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CHAPTER 9 INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY

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Title: CHAPTER 9 INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY


1
CHAPTER 9INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY
2
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3
Learning Objectives
  • What is the psychometric approach to
    intelligence and how have different psychometric
    theorists defined intelligence?
  • What are the traditional measures of intelligence
    and what are some of the advantages and
    disadvantages of these approaches?
  • What are some alternatives to these traditional
    measures of intelligence?

4
Intelligence and Creativity
  • What Is Intelligence?
  • Adaptive thinking or actions (Piaget)
  • Ability to think abstractly, solve problems?
  • Characteristics of Intelligence
  • Genetic determination about 50
  • Environmental influence about 50
  • Creativity Ability to produce novel responses
    appropriate in context, valued by others

5
The Psychometric Approach
  • A trait can be identified, measured
  • A single attribute? Spearman
  • g general s special
  • Many attributes? Thurstone
  • Seven primary mental abilities
  • Spatial ability, perceptual speed, numeric
    reasoning, verbal meaning, word fluency, memory,
    inductive reasoning
  • IQ tests and IQ score

6
Cattell and Horn
  • Fluid Intelligence Decreases in older adults
  • Used to solve novel problems
  • Skills reasoning, seeing relationships,
    inferences,
  • Free of cultural influences
  • Crystallized Intelligence Increases with age
  • Knowledge from experiences (learned)
  • General information, vocabulary, etc.

7
Gardner Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • Not measured with IQ tests 8 types
  • 1) Linguistic
  • 2) Logical-mathematical
  • 3) Musical
  • 4) Spatial
  • 5) Bodily-kinesthetic
  • 6) Interpersonal
  • 7) Intrapersonal
  • 8) Naturalist

8
Savant Syndrome
  • Extraordinary talent in one area
  • Otherwise mentally retarded
  • Musical, artistic, calculation abilities

9
Sternbergs Triarchic Theory
  • Contextual Component
  • Adapting to the environment
  • Street smart, age group, culture, etc.
  • Experiential Component Automatization
  • Response to novelty
  • Componential Component
  • Information processing
  • Efficiency of strategies

10
  • Robert Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of
    Intelligence

11
The Stanford-Binet IQ Test
  • The standard in traditional IQ testing
  • Age-graded items used
  • Older Version Concept of mental age (MA)
  • IQ MA/CA X 100
  • Modern S-B Scales
  • Test norms used
  • Large, representative samples
  • IQ score of 100 is average

12
The Wechsler Scales (IQ Test)
  • Widely Used Today
  • WPPSI ages 3-8 (2002)
  • WISC-III ages 6-16 (1991)
  • WAIS-III adults
  • Three IQ Scores Derived
  • Verbal IQ
  • Performance IQ
  • Full-scale IQ

13
  • The approximate distribution of IQ scores

14
Intelligence Testing Today
  • Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
  • How problems are solved
  • Dynamic assessment approach
  • How quickly learning occurs
  • Cognitive Assessment System
  • Predicts academic success

15
Learning Objectives
  • What methods have been used to assess infant
    intelligence and how successful is each method?
  • To what extent is infant intelligence related to
    later intelligence?
  • Are IQ scores stable during childhood? What
    factors contribute to gains and losses in IQ
    scores?
  • What are the typical characteristics of creative
    children?

16
The Infant
  • Developmental Quotient (DQ)
  • Bayley Scales Ages 2-30 months
  • Correlations with Child IQ are low to zero
  • Useful for diagnostic purposes
  • Best Predictors of IQ
  • Measures of information processing
  • E.g., attention, speed of habituation, preference
    for novelty

17
The Child
  • DQ does not predict later IQ
  • IQ at age 4 predicts later IQ
  • IQ Gains Due to
  • Parents who foster achievement
  • Neither strict nor lax parenting
  • IQ Drops Poverty
  • Cumulative Deficit Hypothesis

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20
Learning Objectives
  • How well do IQ scores predict school achievement?
  • To what extent is IQ related to occupational
    success?

21
The Adolescent
  • Brain growth spurt at age 11/12 (puberty)
  • Formal operational thinking
  • Improved memory and processing skills
  • Stability of IQ evident
  • IQ score a good predictor of school achievement

22
Learning Objectives
  • How do IQ and mental abilities change with age?
  • What factors predict declines in intellectual
    abilities in older adults?
  • To what extent does wisdom exist in older adults?
  • How does creativity change throughout adulthood?

23
The Adult
  • Strong Relationships Between
  • IQ and occupational prestige
  • IQ and job performance
  • IQ and good health/longevity
  • IQ decline by age 80 (longitudinal studies)
  • C-S studies show cohort effects
  • Fluid IQ peaks at about age 24
  • Crystallized (verbal) unchanged until 80s

24
Predictors of Gains and Decline
  • Decline Poor health, unstimulating lifestyle
  • Gain (or maintain)
  • Above average SES
  • Intact marriages
  • Intellectually capable spouses
  • Active lifestyles
  • Use it or lose it!

25
Wisdom
  • Expert Pragmatic Knowledge
  • Rich procedural knowledge strategies esp. for
    handling conflict
  • Lifespan contextual knowledge
  • Relativism of values life priorities
  • Recognition and management of uncertainty
  • Age does not predict wisdom
  • Intelligence, personality and cognitive style

26
Learning Objectives
  • What evidence shows genetic influence on IQ
    scores?
  • What other factors influence IQ scores?

27
Factors that Influence IQ
  • The Flynn Effect Increases in IQ generally
  • Genes Accounts for half (Twin studies)
  • Home environment higher SES helps
  • Environment is powerful
  • Parental involvement and stimulation
  • Firstborn, smaller family are advantages
  • Racial and ethnic differences
  • Stereotype threat
  • Culture bias in IQ test

28
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29
Learning Objectives
  • How are mental retardation and giftedness
    defined?
  • What are the outcomes for individuals who are
    mentally retarded or gifted?

30
Mental Retardation
  • Below-average intellectual functioning IQ 75
  • Limited adaptive behavior Before age 18
  • Self-care and social skills
  • Below age-appropriate expectations
  • Causes
  • Organic e.g., Down syndrome
  • Cultural-familial genes environment

31
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32
Giftedness
  • High IQ
  • Special abilities math, arts, leadership
  • Renzuli combination high IQ, creativity, and
    task commitment
  • Can be identified by 18 months
  • Termans Termites
  • Remarkable into adulthood
  • Well adjusted

33
Creativity
  • Ability to produce novel responses
  • Divergent thinking A variety of solutions
  • Convergent Thinking
  • Focusing on best solution
  • Measured by IQ test
  • Ideational Fluency

34
Creativity in Childhood and Adolescence
  • Freedom, originality, humor, violence,
    playfulness
  • More fantasy and pretend play
  • More open to new experience
  • Little genetic influence Related to home
  • Value nonconformity and independence
  • Encouragement of curiosity and playfulness
  • Freedom to explore independently

35
Creative Achievement in Adulthood
  • Increases in the 20s, 30s, and early 40s
  • Then declines
  • Peak Times Vary by Fields
  • Humanities scholars peak in 60s
  • Artists peak in 30s and 40s
  • Scientists peak from 40s to 70s
  • Enthusiasm and experience required.

36
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