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Photography Lesson 1


Digital cameras don t use film, ... ISO 200, 1/250 Types of Cameras Single-Lens Reflex ... Arial Default Design Photography Lesson 1 What is Photography ? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Photography Lesson 1

Photography Lesson 1
  • The Camera

What is Photography ?
  • Photo- Light
  • Graph- Drawing
  • It means Light Drawing. ... It literally means
    "To write with light.
  • A Camera is one of the tools you will use to
    capture this light.

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Shutter / Aperture / ISO
  • Taking a properly exposed photograph requires a
    cooperation between a cameras shutter, aperture,
    and film (ISO)
  • the shutter and aperture adjust the amount of
    light that reaches the film
  • Essentially the shutter speed, aperture, and ISO
    number are variables in a photo equation

Film / ISO
  • Standard film youve probably seen before is most
    likely 35mm negative film
  • Film also comes in a positive form, it is called
    Slide Film
  • Film Speed (ISO 100, 200, and so on) describes a
    films sensitivity to light. The higher the
    number the more sensitive (faster) the film,
    and the less light it needs for the picture to be
    neither too light nor too dark.
  • A setting of 100 to 200 is good for learning to
    shoot outdoors in sunny conditions. In dimmer
    light, speeds of 400 or higher are required.
  • Digital cameras dont use film, they have a
    digital light chip, they also have a built in,
    usually adjustable ISO setting.

The Shutter
  • The Shutter-speed controls the length of time
    that the shutter remains open.
  • A Shorter time decreases the likelihood that a
    moving object will appear blurred
  • A longer shutter speed will let in more light,
    but often blur your picture

Shutter Speed
  • The shutter controls the amount of light that
    reaches the film by length of time it remains
  • Doubling the amount of time the shutter is open
    is called a Stop it gives twice as much
  • Shutter Speed is measured in fractions.
  • Your camera usually denotes the shutter speed by
    displaying the denominator only.
  • 1/1 1 sec
  • ½ one half of 1 second, it may be labeled 2
  • 1/250 one 250th of a second, it may be labeled
  • Dont confuse 2, meaning 2 seconds, with 2
    meaning ½ second 4 meaning 4 seconds, with 4,
    meaning ¼ second, and so on.

Leaf / Between-the-lens Shutter
  • There are 2 main kinds of shutters available to
  • A leaf or between-the-lens shutter is generally
    located inside the lens itself. All view cameras
    and most point-and-shoot cameras use leaf
  • A flash can be used at any speed.
  • Lenses will cost more.
  • Actual shutter time will vary from lens to lens

Focal-Plane Shutter
  • The other shutter is a focal-plane shutter.
  • A focal-plane shutter is built into the camera
    body and is located directly in front of the
  • The shutter consists of two overlapping curtains.
  • Lenses are less expensive.
  • Shutter speeds can be higher
  • Cant use a flash when both curtains are moving.
    If the shutter speed is too fast, a sliver of
    flash appears.

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Motion Blur
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Aperture / Opening
  • The aperture (size of lens opening) controls the
    brightness of the light that reaches the film.
  • The aperture adjusts the size of the lens opening
    the diaphragm. The smaller the aperture
    opening the greater the depth of field
  • The Depth of Field is the part of the image near
    to far that will be sharp and in focus.

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  • The aperture is more or less like the pupil in
    your eye
  • The size of an aperture is measured by its
    f-number or f-stop
  • The lower the f-number the bigger the hole.
  • Few lenses provide a range of apertures greater
    than eight stops
  • A lens with a larger aperture is considered
    faster than a lens with a smaller aperture.
    Faster lenses work better in low light situations
    than do slower lenses.

  • The size of the lens opening (aperture) controls
    the amount of light that passes through the lens.
  • Each setting is one Stop from the next,
    meaning, each lets in twice as much light as the
    next smaller opening, half as much as the next
    larger opening.

Aperture and Depth of Field
  • Depth of Field is the area from near to far in a
    scene that is acceptably sharp in a photograph.
  • As the Aperture changes, the Depth of Field
  • The smaller the Aperture the larger the Depth of
  • Top photo f/2 (large aperture, small DoF)
  • Bottom photo f/16 (smaller aperture, larger DoF)

Shutter Speed and Aperture Together
  • Both Shutter Speed and Aperture affect the amount
    of light entering the camera.
  • To get a correctly exposed picture (neither too
    light nor too dark) you need a combination of SS
    and A that let in the correct amount of light for
    a scene and film speed
  • Equivalent Exposures, Once you have the correct
    combination of SS and A, you can change one
    setting as long as you change the other in the
    opposite direction.
  • Remember - Shutter Speed affects the sharpness of
    moving objects, Aperture affects the depth of
    field, sharpness from near to far

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Sunny 16
  • The Sunny 16 rule (aka the Sunny f/16 rule) is a
    method of estimating correct daylight exposures
    without a light meter. Apart from the obvious
    advantage of independence from a light meter, the
    Sunny 16 rule can also aid in achieving correct
    exposure of difficult subjects.
  • The rule serves as a mnemonic for the camera
    settings obtained on a sunny day using the
    exposure value (EV) system.
  • The basic rule is, "On a sunny day set aperture
    to f/16 and shutter speed to the reciprocal of
    the ISO film speed or ISO setting.
  • For example
  • On a sunny day and with ISO 100 film / setting in
    the camera, one sets the aperture to f/16 and the
    shutter speed to 1/100 or 1/125 second (on most
    cameras 1/125 second is the available setting
    nearest to 1/100 second).
  • On a sunny day with ISO 200 film / setting and
    aperture at f/16, set shutter speed to 1/200 or
  • On a sunny day with ISO 400 film / setting and
    aperture at f/16, set shutter speed to 1/400 or

Sunny 16
  • What settings would you choose for a Sunny Day
    using 200 ISO Film?
  • f/16 , ISO 200, 1/250
  • An Overcast day using 200 ISO film?
  • f/8, ISO 200, 1/250

Types of Cameras
Single-Lens Reflex (SLR)
Twin-Lens Reflex
Point and Shoot
View Camera
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