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Title: Jefferson%20through%20Van%20Buren


1
Jefferson through Van Buren
2
Results of the War of 1812
  • Credibility to rest of world
  • Sectionalism gets a black eye
  • War HeroesJackson Harrison
  • Native Americans abandoned by British, must
    relinquish land North of Ohio R.V.
  • Manufacturing prospered
  • Industry stimulated
  • American nationalismnational oneness

3
Results of the War of 1812
  • National literature J.F. Cooper Washington
    Irving
  • American school books depict patriotic themes,
    teach American heroes
  • Navy finally whipped Barbary Pirates in 1815

4
Henry Clays American System
  • Support for a high tariff (1816)
  • Recharter of the Bank of the United States
  • Building of American Infrastructure (such as
    turnpikes, roads and canals)

5
American System
  • Revived Bank of the US in 1816
  • Tariff of 1816protective tariff
  • Madison vetoed federal money for roads/canals
    (not in the Constitution)
  • States will have to fund public works
  • New England big opponent of federal roads

6
Era of Good Feelings
  • James Monroe elected in 1816 (2 terms)
  • Not AS great as the name
  • SOME peace/prosperity
  • Also trouble with
  • The tariff
  • Slavery
  • Political power w/in Rep.Party
  • The bank
  • Internal improvements
  • Sale of public lands
  • Sectionalism

http//www.usdiplomacy.org/exhibit/protecting.php
7
Tariff of 1816
  • To protect infant industrial economy
  • Stiff (20) protective tariff to protect industry
  • Not all Americans agree
  • Sectional Crisis
  • NO! John Calhoun for Slining the pockets of the
    North
  • NO! Daniel Webster for Ncant trade freely w
    Britain
  • YES! Henry Clay for Tariff the Tariff plus his
    American System will bring both improve
    manufacturing AND bring revenue for improvements
    to South

8
Trouble w Bank/Panic of 1819
  • Caused by Second Bank of U.S. (BUS)
  • Recession after war
  • Caused by over speculation of frontier lands
  • BUS demanded payment from Western (Wildcat)
    banks. They had no hard coin.
  • BUS demanded Wildcat banks foreclose on farmers
  • Western banks/BUS hated by frontier farmers and
    poorer citizens

9
Transportation Advances lead to National Changes
  • Toll Roads (turnpike) built w private funds
  • The Cumberland Road (National Road) is completed
    from Maryland to Illinois

http//www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/ntlroad
.html
10
Transportation Advancement leads to Nation Changes
  • Robert Fulton-The steamboat is being perfected.
    Goods transported both ways on the rivers.

http//inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blste
amship.htm
11
Transportation Advances
  • Erie Canal, 1825
  • Funded by NY
  • Connects Great Lakes to Hudson River
  • Shipping costs go down
  • Port cities grow

12
Transportation Advances lead to National Change
  • Life becomes easier and cheaper w advances
  • Social and Political consequences
  • Rich and poor divide grows
  • Manufacturers/plantation owners-richer
  • East and West connected by transportation
  • South cut out
  • Sectional tension between North and South

13
Control of the West
  • 9 states admitted 1791-1819, alternating
    slave/free. In 1819, 11 free/11 slave
  • Missouri petitions Congress for admission
  • Talmadge (NY)Amendmentno more slaves brought in
    to MOchildren of slaves freed at age 25
  • Angered slave holding southerners
  • Threat to balance

14
Control of the West
  • New Englandricher and more crowded
  • South is maintaining balance in the House--barely
  • What happens if slavery can be abolished by the
    Feds in the West?

15
Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Actually 3 bills
  • 1. Missouri admitted as slave state
  • 2. Maine admitted as free
  • this maintains balance
  • 3. No slavery above 3630
  • Is accepted for 34 yrs, temporarily resolves
    sectional issue of slavery

16
Monroe Doctrine-US more aggressive in foreign
affairs
  • Lingering issues w Canada, Florida and
    sovereignty of the U.S.
  • 1817 US Britain sign treaty to resolve Canada
    issue Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817
  • Demilitarization of Great Lakes frontier
    borders
  • Adams-Onis Treaty 1819
  • Purchase Florida from Spain, Spain will abandoned
    claim in Oregon
  • Monroe Doctrine

17
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • Revolutions in Latin America cause Britain to
    want an alliance with U.S. to maintain influence
    in Western Hemisphere
  • Sect. of State John Quincy Adams warns Monroe NO,
    it will hinder US expansion
  • Monroe Doctrine basis of U.S. foreign policy
    going forward. Warning to Europe-stay out of
    Western Hemisphere

18
Monroe Doctrine 1823
  • Warning to Europe Stay OUT of Western
    Hemisphere!
  • Non intervention in Latin America and end to
    European colonization
  • U.S. continues this policy through 19th and 20th
    centuries

19
Mudslinging Election of 1824
  • Last of old style elections
  • 4 Republican Candidates against each other
  • John Quincy AdamsMass
  • Henry ClayKentucky
  • Wm. H. CrawfordGeorgia
  • Andrew JacksonTennessee
  • John C. Calhoun is VP on both Adams Jacksons
    tickets

20
Corrupt Bargain?
  • Jackson wins popular vote
  • BUT no man had the majority in electoral college
  • House decides the Presidency
  • Clay supports Adams
  • Adams wins and make Clay his Sect of State

21
John Quincy Adams
  • Kept people in govt.
  • jobs, didnt replace them
  • Nationalistic, when rest of country was going for
    states rights/sectionalism
  • Pushed for construction of roads canals
  • National university
  • Refused to remove Cherokees from land in GA

http//www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/ja6.h
tml
22
Election of 1828-Jackson wins
VS.
  • National Republicans
  • Adams
  • Whigs (Federalists)
  • Jacksonpresented as rough hewn frontiersman
  • Jacksons wife accused of bigamy
  • Democratic Republicans
  • Jackson
  • Democrats
  • Adams called a corrupt aristocrat
  • Adams wife called bastard child

23
Election of 1828-Jackson wins
  • Adams support from New England Northeast
  • Jackson support from the west the south
  • The second party system is reborn

24
Andrew Jackson
First President from the West
http//www.whitehousehistory.org/04/subs_pph/Presi
dentDetail.aspx?ID7imageID4
25
Key Tenets of Jacksonian Democracy
  • Belief in the common man/common sense
  • Expanded white male suffrage
  • Patronage
  • Opposition to privileged elites

26
Tariff of Abominations (1828)
  • Tariffs between 1816 and 1828 are first tariffs
    primarily for protection
  • 45 tariff proposed
  • New England supports it to further protect from
    foreign competition
  • South hates it

27
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
  • Forced John C. Calhoun to formulate doctrine of
    nullification
  • Same states rights argument from VA/KY
    resolutions.
  • State can refuse to recognize an act of Congress
    that it considers unconstitutional
  • 1. adversely altered Souths trade w Europe
  • 2. South anxious over growing Fed power

28
Webster-Hayne Debate 1830
  • Webster (MA) rejects nullification
  • Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and
    inseparable
  • Robert Hayne (SC)-
  • Supports Calhouns doctrine of nullification
  • Only way to preserve Southern interests
  • Alliance between the South and West was only way
    to perservere in face of the Tariff.

29
Jackson and Indian Removal-Cherokees
  • Cherokees in Georgia did what they could to be
    accepted in the US
  • Developed agricultural, educational and political
    institutions
  • Sued in Worcester v. Georgia against removal
  • Marshall ruled to uphold rights to their tribal
    land
  • Jackson refuses to recognize Courts decision

30
Indian Removal-Trail of Tears
  • 1830 Indian Removal Act-transplanting of all
    Indians East of Miss. River to Oklahoma
  • Trail of Tears- all Cherokees removed from the
    state of Georgia. One quarter of the people died
    in route to Oklahoma.

31
Indian Removal
  • Jacksons policy leads to the forced removal of
    100,000 Native Americans

http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html
32
Jackson and the Bank War
  • Opposes the recharter of BUS
  • Believes govt needed to stay out of economic
    affairs
  • He vetoed the recharter, felt it was a monopoly
  • Withdrew fed deposits from BUS, put in state
    banks

33
Jackson, Death of BUS and Panic
  • of land and goods jumps, threatens economy
  • Jackson issues Specie Circular
  • Value of paper money plummets
  • Leads to Panic of 1837
  • Jackson asserting power on behalf of West/common
    man
  • Jacksons veto kills BUS until the Civil War

34
Election of 1832
  • Jackson wins
  • Novelties in this election include
  • 1. Third Party the Anti-Masons
  • 2. National nominating conventions
  • 3. Formal publicized platforms
  • Buries the Bank of the US
  • Result Depression

35
Election of 1836
  • Whigshad been National Republicans
  • Support states rights
  • Support Clays American system
  • Supported by
  • Large Northern Industrialists
  • People alienated by Jackson
  • Evangelical Christians

36
Election of 1836
  • William Henry Harrison (Whig)
  • Martin Van Buren (Democratic)

http//millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident
/harrison
http//www.u-s-history.com/pages/h350.html
37
Election of 1836-Van Buren
  • Van Buren wins
  • Benefactor of Jacksons Spoils system
  • Puppet of Jacksons
  • Doesnt get much accomplished
  • Oversees economic depression-Panic of 1837

38
Texas
  • 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty
  • 1820--Spain opened Texas to Americans
  • No slaves
  • Must be Catholic
  • 1821Mexico wins independence from Spain
  • 1826JQ Adams offers to buy Texas for 1 mil.

39
Texas
  • 183030,000 Anglos and slaves are in Texas
  • Tejano population is only 4,000
  • 1830Jackson offers to purchase Texas for 5 mil
  • 1836 Texicans, led by Sam Houston, rebel
    against Mexico, declare Texas an independent
    republic of Mexico

40
Texas
  • Alamo Mexican Dictator Santa Anna wins
  • Houston then defeats Santa Anna
  • Santa Anna grants independence to Republic of
    Texas
  • Houston new leader, petitions for statehood
  • Rejected by Jackson and Van Buren, they fear
    tipping the balance in favor of slave states
  • Texas was independent republic until 1845 because
    of the slave issue

41
Election of 1840
  • Tippacanoe Tyler Too!
  • No real platform
  • No real campaign
  • Appeal to Westerners

http//www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/tyler/aa_tyler_s
ubj_e.html
42
Election of 1840
  • Harrison Tyler beat Van Buren. . . but
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