MESOAMERICA: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 21
About This Presentation
Title:

MESOAMERICA:

Description:

mesoamerica: maya, aztec, inca – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:233
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: Span161
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: MESOAMERICA:


1
MESOAMERICA
  • MAYA, AZTEC, INCA

2
(No Transcript)
3
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
  • What are the similarities and differences
    between the three Mesoamerican civilizations?

4
GEOGRAPHY PG. 385
  • -North America and South America make up the
    Americas region
  • -North America
  • -mountains, deserts, plains, forests
  • -north is cold and icy
  • -south is warmer
  • -Mesoamerica
  • -southern part of modern Mexico and northern
    countries of Central America
  • -rain forests
  • -volcanoes (create fertile soil)
  • -farming is good
  • -South America
  • -Andes Mountains on western shore
  • -Amazon rain forest east of Andes (largest rain
    forest in the world-35 of South
    America-estimated producer of 50 of worlds
    oxygen!)
  • -Amazon River (west to east-2nd longest river
    in the world)

5
(No Transcript)
6
MAYA AZTEC PG. 411 INCA PG. 423
-Mesoamerica around 1000 BC -thick forests (hard to farm, but lots of animals and resources) -farmers from northern Mexico who migrated south in the 1100s -all good farmland was taken, so they hired themselves out as skilled fighters -based civilization on advances from earlier people (terrace farming in highlands and irrigation farming along coast)
7
TRADE ECONOMY
  • -first settlers in Americas were nomadic
  • -small villages formed and people started
    growing maize, beans, squash, potatoes
    (South America)

8
TRADE ECONOMY contd.
MAYA PG. 391 AZTEC INCA PG. 423
-Trade grew and population grew -lowlands cotton, rubber trees, cacao beans (chocolate was known as food of the gods) -highlands jade and obsidian -big cities by 200 AD -Aztec economy was based on tributes conquered tribes were required to pay (cotton, gold, food) -built causeways (raised roads above water) to help with trade -people had to pay the government in labor (no taxes) -raised llamas for meat and wool -no merchants or markets in the Inca Empire (the government would distribute goods only got two sets of clothes-one formal and one casual and would wear until they literally fell apart)
9
POLITICS GOVERNMENT
MAYA PGS. 392-393 AZTEC PG. 412 INCA PG. 423
-Classic Age 250-900 -cities had pyramids, temples, and palaces -paved plazas for gatherings, canals, ball courts (more on this in Society Culture) -each city ruled independently (no central government) -Pacal became king at 12 in Palenque and focused on community events and building his grand temple -grew most powerful by 1500s (had merchant spies to quell rebellion) -capital city was Tenochtitlan -water undrinkablebuilt aqueducts -farming difficultbuilt chinampas (floating rafts with soil attached to trees in the water) -Pachacuti led Incas in 1400s -rebuilt capital at Cuzco -expanded empire (made leaders of conquered areas move out and then brought in their own loyal leaderssent children to learn Inca ways and then they returned to rule as an Inca) -established an official languageQuechua only spoken, not written -people had to pay the government in labor (no taxes)

10
POLITICS GOVERNMENTSOCIAL CLASSES
MAYA AZTEC PGS. 416-418 INCA
-Upper Class controlled all elements of society king (feather headdresses, cotton capes, jaguar skins), priests, warriors, merchants (upper class did allow lower class to participate in daily religious ceremonies) -Lower Classes farming families (had to pay their rulers with cloth and salthad to serve in battlehad to build temples) -Slaves orphans, slaves children, and people who owed money became slaves -divided into calpullis -king (lived in a palace with a zoo, aviary) -nobles (tax collectors and judges who helped king) -priests and warriors (priests kept calendars, passed down history, performed ceremonies and warriors were respected for wealth they brought) -merchants and artisans (merchants became rich through controlling trade and artisans through making goods for the king and nobles) -farmers and slaves (farmers did not own land and slaves could be sacrificed to gods if disobeyed) -Upper Class (Incas from Cuzco-kings, priests, officials)did not have to pay the labor tax men could have multiple wives -Lower Class (farmers, artisans, servants)most kids did not go to school, but some girls were sent to trade schools and then sent to serve the kingmen could only have one wife -No Slaves

11
RELIGION
MAYA AZTEC PG. 419 INCA PG. 423
-worshipped several elemental gods (mostly the creator) -believed gods needed blood to keep from causing disasters or ending the world, so they pierced their tongues and skin (on special occasions, extra blood was neededhuman sacrificesusually slaves or prisoners) -many gods based on elements -sacrifices were required to keep gods strong -some think priests sacrificed as many as 10,000 people a year in religious ceremonies -many different gods (conquered people had to worship Inca gods, but could worship their own gods, too) -sun god very important (ceremony at Machu Picchu PGS. 428-429) -mummified kings were revered and often brought to ceremonies -sacrifices (not as many brutal humanllamas, cloth, food, children left to die in cold-not heart ripped out-probably peasant from conquered people fattened up for up to a year before)
12
Society Culture
  • Early civilizations
  • Olmec
  • Mesoamerica in 1200 BC
  • First complex civilization in the Americas
  • Statues of leaders heads and gods
  • Maybe had writing and a calendar
  • Traded with nearby villages and along the Pacific
    coast
  • Ended around 400 BC
  • Chavin (chah-VEEN)
  • First civilization in South America
  • Lasted from 900-200 BC
  • Woven textiles, stone monuments, pottery

13
Society Culture
MAYA PG. 392-393 AZTEC PG. 412 INCA PG.423
Cities had pyramids, temples and palaces. Paved plazas for gatherings, canals, ball courts. Games players used their heads, shoulders and hips to bounce a rubber ball through a hoop above their heads the winners received jewels and clothing the losers were sometimes killed. Marriage men at 20, women by age 14. Marriages determined by village matchmaker. Oral tradition Tenochtitlan capital city Based on advances from earlier people terrace farming in highlands and irrigation farming along the coast. Quechua official language. Only spoken, not written. No merchants or markets in the Inca Empire. Only two sets of clothes one formal and one casual and they were worn until they fell apart.
14
Society Culture
  • Tenochtitlan today under Mexico City

15
Society Culture
  • Mayan Ball Game

16
Society Culture
  • Exploring the Mayan Ball Game
  • www.ballgame.org

17
Society Culture Social Classes
MAYA AZTEC INCA
Remember Upper class Lower class Slaves Remember Divided into Calpullis King Nobles Priests and warriors Merchants and artisans Farmers and slaves Remember Upper class Lower class No slaves
18
Science Technology
MAYA PG. 398-399 AZTEC PG. 420-421 INCA PG. 430-433
Architecture did not use metal tools. Did not have wheeled vehicles they cut stone with obsidian and rolled it on logs and lifted it with ropes. Observatories 365 days in a year Moon cycles Calendars one for religious ceremonies and one for agriculture Created a symbol for zero Writing system similar to hieroglyphics. Popol Vuh book where Maya legend and history were written. Knew plants as medicine Stone bridges and canals causeways and aqueducts Pyramid-shaped stone temples Chinampas floating rafts of soil attached to trees in the water. Codex books made of bark or animal skins Buildings and forts made of stone Their stonework was so precise that no cement was needed to hold the stone blocks together and several buildings are still being USED TODAY! System of roads Two highways connected the entire empire. Gold and silver jewelry A life size field of corn made out of gold and silver in a temple courtyard! Textiles
19
The Aztecs
20
Collapse
MAYA AZTEC PG. 413 INCA PG.425
Mayan civilization disappears. Why? Increased warfare Too many people to feed (people eventually fled cities and moved back to farming countryside) Kings made too many harsh demands on the people Drought Most likely a combination of these Collapse by 900s. Europeans arrive in the late 1400s Cortes comes from Spain 1519 in search of gold. Moctezuma thinks Cortes is a god who was said to return in 1519. Moctezuma sends Cortes gifts. In response, Moctezuma is taken prisoner. Aztecs revolt and drive out the Spanish Spanish come back in 1521 with Indian allies and kill Moctezuma. The Aztecs are conquered! After the Inca ruler dies, his two sons fight for power. Atahualpa wins, but the empire is weakened. Atahualpa was on his way to be crowned and got word that the Spanish had arrived (led by Pizarro) Atahualpa agrees to meet with Pizarro. Pizarro tells Atahualpa to convert to Christianity Atahualpa says NO. Pizarro attacked and captured Atahualpa. Incas try to buy the Spanish off with gold, but they kill Atahualpa anyway. The Incas are captured!
21
Collapse
  • How did the Spanish defeat the powerful Aztecs?
  • Alliances (American Indians Malintzin pg.
    415)
  • Weapons (Spanish had armor, cannons, swords, and
    horses which the Aztecs had never seen before)
  • Geography (Spanish blocked causeways, bridges,
    and waterways to cut off Tenochtitlans drinking
    water and supplies Aztecs died of starvation)
  • Disease (Spanish brought smallpox)
  • How did the Spanish defeat the Incas?
  • Internal conflict
  • Atahualpa is captured
  • Weapons (Spanish had armor, cannons, swords, and
    horses)
  • Disease (Spanish brought smallpox)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com