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Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals Chapter 14 * Figure 14.23 Natural capital depletion: depletion curves for a nonrenewable resource (such as aluminum or copper) using ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geology%20and%20Nonrenewable%20Minerals

Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals
  • Chapter 14

Core Case Study Environmental Effects of Gold
  • Gold producers
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Cyanide heap leaching
  • Spray cyanide salts onto rock piles in open air
  • Extremely toxic to birds and mammals
  • 2000 Collapse of a dam retaining a cyanide leach
    pond in Romania
  • Impact on organisms and the environment

Gold Mine with Cyanide Leach Piles and Ponds in
South Dakota, U.S.
14-1 What Are the Earths Major Geological
Processes and Hazards?
  • Concept 14-1A Gigantic plates in the earths
    crust move very slowly atop the planets mantle,
    and wind and water move the matter from place to
    place across the earths surface.
  • Concept 14-1B Natural geological hazards such as
    earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides
    can cause considerable damage.

The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet
  • What is geology?
  • Three major concentric zones of the earth
  • Core
  • Mantle
  • Including the asthenosphere
  • Crust
  • Continental crust
  • Oceanic crust 71 of crust

Major Features of the Earths Crust and Upper
The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (1)
  • Convection cells, or currents
  • Tectonic Plates
  • Lithosphere

The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (2)
  • Three types of boundaries between plates
  • Divergent plates
  • Magma
  • Oceanic ridge
  • Convergent plates
  • Subduction
  • Subduction zone
  • Trench
  • Transform fault e.g., San Andreas fault

The Earths Crust Is Made Up of a Mosaic of Huge
Rigid Plates Tectonic Plates
The Earths Major Tectonic Plates
The San Andreas Fault as It Crosses Part of the
Carrizo Plain in California, U.S.
Some Parts of the Earths Surface Build Up and
Some Wear Down
  • Internal geologic processes
  • Generally build up the earths surface
  • External geologic processes
  • Weathering
  • Physical, Chemical, and Biological
  • Erosion
  • Wind
  • Flowing water
  • Human activities
  • Glaciers

Stepped Art
Fig. 14-6, p. 348
Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earths
  • Volcano
  • Fissure
  • Magma
  • Lava
  • 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens
  • 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo
  • Benefits of volcanic activity

Creation of a Volcano
Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events
  • Earthquake
  • Seismic waves
  • Focus
  • Epicenter
  • Magnitude
  • Amplitude

Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events
  • Richter scale
  • Insignificant lt4.0
  • Minor 4.04.9
  • Damaging 5.05.9
  • Destructive 6.06.9
  • Major 7.07.9
  • Great gt8.0

Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events
  • Foreshocks and aftershocks
  • Primary effects of earthquakes

Major Features and Effects of an Earthquake
Areas of Greatest Earthquake Risk in the United
Areas of Greatest Earthquake Risk in the World
Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Huge
Waves Called Tsunamis
  • Tsunami, tidal wave
  • Detection of tsunamis
  • December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
  • Magnitude of 9.15
  • Role of coral reefs and mangrove forests in
    reducing death toll

Formation of a Tsunami and Map of Affected Area
of Dec 2004 Tsunami
Shore near Gleebruk in Indonesia before and after
the Tsunami on December 26, 2004
June 23, 2004
December 27, 2004
Gravity and Earthquakes Can Cause Landslides
  • Mass wasting
  • Slow movement
  • Fast movement
  • Rockslides
  • Avalanches
  • Mudslides
  • Effect of human activities on such geological

Active Figure Geological forces
Active Figure Plate margins
14-2 How Are the Earths Rocks Recycled?
  • Concept 14-2 The three major types of rocks
    found in the earths crustsedimentary, igneous,
    and metamorphicare recycled very slowly by the
    process of erosion, melting, and metamorphism.

There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (1)
  • Earths crust
  • Composed of minerals and rocks
  • Three broad classes of rocks, based on formation
  • Sedimentary
  • Sandstone
  • Shale
  • Dolomite
  • Limestone
  • Lignite
  • Bituminous coal

There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (2)
  • Igneous
  • Granite
  • Lava rock
  • Metamorphic
  • Anthracite
  • Slate
  • Marble

The Earths Rocks Are Recycled Very Slowly
  • Rock cycle
  • Slowest of the earths cyclic processes

Natural Capital The Rock Cycle Is the Slowest of
the Earths Cyclic Processes
14-3 What Are Mineral Resources, and what are
their Environmental Effects?
  • Concept 14-3A Some naturally occurring materials
    in the earths crust can be extracted and made
    into useful products in processes that provide
    economic benefits and jobs.
  • Concept 14-3B Extracting and using mineral
    resources can disturb the land, erode soils,
    produce large amounts of solid waste, and pollute
    the air, water, and soil.

We Use a Variety of Nonrenewable Mineral
Resources RQ 4
  • Mineral resource concentration of naturally
    occurring material from Earths crust that can be
    mined for a profit
  • Fossil fuels
  • Metallic minerals
  • Nonmetallic minerals
  • Ore rock w/ large enough concentration of
    particular element (usually metal) to make it
    profitable for mining and processing
  • High-grade ore contains large amount of mineral
  • Low-grade ore

Importance and examples of nonrenewable metal and
nonmetal mineral resources
  • Metal Resources
  • Al packaging, cars, airplanes
  • Fe main component of steel along with Mn, Co,
    Mo, Cr
  • Cu electrical wires
  • Pt electrical equipment, catalytic converters
  • Au electrical equipment, jewelry, coins,
    medical implants
  • Nonmetal Resources
  • Sand and Gravel (SiO2) glass, bricks, concrete,
  • Limestone concrete, cement
  • Phosphate salts fertilizers, detergents
  • RESERVES identified resources from which the
    mineral can be profitably extracted at current

Mineral Use Has Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages of the processes of mining and
    converting minerals into useful products
  • Income including for local, state, and national
    revenues from taxes
  • Jobs related to location, extraction, processing,
  • Disadvantages
  • Requires large amounts of energy
  • Disturbs land
  • Erodes soil
  • Produces waste and pollution (air and water)
  • The lower the grade the more energy required and
    more disruption of the environment

YouTube - Business Arizona's Copper-Mining Towns
Stepped Art
Fig. 14-14, p. 355
Extracting, Processing, Using Nonrenewable
Mineral and Energy Resources
There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral
Deposits (1) RQ 5
  • Surface mining
  • Shallow deposits removed
  • Overburden, spoils, tailings
  • Used to extract 90 of nonfuel minerals/rocks in
  • Used to extract 60 of US coal
  • Subsurface mining
  • Deep deposits removed
  • Type of surface mining used depends on
  • Resource
  • Local topography

YouTube - Inside America's gold mines
There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits
  • Types of surface mining
  • Open-pit mining
  • Strip mining better for lg horizontal deposits
    like coal seams
  • Contour mining used in hilly/ mountainous
    terrain most often to remove coal
  • Mountaintop removal literally blast away the
    top of a mtn to get to resource (usually coal)

Natural Capital Degradation Open-Pit Mine in
Western Australia
Natural Capital Degradation Contour Strip Mining
Used in Hilly or Mountainous Region
Natural Capital Degradation Mountaintop Coal
Mining in West Virginia, U.S.
Coal mining spoil piles near Centralia, PA (NE
PA) August 2011
Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (1)
  • Scarring and disruption of the land surface
  • E.g., spoils banks from area strip mining
  • Susceptible to erosion
  • Regrowth of vegetation slow b/c no topsoil
  • Loss of rivers and streams
  • Mountain top mining wastes dumped into forests
    stream valleys below
  • Wastes build up behind dams become a hazard
  • In Appalachia 1200 miles of streams buried 470
    of largest mtns disappeared
  • Subsidence subsurface mining hazard

YouTube - Mountaintop Removal Movie from
Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects (2)
  • Major pollution of water and air
  • Wind/ water erosion remove deposit toxin-laced
    mining waste elsewhere
  • Acid mine drainage aerobic bacteria act on iron
    sulfide in spoils
  • Effect on aquatic life
  • Processing ores often requires lg amnts of water
    that become contaminated with Hg, As, sulf.
  • Large amounts of solid waste
  • Mining operations emit chemicals into atmosphere
    as well

YouTube - AMD
Banks of Waste or Spoils Created by Coal Area
Strip Mining in Colorado, U.S.
Illegal Gold Mine
Ecological Restoration of a Mining Site in New
Jersey, U.S.
Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful
Environmental Effects (1) RQ 5
  • Ore extracted by mining
  • Ore mineral
  • Gangue waste material
  • Smelting - heating ores to release metals
  • w/o pollution control smelters emit a lot of
    air pollutants such as sulf dioxide which leads
    to acid rain
  • Water pollution

Poscos Finex test facility has already
demonstrated its advantages. The plant produces
90  less air pollution and 98  less water
contamination than conventional blast furnaces
Removing Metals from Ores Has Harmful
Environmental Effects (2)
  • Liquid and solid hazardous wastes produced
  • Chemicals are also used to extract metal from
  • Use of cyanide salt to extract gold from its ore
  • Cyanide laden water stored in holding ponds that
    can leak if not treated responsibly
  • Summitville gold mine Colorado, U.S.
  • Canadian company mined gold and left behind a
    cyanide water mess!

YouTube - The environmental cost of Chile's gold
mines - 08 Jul 07
Natural Capital Degradation Summitville Gold
Mining Site in Colorado, U.S.
14-4 How Long Will Supplies of Nonrenewable
Mineral Resources Last?
  • Concept 14-4A All nonrenewable mineral resources
    exist in finite amounts, and as we get closer to
    depleting any mineral resource, the environmental
    impacts of extracting it generally become more
  • Concept 14-4B An increase in the price of a
    scarce mineral resource can lead to increased
    supplies and more efficient use of the mineral,
    but there are limits to this effect.

Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly
(1) RQ 5
  • Most of the nonrenewable mineral resources
    supplied by
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Russia
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • In US some once rich deposits depleted (Pb, Al,
    Fe) now depends on imports for 50 of 24 most
    important non-ren. minerals

Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly (2)
  • Strategic metal resources
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Chromium (Cr)
  • Platinum (Pt)
  • Essential for USs economy military strength

Science Focus The Nanotechnology Revolution
  • Nanotechnology, tiny tech
  • Nanoparticles
  • Are they safe?
  • Investigate potential ecological, economic,
    health, and societal risks
  • Develop guidelines for their use until more is
    known about them

Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Can Be
Economically Depleted
  • Future supply depends on
  • Actual or potential supply of the mineral
  • Rate at which it is used
  • When it becomes economically depleted costs
    more than its worth to find, extract, process
  • Recycle or reuse existing supplies
  • Waste less
  • Use less
  • Find a substitute
  • Do without
  • Depletion Time time it takes to use up 80 of
    the reserves of a mineral at a given rate of use

Stepped Art
Fig. 14-23, p. 361
Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable
  • Subsidies and tax breaks to mining companies keep
    mineral prices artificially low essentially
    control supply, demand decrease a competitive
  • Subsidized to promote economic growth national
  • Does this promote economic growth and national
  • We still pay for subsidies through taxes
  • Some argue subsidies allow for wasteful use
    env. Degradation
  • Less recycling and reuse
  • Scarce investment capital hinders the development
    of new supplies of mineral resources
  • Finding new resources financially risky

Case Study The U.S. General Mining Law of
1872 RQ 6
  • Encouraged mineral exploration and mining of
    hard-rock minerals on U.S. public lands
  • Developed to encourage settling the West (1800s)
  • Until 1995, land could be bought for 1872 prices
  • 2.50-5.00 per acre
  • Companies must pay for clean-up now
  • Attempts have been made to revise the law should
    it be repealed and a new one written?

Is Mining Lower-Grade Ores the Answer? RQ
  • Factors that limit the mining of lower-grade ores
  • Increased cost of mining and processing larger
    volumes of ore
  • Availability of freshwater
  • Environmental impact
  • Improve mining technology
  • Use microorganisms, in situ
  • Very Slow process takes years to mine what can
    be done conventionally within months
  • What about genetic engineering of the microbes?

Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals
from the Ocean? (1) RQ 8
  • Mineral resources dissolved in the ocean-low
  • Most will require more energy money than they
    are worth to mine
  • Mg, Br, and NaCl are currently profitable
  • Deposits of minerals in sediments along the
    shallow continental shelf and near shorelines
  • Sources of sand, gravel, phosphates, S, Sn, Cu,
    Fe, W, Ag, Ti, Pt, and diamonds

Can We Extend Supplies by Getting More Minerals
from the Ocean? (2)
  • Hydrothermal ore deposits
  • Rich sources of sulfides, Ag, Zn, Cu
  • Too expensive ownership issues
  • Metals from the ocean floor manganese nodules
  • Effect of mining on aquatic life
  • Environmental impact
  • Still a lot to learn about complex marine food
    webs and biodiversity
14-5 How Can We Use Mineral Resources More
  • Concept 14-5 We can try to find substitutes for
    scarce resources, reduce resource waste, and
    recycle and reuse minerals.

We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral
Resources (1) RQ 9
  • Materials revolution
  • Plastics and ceramics replacing metals
  • Grancrete
  • Plastic piping instead of Cu
  • Glass fiber optics
  • Nanotechnology
  • Silicon
  • High-strength plastics strengthened by
    lightweight carbon glass fibers transforming
    auto aerospace industries
  • Drawbacks?

hmtechGrancrete_485.jpg Spray Grancrete over a
frame ofStyrofoam, metal, wood-even woven
sugarcane stalks-and in 20 minutes you have a
waterproof, fire-resistant structure that has
more than twice the strength of traditional
concrete and can withstand extreme temperatures
without cracking. A liquefied concrete-like
mixture of sand, ash, magnesium oxide and
potassium phosphate, Grancrete descends from a
product developed to encase radioactive waste.
And since it takes hours instead of weeks to
build a home, its poised to provide low-cost,
high-quality shelter to the estimated one billion
people who lack it. 20.50 to coat 15 square feet
We Can Find Substitutes for Some Scarce Mineral
Resources (2)
  • Substitution is not a cure-all
  • Pt industrial catalyst
  • Cr essential ingredient of stainless steel

We Can Recycle and Reuse Valuable Metals
  • Recycling
  • Lower environmental impact than mining and
    processing metals from ores
  • Recycling Al produces 95 less air pollution, 97
    less water pollution, and uses 95 less energy
    than mining processing Al ore
  • Reuse
There Are Many Ways to Use Mineral Resources More
  • How can we decrease our use and waste of mineral
  • Pollution and waste prevention programs
  • Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) begun by 3M
    (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing)
  • Cleaner production
  • Less waste
  • By 1998 3M decreased waste production by 1/3,
    decreased air pollution 70 and saved over 750
    million in waste disposal and materials costs

Solutions Sustainable Use of Nonrenewable
Case Study Industrial Ecosystems Copying Nature
  • Mimic nature recycle and reuse most minerals and
  • Resource exchange webs
  • Wastes of 1 manufacturer become raw materials of
  • Ecoindustrial parks
  • Industrial forms of biomimicry
  • Benefits decreased costs of managing wastes,
    control pollution, comply w/ regulations,
    improved health safety of workers, better
    public image

Solutions An Industrial Ecosystem in Denmark
Mimics Natural Food Web