Tariffs and war debts
  • Over production in industry and agriculture
  • Stock market crash and financial panic
  • BLACK TUESDAY OCTOBER 29, 1929 
  • Effects of The Great depression
  • Widespread hunger, poverty, and unemployment
  • Worldwide economic crisis
  • Democratic victory in 1932 election
  • FDR's New Deal

22
GREAT DEPRESSION
23
GREAT DEPRESSION
  • The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange
    just after the crash of 1929. On Black Tuesday,
    October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. In a
    single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a
    record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into
    thin air. Westinghouse lost two thirds of its
    September value. DuPont dropped seventy points.
    The "Era of Get Rich Quick" was over. Jack
    Dempsey, America's first millionaire athlete,
    lost 3 million. Cynical New York hotel clerks
    asked incoming guests, "You want a room for
    sleeping or jumping?"

24
Unemployed men vying for jobs at the American
Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during
the Great Depression.
25
Bud Fields and his family. Alabama. 1935 or 1936.
Photographer Walker Evans.
26
Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October,
1935.
27
Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County,
Oklahoma, 1936.
28
  • The drought that helped cripple agriculture in
    the Great Depression was the worst in the
    climatological history of the country. By 1934 it
    had dessicated the Great Plains, from North
    Dakota to Texas, from the Mississippi River
    Valley to the Rockies. Vast dust storms swept the
    region.

29
In one of the largest pea camps in California.
February, 1936.
30
The photograph that has become known as "Migrant
Mother"
31
Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County,
Alabama, Summer 1936.
32
Unemployed workers in front of a shack with
Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City.
December 1937.
33
Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup,
Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sept. 1939.
34
US RECOVERS FROM THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • After 3 Republican presidents, The US was ready
    to try a Democrat and FDR won 1932 election by a
    landslide.
  • Roosevelt immediately began a program he called
    The New Deal.
  • THE NEW DEAL PROVIDED WORK FOR THE UNEMPLOYED AND
    STARTED NEW GOVT PROGRAMS TO AIDE WELFARE AND
    RELIEF PROGRAMS.
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