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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

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Title: ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE Author: Sonia Last modified by: 108337 Created Date: 8/19/2008 2:12:31 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE


1
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
2
LEP
  • Limited English Proficient student
  • Does not refer to the program the students is
    placed in
  • Refers to the students himself/herself. The
    student can be
  • in the bilingual program
  • in the ESL program
  • attending elementary school
  • attending middle school
  • attending high School
  • A students can be LEP and still take STAAR
  • A student can be LEP for his/her entire school
    career
  • A student can be LEP and be in all mainstream
    classes

3
What is ESL?
  • Refers to the program/services the student is
    receiving
  • Does not refer the students himself/herself,
    student is LEP not ESL
  • Teaches the student to read, write, and speak in
    English while learning the grade level TEKS and
    ELPS
  • At ________ School, we have ___ LEP students and
    ____ monitored students
  • 4 Levels of ESL
  • Newcomers/ESL 1 students still in the
    beginning stages of English acquisition
  • ESL 2 - students still in the Intermediate/Advanc
    ed stages of English acquisition
  • ESL 3 students in regular classes with ESL
    certified ELAR teachers
  • plus ESL SPED
  • SPED is primary program
  • ESL and SPED work together on IEP

4
Who is in the ESL program?
  • A student is considered for the ESL program when
  • home language survey indicates a language other
    than English is spoken by student
  • student scores less than fluent on the IPT exam
    (oral exam given by the ESL teacher)
  • student scores less than the 40th percentile on
    the ITBS exam for language and reading (written
    exam given by the ESL teacher)
  • How do they get in the ESL program?

5
Qualify for ESL Program
  • Student does not meet criteria
  • Students meets all criteria
  • Student is entered into the ESL program
  • Student is placed in sheltered classes, with an
    ESL certified ELAR teacher or with the ESL
    teacher (depends on level of English)
  • Student is monitored in all core content classes
    by the ESL teacher
  • Additional language acquisition assistance is
    available
  • Student in invited to the after school ESL club ,
    when available
  • If the students scores fluent on the IPT and
    above the 40th tile of all areas of the ITBS
    exam, then
  • Student is considered a DNQ or Does Not Qualify
  • Not entered into the ESL program
  • Placed in all mainstream classes

6
The ESL Program
  • at _______School

7
Who teaches LEP Students?
  • Newcomer/Beginners (ESL 1) ELAR classes ______
  • Intermediate/Advanced (ESL 2) ELAR classes
    _______
  • STAAR Takers STAAR Failures Regular
    ELAR/English
  • classes with ESL certified teachers
  • Science, Social Studies, Math regular classes
    with a variety of teachers

8
What tests do LEP students take?
  • IPT IDEA Proficiency Test, oral English
  • TELPAS - Texas English Language Proficiency
    Assessment System includes an online
    multiple-choice reading tests, holistically rated
    student writing collections, and holistically
    rated listening and speaking assessments.
  • STAAR This is the samelive STAAR test,
    on-grade level, in reading, writing, math,
    science, history. Students with less than 3
    years in US schools are eligible to receive
    limited additional help, plus they can take until
    the end of the day to complete the exam.
  • Texas Education Agency. (n.d.). List of Approved
    Tests for Assessment of Limited English
    Proficient Students

9
What is the ESL Exit Criteria for McKinney ISD?
  • Fluent English Speaker on the oral IPT exam
  • Student must achieve Advanced High on all domains
    of TELPAS
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Exited ESL students are monitored for two years
    by the LPAC chairperson
  • Sped Students have individualized exiting
    criteria based on their EIP (for those who no
    longer have a language deficiency) as set forth
    by the ARD committee and the ESL LPAC chairperson

10
Language Acquisition
  • How do students acquire the target language?

11
Language Acquisition
  • How long does it take the average person to
    become fluent in a second or third or more
    language(s)?

12
Language Acquisition
  • 7 to 10 YEARS!
  • (Krashen, S. 1998)

13
BICS vs. CALPS
  • BICS
  • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • Social Language the language of friends and the
    hallway
  • Less than 1 year to acquire
  • CALPS
  • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills
  • Academic Language the language of the classroom
    and teacher
  • 7 to 10 years to acquire
  • Haynes, Judie, 1997-2008

14
Myth
  • It is easier for younger children to acquire a
    second language.
  • The older the student, the harder it is for him
    to acquire a second language.
  • No, it is not easier for the younger children to
    acquire a second language
  • They have a smaller cognitive academic load
    therefore it only appears that they have an
    easier time acquiring English
  • No, it is not harder for most older children to
    acquire a second language
  • The cognitive academic load required is so great
    that it simply appears to be harder
  • McLaughlin, Barry, (1992)

15
True or False?
  • UsuallyFalse
  • The student may be able to communicate in BICS or
    basic interpersonal communication skills
  • The student may not be able to hold an advanced
    academic discussion in CALPS or Cognitive
    Academic Language Proficiency Skills
  • Successful language acquisition is when the
    student has acquired both BICS and CALPS and is
    able to communicate in the language successfully
  • A student, who can speak to me in English without
    errors, is fluent?

McLaughlin, Barry, (1992)
16
Language Acquisition
  • How many years does the state of Texas give
    middle school students to become fluent in
    English before they need to take STAAR?

17
Language Acquisition
  • As of 2011-2012
  • 0 school years
  • All students, regardless of LEP status, take the
    regular STAAR exam. ESL students who have been in
    US schools less than 3 years are able to use a
    dictionary and ask for help (in English) on some,
    but not all, the STAAR exams
  • Texas Education Agency

18
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
  • What makes it easier or harder?

19
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
  • Motivation - could be from lack of success or a
    multitude of other reasons within and outside of
    the schools control and influence
  • First language development - it is easier to
    transfer knowledge from one language to another
    than it is to learn information new in a second
    language
  • Access to the language they may have limited
    access to or sources of English materials at
    home, within the community, at church, etc.
  • Age the older students have a more demanding
    cognitive load to learn than younger children
  • Personality and learning style
  • Echevarria, J. Graves, A.
  • Walqui, A.
  • Narayanan, R., Rajasekaran Nair, N. Iyyappan,
    S. (2008)

20
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
  • Amount and quality of education in L1 (first
    language)
  • Poor vocabulary development in either/both their
    first and second language
  • Lack of accommodations being used in classroom
  • Frustration at feeling stupid in a new language
  • Inability to communicate with teacher/classmates
  • Relationships, or lack of, with current
    teacher(s)
  • Fear of asking for help, fear of not being able
    to pronounce words correctly, fear of sounding
    stupid
  • Lack of opportunity to practice before graded
  • Peers and role models friends are everything in
    middle school
  • Quality of instruction the student may be with
    teachers who are not skilled in ESL strategies or
    techniques
  • Echevarria, J. Graves, A.
  • Walqui, A.
  • Narayanan, R., Rajasekaran Nair, N. Iyyappan,
    S. (2008)

21
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
  • Lack of cultural sensitivity on the part of the
    teachers, principals, support staff, and other
    students
  • Limited auditory storage capacity before
    cognitive processing
  • Lack of knowledge regarding cognates
  • Teachers confusing BICS with CALPS
  • Lack of parent contact/involvement (due to many
    reasons and obstacles)
  • Intelligence
  • Aptitude the students potential for
    achievement
  • Self-confidence
  • Personality
  • Echevarria, J. Graves, A.
  • Walqui, A.
  • Narayanan, R., Rajasekaran Nair, N. Iyyappan,
    S. (2008)

22
Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition
  • Attitude toward school and learning
  • Beliefs about learning and intelligence as it
    relates to themselves, their sex, their
    nationality, etc.
  • Language anxiety factors
  • Socio-economic factors student who are
    considered low SES may not have the same access
    to materials, tutors, literature, etc. as the
    students from more affluent families
  • Narayanan, R., Rajasekaran Nair, N. Iyyappan,
    S. (2008)
  • Echevarria, J. Graves, A.
  • Walqui, A.
  • Lucid, C.

23
Some Important Statistics
  • for all learners, not just ESL

24
Vocabulary Instruction
  • Research shows a student in the 50th percentile
    in terms of ability to comprehend the subject
    matter taught in school, with no direct
    vocabulary instruction, scores in the 50th
    percentile ranking.

Marzano, R. (2005)
25
Vocabulary Instruction
  • The same student, after specific content-area
    terms have been taught, raises his/her
    comprehension ability to the 83rd percentile.

Marzano, R. (2005)
26
Vocabulary Instruction
  • How many new words does a LEP or low SES student
    need to learn EACH DAY in order to catch up to a
    students at their same grade level?

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
27
Vocabulary Instruction
  • 17 new words per day
  • or
  • 3000 new words per school year

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
28
Vocabulary Instruction
  • How many times must a student interact with a
    word before she
  • owns it?

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
29
Vocabulary Instruction
  • 24 times

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
30
Sheltered Techniques and Strategies
  • How can I help the ESL student in my class?

31
Accommodations
  • You will receive a list of accommodations for
    each ESL student you have in your classes
  • These accommodations are specific to each
    student, as best I can make them
  • All accommodations must be followed by law
    Chapter 89. Adaptations for Special Populations -
    Subchapter BB. Commissioner's Rules Concerning
    State Plan for Educating Limited English
    Proficient Students
  • If you feel an accommodation is not working - try
    a different one BUT remember to document why you
    changed the accommodations
  • Let me know if I can help you implement any of
    the accommodations, I would be happy to come
    demonstrate them for you

32
Sheltered Instruction
  • Some schools in MISD use the sheltered
    instruction model to deliver ESL instruction
  • True sheltered instruction is delivered by a
    teacher who speaks the same first language as the
    LEP students
  • Some MISD schools provide a modified Sheltered
    Instruction model which can be delivered by a
    teacher who does not speak the same 1st language
    as the students
  • Many schools do not provide any form of sheltered
    instruction, but do place students with SIOP
    (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol)
    trained ESL certified ELAR and/or content
    teachers
  • Our school uses the _____ model to provide ESL
    instruction
  • Portland Public Schools (2012)

33
Sheltered Instruction
  • ____________ School uses the SIOP Method to
    provide ESL instruction, which is
  • A teaching style that makes content
    comprehensible for all learners
  • Specifically targets LEP students
  • Instruction delivered by a teacher trained in
    second language acquisition techniques
  • Supports the learner until the learner can
    perform in class on his/her own
  • All content is on grade level but accommodated to
    help make it more comprehensible to the learner
    (same rigor as everyone else)
  • Teachers use strategies and techniques that help
    the students access and/or build his/her
    background knowledge
  • The language and content objectives are clear and
    concise
  • Portland Public Schools (2012)

34
SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
  • 8 Steps of SIOP
  • Preparation
  • Building Background
  • Comprehensible Input
  • Strategies
  • Interaction
  • Practice Application
  • Lesson Delivery
  • Review Assessment

Brown University (2006)
35
Preparation
  • Focuses on language objectives and content
    objectives
  • Focusing on objectives helps students make
    connections with their background or prior
    knowledge of a topic
  • In this step, the teachers plans the lesson
    making sure to incorporate the strategies and
    techniques that make input or content
    comprehensible
  • Establish the criteria for assessment in this
    stage

Brown University (2006)
36
Building Background
  • The teacher helps the student link their own
    background knowledge to the new content being
    introduced
  • If the student doesnt have his own background
    knowledge to connect to the content, the teacher
    creates scenarios or experiences that help the
    student build his own background knowledge during
    the lesson
  • The teacher emphasizes key vocabulary for the
    unit
  • The teacher helps the student make personal
    connections throughout the process to increase
    chances of comprehension

Brown University (2006)
37
Comprehensible Input
  • Teachers make sure to present all content in a
    way that makes it understandable to the students
  • Content needs to be rigorous, but the teachers
    speech and the materials used are adjusted for
    maximum comprehension
  • To make input comprehensible, teachers use
  • realia
  • pictures
  • video
  • technology
  • modeling
  • redundancy
  • hands-on manipulatives
  • graphic organizers
  • slower speech
  • examples
  • TPR

Brown University (2006)
38
Strategies
  • Teachers use techniques to make the content more
    understandable to the student
  • Teachers model all the techniques
  • Teachers assist, or scaffold, the learner until
    the learner can perform and/or comprehend on her
    own
  • Students need repeated practice with each
    strategy
  • Post the steps of the strategies in the room for
    the students to refer back to
  • Find ways to link the strategy to the students
    background or culture to make it more personal
    and therefore more purposeful
  • Craft activities and lessons that mirror the way
    the student would have learned in her own culture

Brown University (2006)
39
Interactions
  • There must be a purpose for the language being
    taught and used
  • Students need to practice with a variety of
    speakers to aid in comprehension
  • Students need to produce authentic, real
    language, not just memorized, regurgitated, rote
    memory language
  • Teachers need to model appropriate language
  • Provide frequent interactions with peers in
    different types of groupings, i.e. small groups,
    one to one, partner, whole group, etc.
  • REMEMBER the only place the students are going to
    use academic language is in your class they
    dont go home and practice academic language

Brown University (2006)
40
Practice Application
  • Students are given ample opportunities to
    practice and apply the knowledge they learn in
    meaningful ways
  • Students need a safe environment in which to
    practice and apply the knowledge
  • Students need appropriate support from teachers,
    support staff, and peers during this process
  • Teachers models how to self reflect on learning
  • Hands-on manipulatives and materials are
    essential when practicing and applying new
    knowledge
  • Provide practice and application opportunities in
    all 4 domains reading, writing, listening, and
    speaking

Brown University (2006)
41
Lesson Delivery
  • All the activities in the lessons should
    substantiate and support the objectives of the
    lesson (content and language)
  • Teachers should make the lessons as engaging as
    possible
  • Teachers should pace the lesson to meet the needs
    of all learners (as much as possible) or provide
    alternate lesson delivery methods if there is a
    large discrepancy between learners abilities
  • Effective lessons make the most of the students
    ability to engage in and comprehend the lessons
  • Highlight the language and content objectives
    during the entire lesson
  • 90-100 of the lesson should be highly engaging,
    meaningful activities
  • Use pacing strategies that meet the needs of all
    learners, remembering to adjust pacing to meet
    the individual needs within the classroom

Brown University (2006)
42
Review Assessment
  • Teachers uses the criteria for assessment that
    was established during the preparation stage
  • Teachers should assess both content and language
    objectives
  • Assessment is not necessarily a whole class,
    paper and pencil assessment ongoing and
    systematic assessment should be done in order to
    achieve a comprehensive view of the LEP students
    abilities
  • Consider using authentic assessment which gives a
    more comprehensive assessment of the students
    abilities
  • Alternate forms of assessment writing journals,
    graphic organizers, story telling, dictations,
    projects, response journals, cloze response,
    retelling, etc.
  • Use rubrics that are based on the English
    acquisition level of the individual students
    rather than a generic one for the entire class

Brown University (2006)
43
If you have not been SIOP trained
  • Content Area Teachers
  • Fine Arts Teachers
  • Log into Eduphoria
  • Click on ESL/Bilingual
  • Sign up for all 8 sessions of the SIOP
    professional development
  • Log into Eduphoria
  • Click on ESL/Bilingual
  • Sign up for all 6 sessions of the SIOP for Fine
    Arts professional development

44
If you are not been ESL certified
  • Content Area Teachers
  • Fine Arts Teachers
  • Sign up for the 2 day study course through
    Eduphoria
  • The ESL department will pay for your sub for the
    study course
  • Sign up and take the certification exam ESL
    Supplemental 154
  • The ESL department will reimburse you for taking
    the ESL exam after you pass
  • Once certified and added to your certificate, you
    will receive a stipend for teaching ESL students
  • Sign up for the 2 day study course through
    Eduphoria
  • The ESL department will pay for your sub for the
    study course
  • Sign up and take the certification exam ESL
    Supplemental 154
  • The ESL department will reimburse you for taking
    the ESL exam after you pass
  • There are no stipends for Fine Arts teachers at
    this time

45
Supporting Your ESL Students with Strategies
  • These strategies should be taught, used, modeled,
    and practiced each day in your classroom

46
When you have ESL students in your class
  • You are responsible (legally) for
  • Accommodating your lessons based on the
    accommodation sheets you were given
  • Tutoring your ESL students when they are not
    successful in your class, it is not the
    responsibility of the ESL teacher to tutor your
    content area but we are here to support your
    tutoring, if needed
  • Completing any paperwork given to you by the LPAC
    chairperson
  • Contacting and documenting parental or guardian
    contact You must call home first to find out if
    they speak a language other than English before
    referring the call to the ESL teacher or ESL
    aides (when you ask the student, his/her answer
    will always be that parents dont speak English
    so that you wont call)
  • Implementing the strategies known to be
    successful with ESL students and providing ample
    opportunities for the students to be successful
  • Finding alternate forms of assessment if the
    student cannot achieve success on assessments in
    your class
  • Contacting the ESL teacher when you have any
    questions or concerns regarding a students
  • You are the students best advocate!

47
Here are some ways you can help!
  • Strategies are
  • Taught at a very young age
  • Perfected throughout the rest of our lives
  • Need to be posted in the classroom all year
  • Must be explicitly modeled and practiced
  • Applicable across the curriculum and contents,
    i.e.
  • Looking for patterns
  • Graphing
  • Using roots, prefixes, suffixes

48
Strategy
  • Read Alouds
  • Use picture books, even with older ESL students
  • Aids in listening skills
  • Aids in comprehension skills
  • Make sure text is not too advanced for students
    or they will tune out while you are reading
  • Excellent for visual learners if they have a copy
    of the book in front of them
  • Who doesnt love to be read to!

Williams, M (2008)
49
Strategy
  • Use sentence frames to scaffold students use of
    academic vocabulary
  • Plants use ________ to make food.
  • ________is the process by which plants make
    _______from light, water, nutrients, and carbon
    dioxide.
  • This gives them confidence to answer questions
    when they otherwise wouldnt. Post generic frames
    around room for students to use when they dont
    know what to say.
  • Kinsella, K. Feldman, K. (2003)

50
Strategy
  • Use analogy sentence frame for academic or target
    word
  • Example
  • The word ____ is related to ______ when
  • The word measure is related to music when
  • The word respiration is related to lungs because
  • The word liberty is related to The United States
    by

Kinsella, K. Feldman, K. (2003)
51
Strategy
  • Older students can do more in depth analogies
    with a relating factor
  • _____ is to ______ as______ is to ______.
  • Relating Factor ____________
  • EX Bird is to flight as fish is to _____
  • Relating Factor mode of transportation

Kinsella, K. Feldman, K. (2003)
52
Strategy
  • Polysemous words and Multiple Meaning words
  • same word that has multiple uses and meanings
  • must be taught explicitly
  • they cross content areas, even into Fine Arts
    classes
  • these words cause breakdowns in understanding on
    standardize exams
  • for example measure

Kinsella, K. Feldman, K. (2003)
53
Strategy
  • Science - measure

54
Strategy
  • Math - measure

55
Strategy
  • Music - measure

56
Strategy
  • ELAR - measure

57
Strategy
  • Social Studies measure
  • The judge ruled using the full measure of the
    law.

58
Strategy
  • Art measure
  • The museums Impressionist exhibit didnt measure
    up to last years.

59
Strategy
  • Example
  • The judge asked the defendant to approach the
    bar.
  • The man sat in the restaurants bar.
  • He bought a bar of soap.

60
Strategy
  • Create charts of the different meanings of the
    polysemous or multiple meaning words

Word Meaning 1 Meaning 2
notes Musical symbols that tell me what to play on my instrument Writing down what the teacher says in my notebook so I can study it later
Shade A color produced by adding black to a pigment A piece of fabric you pull down over the window or put in your windshield to block out the sun
Call The time established for the actors to report to the theater before a performance When I say my dogs name because I want him to come to me
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
61
Strategy
  • 4 Fold Vocabulary
  • In this activity, students fold their papers into
    rows of 4 sections each. The number of row can
    relate to the number of words to be studied.
  • In the first section, the student writes the
    word.
  • In the 2nd section, the student writes a
    definition of the word in their own words.
  • In the 3rd section, the student draws a picture
    or symbol to represent the word.
  • In the 4th section, the student writes a sentence
    with the word based on their definition.
  • Students fold the paper and keep as notes.

Word Definition Picture Sentence
beat (drums) a steady succession of rhythm The beat of music is measured in BPM.
beat (heart) a steady succession of rhythm A birds heart beats faster than a humans heart.
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
62
Strategy
  • What do you see?
  • Show a picture of a word or concept you are
    teaching
  • Cover ½ or more of the picture
  • Ask students to use their vocabulary to describe
    what they think the picture is

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
63
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Strategy
  • Window Paning
  • Engaging strategy to build competency in
    vocabulary
  • Window paning is a great strategy for helping
    students to remember vocabulary words, organize
    steps to a process, or just remember important
    concepts
  • A window pane can be as little as 3 squares or as
    large as 9  
  • Students are only allowed to use the vocabulary
    or concept word and a detailed illustration to
    summarize their learning 
  • can be used to assess multiple concepts
  • visual component requires students to make a
    personal association and engage prior knowledge
  • encourages struggling students to build
    individualized word banks
  • allows ELL students to use a universal language
    to show what they have learned

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
71
Strategy
72
Strategy
  • Cognitive Dictionary
  • Introduce new vocabulary
  • Done with only the most academic demanding words
  • ELPS learning strategy
  • Done over two days for best learning
  • Metacognitive strategy helps students think
    about their thinking

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
73
Strategy-Cognitive Dictionary
Do these on day two
Do these on day one
Word Prediction Meaning/Sketch Sentence
Give them a word that is used in your content areaask them to predict what the word means without looking the word up Ask each groups to tell you their predictions write all their predictions in this column then After the lesson, have groups decide on a definition and draw a visual representation Add the sentence each group writes using the word, sentence should contain context clues to define the word
Strategies 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
After each group makes a predictionask them HOW
they got their prediction, i.e., knew the suffix,
same root as another word, knew the word in
Spanish, etc. Help them put it in academic terms
and write it down. Keep these posted in your
class and refer back to them to help students
think about their thinking! Strategies need to be
applied across the curriculum.
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
74
Strategy
  • Multiple Representations

1. Teacher tells students what the word means. 2. Teacher draws a picture or symbol for the word. 3. Student uses own words to tell what the word means.
4. Student draws or shows his/her own picture or symbol for the word. 5. Student makes connections to the word in writing or orally. 6. Student shares the word with others.
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
75
Strategy
  • Pictionary with a Twist
  • Give student the target word
  • Student draws a picture to elicit the word
  • BUT the student is explaining the picture they
    are drawing using academic vocabulary (or any
    vocabulary he/she can if vocabulary is limited)
  • The class tries to guess the word
  • Students are practicing language in a safe
    environment

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
76
Marzanos building academic vocabulary
Strategy
Students restate description in their own words
Describe the term in kid friendly language
Students construct a pictureMOST important step,
a symbol only that means something to them
Students engage the word through an activity
take word apart, look for root, etc.
Play games with words
Discuss terms with each other tell how the word
is relevant in their own lives
THE KEY REPETITION
Marzano, R. (2005)
77
Strategy
Give the root word. Ask the students to come up
with words that use the root. Make it more
difficult by asking them to list words they see
in other content area classes.
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
78
Word Parts - prefixes
Strategy
Prefix Meaning of All Prefixed Words Example
un not reversal of 26 uncover
re again, back, really 14 review
in / im in, into, not 11 insert
dis away, apart, negative 7 discover
en / em in within on 4 entail
mis wrong 3 mistaken
pre before 3 prevent
a not in, on without 1 atypical
un-, re-, in- (not) account for 51 of total
un-, re-, in- (not), dis- account for 58 of total
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
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Word Parts - Suffixes
Strategy
Suffix Meaning of All Suffixed Words Example
-s, -es more than one verb marker 31 characters, reads, reaches
-ed in the past quality, state 20 walked
-ing when you do something quality, state 14 walking
-ly how something is 7 safely
-er, -or one who, what, that, which 4 drummer
-tion, -sion state, quality act 4 action, mission
-able, -ible able to be 2 disposable, reversible
-al, -ial related to, like 1 final, partial
-s, -es, -ing account for 65 of suffixed words
10 suffixes account for 85 of suffixed
words -s, -es, -ing, -er, -ion, -able, -al, -y,
-ness, -ly
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
80
Nifty Thrifty Fifty
  • The Nifty Thrifty Fifty store of words contains
    common roots, prefixes and suffixes.
  • To help students learn a system for decoding and
    spelling big words, they learn to read, spell and
    understand common spelling patterns of the
    following 50 words.
  • Once students know the spelling patterns of these
    words, they can apply that knowledge to help them
    to spell and build meaning for many other words.
  • Patricia Cunningham writes that for each Nifty
    Thrifty Fifty word a reader knows, she or he can
    read at least 7 more words.
  • That means that by mastering the Nifty Thrifty
    Fifty words listed, students can use at least 350
    additional words when reading and writing.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
81
Nifty Thrifty Fifty
antifreeze beautiful classify
communities community composer
continuous conversation deodorize
different discovery dishonest
electricity employee encouragement
expensive forecast forgotten
governor happiness hopeless
illegal impossible impression
independence international invasion
irresponsible midnight misunderstand
musician nonliving overpower
performance prehistoric prettier
rearrange replacement richest
semifinal signature submarine
supermarkets swimming transportation
underweight unfinished unfriendly
unpleasant valuable
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
82
Im thinking of a word
  • Students try to guess which word you are thinking
    of from the word wall or set of vocabulary words
    for a unit
  • You give clues to help them guess
  • They must write down a word after each clue even
    if they write the same word each time
  • Clue 1 Write down the word I am thinking (dont
    give any additional info they write down any
    word from the word wall)
  • Clue 2 Give a feature of the word, i.e. it has
    a prefix (dont tell them what the prefix it is)
  • Clue 3 Give another feature of the word, i.e.
    it has 3 syllables
  • Clue 4 Give a definition or description of the
    word
  • Clue 5 Give a clue that would make it
    impossible to miss the word, i.e. it starts with
    the letter

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
83
Verbal-Visual Word Association
  • No longer the Frayer Model
  • Make personal connection

Vocabulary Term Personal Association (they must connect the word to themselves or something they already know in order to learn it)
Definition (students write the definition in their own words) Non-example (must be relevant, I tell the students to think about the thing that is opposite of the vocabulary term)
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
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Word Warm-Up
Conversational Academic
error
underground
smell
elect
draw
tariff
grief
worry
shape
independent
purchase
down
enemy
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
85
Sentence Patterning Chart
  • Helps teach syntax
  • Basic pattern of sentences
  • Nouns must be plural
  • Color code words
  • Have kids stand up to do this
  • Use words and sing to Farmer in the Dell

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
86
Sentence Patterning Chart
Adjectives Noun Verb Adverb Prepositional Phrase
  • Brainstorm multiple words for each category
  • As a group, choose
  • 2 adjectives
  • 1 noun
  • 1 verb
  • 1 adverb
  • 1 prepositional phrase
  • This can be the best laugh you will have all week!

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
87
Give it a try!
Adjectives Noun Verb Adverb Prepositional Phrase


adjective adjective noun verb adverb prepositional phrase
88
Texas Two Step
  • Use as review of key concepts
  • Students use a notecard and write a question
    about a word on the word wall
  • Students line up facing each other in a line
  • One student asks his/her question, trying to
    elicit the correct answer
  • The other student does the same
  • 1 person moves to the end of
  • the line (with Conga or country music)
  • Do the same process with a new
  • partner until they get through all
  • the words

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
89
Relating Factor
  • Each group gets one bubble or relationship map.
  • Write a vocabulary words you are working on in
    the center of the map.
  • Each person in the group (at the same time)
    writes how the word relates to the book,
    paragraph, idea, concept, themselves, etc. in the
    bubble or space closest to them.
  • Each person in the group then explains what they
    wrote, justifying their answer.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
90
Relating factor cont.
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
91
New Usage of Familiar Words
  • Put students into small groups.
  • Provide a vocabulary word you have already
    discussed (in context)
  • Ask each group to write 5 sentences using the
    vocabulary word.
  • Word cannot be used in the way they already
    learned it for your lesson.
  •  
  • Example strike
  •  
  • 1. I strike the match against the bottom of my
    shoe.
  • 2. The factory workers went on strike for better
    benefits and hours.
  • 3. Strike up the band!
  • 4. I was so angry I had to stop myself from
    striking her.
  • 5. Draw a strike through the wrong answers.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
92
Possible Sentence
  • This is a relatively simple strategy for teaching
    word meanings and generating considerable class
    discussion.
  • The teacher chooses six to eight words from the
    text that may pose difficulty for students. These
    words are usually key concepts in the text.
  • Next, the teacher chooses four to six words that
    students are more likely to know something about.
  • The list of ten to twelve words is put on the
    board. The teacher provides brief definitions as
    needed.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
93
Possible Sentence
  • Students are challenged to devise sentences that
    contain two or more words from the list.
  • All sentences that students come up with, both
    accurate and inaccurate are listed and discussed.
  • Students now read the selection.
  • After reading, revisit the Possible Sentences and
    discuss whether they could be true based on the
    passage or how they could be modified to true.

Stahl8 reported that Possible Sentences
significantly improved both students' overall
recall of word meanings and their comprehension
of text containing those words. Interestingly,
this was true when compared to a control group
and when compared to Semantic Mapping. http//www
.phschool.com/eteach/language_arts/2002_03/essay.h
tml
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
94
Exclusion Brainstorming
  • Make a list of words from the unit you are
    studying.
  • Add words that do not belong to the unit.
  • Ask the students to determine which words should
    be excluded.

circle measure squares grid cone diamond addition triangles alphabet cube oval rectangle rhombus cylinder numbers
Extension Once they decide what to exclude, have
them justify their picks.
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
95
Walk Up and Touch It
  • Game to reinforce content vocabulary
  • Write content vocabulary words on sentence strips
    or large pieces of paper and stick them to the
    walls, bookshelves, etc. around the room.
  • Have the words and definitions written on note
    cards.
  • Use the cards to read the definition of a
    vocabulary word to the teams.
  • The students standing at the line have 10 seconds
    to find the vocabulary word and touch it after
    you finish reading the definition.
  • If no one touches the correct vocabulary word in
    10 seconds, the students 2nd in line from each
    group get a chance to find the word.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
96
Word Form Chart
Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
Accuracy Inaccuracy     Accurate Inaccurate Accurately Inaccurately
Prediction Predict Predictable Unpredictable   Predictably  
Production Produce Productive Unproductive   Productively Unproductively
Dependence Independence   Depend (on/upon) Dependent Independent  
Symptom   Symptomatic Asymptomatic    
Osborn, Dawn (2011)
97
Placemat and Round Robin
  • Form participants into groups of four.
  • Allocate one piece of printer paper or butcher
    paper to each group.
  • Ask each group to draw the diagram on the paper.
  • The outer spaces are for each participant to
    write their thoughts about the topic.
  • Conduct a Round Robin so that each participant
    can share his or her views.
  • The circle in the middle of the paper is to note
    down (by the nominated scribe) the common points
    made by each participant.
  • Each group then reports the
  • common points to the whole
  • group.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
98
Cognates
  • Cognates words that have the same origin
  • Most are from Latin based languages
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Italian
  • English
  • Words look very similar, sometimes identical
  • Not all words that look the same mean the same
    thing
  • Many cognates in math and science
  • Examples
  • class/clase
  • family/familia
  • Non-Examples
  • pie (good to eat) / pie (foot)
  • http//www.colorincolorado.org/pdfs/articles/cogna
    tes.pdf

99
Send-a-Definition
  • Send-A-Definition can be used as a way to get
    groups to discuss and review definitions.
  • Each member of a group generates a definition of
    a word and writes it down on a card. Each member
    of the group then reads the definition to other
    members.
  • If all members of the group agree on the
    definition, then that definition is written on
    the back of the card. If there is no consensus on
    the definition, the definition is revised so that
    a definition can be agreed upon.
  • The group puts a D on the side of the card with
    the definition on it, and an W on the side of the
    card with an word on it.
  • Each group sends its definition cards to another
    group.

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
100
Send-a-Definition cont.
  • Each group member takes ones card from the stack
    of cards and reads one definition at a time to
    the group. After reading the first definition,
    the group discusses it. If the group agrees, they
    turn the card over to see if they agree with the
    first group's answer. If there again is
    consensus, they proceed to the next definition.
    If they do not agree with the first group, the
    second group writes their definition on the back
    of the card as an alternative definition.
  • The second group reviews and answers each
    definition in the stack of cards, repeating the
    procedure outlined above.
  • The definition cards can be sent to a third,
    fourth, or fifth group, if desired.
  • Stacks of cards are then sent back to the
    originating group. The sending group can then
    discuss and clarify any question .

Osborn, Dawn (2011)
101
Roving Paragraph
  • Roving Paragraphs help students create a
    paragraph about a given topic.
  • Have students write their answer to the questions
    then find a partner and write the partners answer
    in the spot that says In addition.
  • Change partners a second time and trade original
    answers with partner and write it under Also.
  • Trade partners the last time and write the
    partners original answer under finally.
  • This is a great technique for helping students
    write their own paragraphs.

Kinsella, K. (2003)
102
Roving Paragraph cont.
(Teacher writes a question and types it here) Student writes his/her response here In addition, Also, Finally,
Kinsella, K. (2003)
103
GIVE ONE AND GET ONE
  • BRAINSTORM three things you know about
    __________________________________________
  • 1. _____________________________________________
    _______________________
  • 2. _____________________________________________
    ______________________
  • 3. _____________________________________________
    _______________________
  • 4. _____________________________________________
    _____________________
  •  
  •  REWRITE one idea using a response starter.
  • Starter(s) _(teacher writes a sentence starter
    for the students to use)_______________
  • Sample Response ________________________________
    ____________________________
  • My Response ____________________________________
    ____________________________
  • DISCUSS your idea with four classmates. Take
    notes on your classmates ideas.
  • Ideas Names
  • ________________________________________________
    ____________
  • ________________________________________________
    ____________
  • ________________________________________________
    ____________
  • ________________________________________________
    ____________ 
  • REPORT one idea you heard to the whole class.
  • (Classmates Name) pointed out that . . .
    (Classmates Name) indicated that . .

104
Question and Answer Game
  • This game is particularly useful in getting
    students to practice question forms. It can be
    used to check comprehension of a text students
    have read or something they have listened to.
  • Instructions
  • The teacher writes on the board several
    vocabulary words from the text.
  • For example, if the text were about computers,
    the teacher might write the categories and
    answers below.

Software Hardware Abilities
word processor spreadsheet database CPU monitor mouse RAM ROM 33 mhz
105
Question and Answer Game
  • Each student should choose a category and an
    answer and try to form an appropriate question
    based on the text.
  • For example, if the student chose the category
    hardware and the answer monitor, the question
    might be, How does the computer display
    information to the user?
  • There may be many correct questions for each
    answer.
  • Think about your classcan you fill in the chart
    with words you are using in with your students?



106
Question and Answer Game
  • Alternative Idea The teacher might cover the
    answers on the board with sticky notes.
  • Different amounts of money can be written on the
    sticky notes. Then the students might choose
    Hardware for 1,000. The teacher would take off
    the sticky note that says 1,000, revealing the
    answer behind it. If the student forms an
    appropriate question, the teacher gives the
    sticky note to the student. The student who
    finishes with the most money wins the game.
  • http//www.eslmonkeys.com/book/teacher/eslstrategi
    es.pdf

107
Say Something!
  • Often students dont know what to say, are
    uncomfortable speaking in front of the class, or
    dont know how to phrase an answer for fear of
    embarrassment
  • The Say Something! strategy give them a sentence
    started that is appropriate for your class.
  • They only need to fill in a small bit of
    information
  • Gives them the confidence to speak in your class

Kinsella, K. (2003)
108
Say Something!
Make a Prediction ?? I predict that / guess that/ imagine that ?? I bet that ?? I think that ?? Since this happened (fill in detail), then I predict the next thing that is going to happen is ?? Reading this part makes me think that this (fill in detail) is about to happen ?? I wonder if ?? Based on____, I infer that ?? I hypothesize that Ask a Question ?? Why did ?? Whats this part about ?? How is this (fill in detail) like this (fill in detail) ?? What would happen if ?? Why ?? Who is ?? What does this section (fill in detail) mean? ?? Do you think that ?? I dont get this part here ?? I dont understand this part when
Clarify Something ?? Oh, I get it ?? What do you mean. ?? Will you explain that again? ?? I have a question about that. ?? Now I understand ?? This makes sense now ?? No, I think it means ?? I agree with you. This means ?? At first I thought (fill in detail), but now I think ?? This part is really saying Make a Comment ?? This is good because ?? This is hard because ?? This is confusing because ?? I like the part where ?? I dont like this part because ?? My favorite part so far is ?? I think that
Make a Connection ?? This reminds me of ?? This part is like ?? This character (fill in name) is like (fill in name) because ?? This is similar to ?? The differences are ?? I also (name something in the text that has also happened to you) ?? I never (name something in the text that has never happened to you) ?? This character makes me think of ?? This setting reminds me of Expressing an opinion ?? I think/I believe ?? It seems to me that ?? In my opinion ?? My observation is ?? My perspective is ?? Based on my experience, I think. ?? My experience is similar to __s in that. ?? I agree with _____. I also think that ?? My idea builds upon ____s in that
Make a Connection ?? This reminds me of ?? This part is like ?? This character (fill in name) is like (fill in name) because ?? This is similar to ?? The differences are ?? I also (name something in the text that has also happened to you) ?? I never (name something in the text that has never happened to you) ?? This character makes me think of ?? This setting reminds me of Acknowledging ideas ?? My idea is similar to/related to ____s idea. ?? I agree with _____ that ?? My idea builds on ____s idea.
Kinsella, K. (2003)
109
Say Something!
Paraphrasing ?? So you are saying that ?? In other words, you think ?? What I hear you saying is Soliciting a response ?? What do you think? ?? We havent heard from you yet. ?? Do you agree? ?? What answer did you get?
Individual reporting ?? I discovered from ____ that ?? I found out from ____ that ?? I had a different approach. ?? I see it differently. Partner and group reporting ?? We decided/agreed that ?? We concluded that ?? Our group sees it differently. ?? We had a different approach. ?? ____ pointed out to me that ?? ____ shared with me that ?? ____ emphasized that ?? ____ concluded that
Disagreeing ?? I dont agree with you because ?? I disagree with you because ?? I have a different answer than you. ?? I see it another way. Offering a suggestion ?? Maybe we could ?? What if we ?? Heres something we might try.
Affirming ?? Thats an interesting idea. ?? I hadnt thought of that. ?? I see what you mean. Holding the floor ?? As I was saying ?? If I could finish my thought ?? What I was trying to say was
Kinsella, K. (2003)
110
How do I implement these strategies?
  • Work with your team and grade level to decide
    which strategy to work on each week and for what
    content the strategy would be most appropriate.
  • The most consistency across the curriculum, the
    better understanding the students will gain.
  • Post procedures or steps of the strategy where
    everyone can see them.
  • Keep the steps posted all year so students can
    refer back to them.
  • Some students may need more time or less time to
    grasp the strategy
  • Model! Model! Model the strategy!
  • Practice! Practice! Practice the strategy!

111
The Law
112
Chapter 89 Adaptations for Special Populations
  • The goal of the ESL program is to enable LEP
    students to become competent in the
    comprehension, speaking, reading, and composition
    of English language through the integrated use of
    second language methods.
  • Emphasize the mastery of English language skills
  • Enable LEP students to participate equitably in
    school
  • Use instructional approaches that meet the
    special needs of LEP students
  • Teach LEP students same TEKS
  • Accommodate for learning, do not water down
    content

113
Bibliography Webliography
114
Bibliography
  • Krashen, S. (1998, February 9). Notes by Steve
    Krashen on the (Ron) Unz Attack.
  • Walqui, Aida. (2000, September). Contextual
    Factors in Second Language Acquisition. (ERIC
    Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics,
    EDO-FL-00-05). San Francisco, California Center
    for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on June 19,
    2012 from http//www.cal.org/resources/digest/0005
    contextual.html
  • Texas Education Agency. (n.d.). List of Approved
    Tests for Assessment of Limited English
    Proficient Students. Retrieved on June 19, 2012
    from http//www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id409
    8menu_id720
  • Narayanan, R., Rajasekaran Nair, N., Iyyappan, S.
    2008) Some Factors Affecting English Learning at
    Tertiary Level. Iranian Journal of Language
    Studies (IJLS), Vol. 2(4). pp. 485-512. Retrieved
    from http//www.ijls.net/volumes/volume2issue4/nar
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115
Bibliography
  • Chapter 89. Adaptations for Special Populations,
    Subchapter BB. Commissioners Rules Concerning
    State Plan for Educating English Language
    Learners. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from
    http//ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter089
    /ch089bb.html
  • McLaughlin, Barry, (1992). Myths and
    Misconceptions about Second Language Learning
    What Every Teachers Needs to Unlearn. Retrieved
    from the University of California, Santa Cruz,
    CA National Center for Research on Cultural
    Diversity and Second Language Learning. Web
    site http//people.ucsc.edu/ktellez/epr5.htm
  • Marzano, Robert (2005). Building Academic
    Vocabulary. Alexandria, VA ASCD - Association of
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116
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  • Picture of confused student. Retrieved from
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    rd-of-the-weekchartsetgrades4-5.do
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    development of LEP and Low SES students
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117
Webliography
  • Texas Education Agencys definition of LEP
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    Echevarria, J. Graves, Anne. (n.d.) Sheltered
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Webliography
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119
  • Email or call me with questions
  • tkelman_at_mckinneyisd.net
  • 469-525-5571
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