Word%20Recognition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Word%20Recognition

Description:

Word Recognition I can read all of these words! I can read all of these words! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:133
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: Cherr160
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Word%20Recognition


1
Word Recognition
I can read all of these words!
I can read all of these words!
2
  • The twenty-five most common words make up about
    one-half of our written materials.
  • Fry, Kress Fountoukidis, 2000

3
  • We have over a half-million words to communicate
    with, but half of everything we write and read
    depends on only 0.02 percenton only those 100
    most frequent words.
  • Frank B. May, Reading as Communication To Help
    Children Read and Write 1998

4
  • It appears that instant recognition of words,
    especially high-frequency words, develops best
    when students read large amounts of text,
    particularly text that is relatively easy for the
    reader (Cunningham, 1995).

5
  • The student who can read on sight 8 out of the 10
    words in the sentence before them can read that
    sentence and can usually decode the remaining
    words by using phonics, context or picture cues.
    Most importantly, they can understand the meaning
    of what they are reading.

6
  • Without adequate high frequency/sight word
    knowledge, a readers fluency, and therefore
    their comprehension, is impaired.

7
Common High Frequency Word Lists
  • Dolch
  • Edward Frys Instant Word Lists
  • San Diego Quick
  • California Reading and Literature Results Project
  • Rebecca Sittons Core Words

8
Assessment
  • High frequency/sight word knowledge needs to be
    assessed frequently and taught strategically.
  • Students need to be able to read the word without
    sounding it out and with automaticity.

9
Word Identification in a BalancedReading Program
  • The focus on word identification is in line with
    a childs individual needs and skills.
  • Teaching letter/sound relationships helps
    children build fluency, automaticity and
    independence.

10
Word Identification in a BalancedReading Program
(cont.)
  • Children are encouraged to use alphabetic,
    semantic and syntactic cues to identify
    unfamiliar words.
  • Teacher modeling and multiple opportunities to
    interact with text leads to the development of
    word identification strategies.

11
Becoming Aware of Language
  • When beginning readers and writers explore
    written language, they develop critical concepts
    about print.
  • When children explore oral language, they develop
    phonemic awareness and the ability to manipulate
    and play with the sounds of language.

12
Becoming Aware of Language (cont.)
  • Phonemic awareness is sequential. Children become
    aware of words, syllables, rhyme and eventually,
    to individual phonemes.
  • A child who has phonemic awareness can identify
    the sounds he/she hears, segment words and blend
    sounds into words.

13
What Does Research Say?
  • Substantial evidence suggests that word
    identification skills should be taught directly
    rather than waiting for children to discover them
    on their own and that such skills should be
    taught early.
  • Effective readers are also strategic that is,
    they learn how and when to use combinations of
    word identification skills
  • (Adams, 1990 Anderson et al., 1985).

14
Who Is At-Risk?
  • Children who overuse context clues and fail to
    attend to letter-sound associations may
    misidentify words, and that could cause them
    difficulty in constructing meaning for a passage
    (Simon Leu, 1987).

15
Who is At-Risk? (cont.)
  • Children who do not effectively use meaning clues
    often sound out nonsense words or are so slow and
    laborious in word identification that they cannot
    simultaneously draw meaning from the words that
    they are reading (Biemiller, 1970 Samuels,
    1985).

16
Why Develop Automaticity?
  • The first 300 words make up 65 of all written
    material. (Frye)
  • Comprehension begins to break down when students
    are focused on trying to decode or sound out the
    words.

17
What Are High Frequency Words?
  • High frequency words are phonetic and can be
    decoded, but occur with such frequency that they
    often need to be learned before their specific
    phonics pattern is taught.
  • Examples of frequently occurring words the, in,
    I, a, go, to, that, with, about, please

18
What Are Sight Words?
  • Sight words are words, usually Anglo-Saxon in
    origin, that must be memorized because of their
    non-phonetic structure and high degree of usage.
  • Examples of nonphonetic words come, said, was,
    two and through

19
What Are High Interest Words?
  • High interest words are words with special
    interest or emotional overtones and are
    frequently used and recognized by students in
    their personal reading and writing.
  • Examples of high interest words mom, dad,
    dinosaur

20
Importance of Recognizing Words for Independent
Reading
  • Enables use of context clues.
  • Increases fluency and ease of reading
  • Children can read greater amounts and for longer
    periods.
  • Focus can be more on comprehension than on
    decoding.

21
California LanguageArts Standards
  • 1.0 Decoding and word recognition
  • Kinder 1.15 Read simple one syllable and high
    frequency words (i.e. sight words)
  • 1st 1.11 Read common, irregular sight words
    (e.g. the, have said, come give, of)
  • 2nd 1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately with
    appropriate intonation and expression

22
Instructional Implications
  • Rhyme awareness activities
  • Sound awareness activities
  • Teaching onset and rime/analogy strategy
  • Letter-sound activities
  • Multi-letter chunking
  • Visual discrimination and configuration
  • Building words

23
Instructional Implications (cont.)
  • Word sorts
  • Cross-checking and self-monitoring
  • Context clues
  • Cloze Activities
  • Word Wall Activities
  • Structural Analysis
  • Phonetic cue strategies

24
Ways to Classify and Sort Words
  • There are many ways to sort and classify
    words on a word wall, in a literacy center, or in
    a whole or small group lesson
  • Words that start the same (beginning blend,
    consonant cluster or onset)
  • Words that end the same (rime)
  • Words that rhyme
  • Words that contain the same number of syllables

25
Ways to Classify and Sort Words (cont.)
  • Long words, short words
  • Words I know, words I think I know and words I
    don't know at all
  • Words with long or short vowels
  • Words with schwa sound
  • Synonyms, antonyms
  • Compound words

26
Word Walls
  • Using word walls is an effective classroom
    strategy for learning and practicing HFW/sight
    words
  • As new words are learned they are added to the
    wall in ABC order
  • HFW words walls are added to and utilized all
    year
  • If it is on the wall, they are responsible for
    knowing how to read and spell it correctly!

27
Activities for Word Wall Practice
  • Speed reading all words under one letter
  • Read using different voices/expressions
  • Guess my word
  • Rhyming words
  • Read the entire wall forwards or backwards
  • Preposition/pronoun/noun/verb etc. hunt

28
Whole Class HFW Practice
  • Word wall games
  • Slap
  • I have_____, who has____?
  • Wordo
  • Word wall cards in ABC order
  • Pass the cards

29
Small Group HFW Practice
  • Slap
  • ABC order
  • Pass the card
  • Guess my word(s)
  • Concentration
  • Wordo

30
Individual Student Support
  • Word cards on rings
  • Word lists on desk
  • New words added to individual spelling
    dictionaries
  • Word hunts while reading
  • Practice, practice, practice!

31
Practice at Home
  • Flash cards
  • Concentration
  • Word hunts for focus words
  • Make words with magnetic letters on fridge
  • Words posted around the house
  • Read, read, read!

32
Beyond the Word Bank
  • Match cards whose word begins with the same
    letter or syllable.
  • Match cards whose word ends with the same letter
    or syllable.
  • Match cards whose word is the same.
  • Match cards whose words rhyme.
  • Arrange cards according to alphabetical order.

33
Beyond the Word Bank, cont.
  • Arrange cards according to the number of
    syllables in each word.
  • Make up sentences using the words on the cards.
  • Make up a story using all the words on the cards.
  • Find synonyms, antonyms or homonyms.
  • Find cards whose words have the same root or base
    word.

34
Beyond the Word Bank (cont.)
  • Find cards whose words have prefixes or suffixes.
  • Find cards with compound or derived words.
  • Arrange cards by the stress on the words.
  • Make up a story or poem using all or most of the
    words on the cards.

35
Designing Word Recognition Instruction
  • Identify word recognition error types.
  • Provide systematic word recognition instruction
    on specific skills.
  • Pre-teach word types in the text prior to
    reading.
  • Structure time for student to practice the text
    with a peer, adult, or tape.

36
  • High frequency/site words is, be, to, us, am, in
  • High frequency phrases
  • by the dog
  • for the day
  • on the bed
  • over the top
  • Source Building Fluency Do It Well and Do It
    Right! Molly McCabe

37
Recommended Reading
  • Behr, Donald, et al, Words Their Way
  • Fox, Barbara, Word Identification Strategies
    Phonics from a New Perspective
  • Frye, Edward, 1000 Instant Words, Laguna Beach
    Educational Books.
  • Throop, Sara (1999) Success with Sight Words
    Multisensory Ways to Teach High Frequency Words,
    Creative Teaching Press.

38
  • For more information or explanation of ideas
    outlined in this presentation, please contact
    Cherry Carl atcarl1404_at_msn.com.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com