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Modern European History I HIS-106

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Title: Modern European History I HIS-106


1
Modern European History IHIS-106
  • Unit 7 - The Scientific Revolution

2
The Scientific Revolution
  • The Scientific Revolution was one of the major
    revolutions of the modern period
  • Saw changes in astronomy, physics, biology, and
    chemistry
  • 150 year process
  • It is said to have started in 1543
  • Copernicus On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
    (1543)
  • It ended with Newton
  • It was comprised of three parts
  • Acceptance and confirmation of the heliocentric
    view of the universe
  • Development of new physics that supported this
  • Development of a method of enquiry (the
    scientific method)

3
  • Aristotle
  • (384322 BCE)

4
Pre-Modern Scientific Thought
  • Throughout history, mankind has constantly sought
    to explain the universe
  • During the Middle Ages, western science was
    dominated by one man Aristotle
  • Three important theories of Aristotle
  • Four Elements - Earth, air, fire, and water sat
    in concentric spheres with earth at the center
    and air in the outermost sphere
  • Motion - Rest is natural and motion occurs in two
    ways movement towards their natural place or
    through violent means
  • Aether Material the heavens are made of and its
    natural motion is circular

5
  • Claudius Ptolemy
  • (c. 90-161 AD)

6
Pre-Modern Scientific Thought
  • Claudius Ptolemy (c. 90-161 AD)
  • He was a mathematician and astronomer
  • He laid out his geocentric view (Ptolemaic
    System) of the universe in the Almagest
  • Earth was surrounded by a series of crystalline
    spheres which contained the sun, other planets,
    and the stars
  • They rotated around the earth in perfect circles
    every day
  • This view became the dominant view of the
    universe throughout the Middle Ages
  • These theories fit well with Christianity
  • The earth and humans were at the center of the
    universe while God was at the other end

7
  • Geocentric Universe

8
Pre-Modern Scientific Thought
  • While science did have somewhat of an impact
    during the Middle Ages, there were also strong
    religious beliefs tied into it
  • Rise of Alchemy
  • Reborn in Europe after 1300
  • Based on the ancient Greek belief of
    transmutation
  • Most popular theory was transforming lead into
    gold
  • Astrology
  • Events in the heavens impacting those on Earth
  • This did tie in with Christianity

9
Pre-Modern Scientific Thought
  • In the 12th and 13th centuries, writings of the
    ancient philosophers were rediscovered
  • This had an impact on the development of
    philosophy
  • How do you reconcile ancient philosophers with
    the church?
  • Scholasticism (c.12th 15th centuries)
  • Blended Aristotles philosophy with theology
  • Believed faith and reason were comparable
  • Used observation and empirical thought to support
    church doctrines
  • Main figures Albertus Magnus, William of
    Ockham, Bonaventure and, Thomas Aquinas

10
Pre-Modern Scientific Thought
  • Scholastic method was based on Aristotelian
    method
  • Read a certain written work
  • Read other documents relating to this work,
    including those by the church and church fathers
  • Lay out any contradictions in this work
  • Working with other scholars, try to figure out a
    common ground
  • This was to show that there really was not a
    contradiction or that there was a
    misinterpretation on the part of the reader
  • This led to the rise of other sciences
  • In the 12th century there was the rise of
    Naturalists
  • This was followed with the development of the
    science of optics and astronomy in the 14th
    century

11
  • William of Ockham
  • (c.1288-c.1347)

12
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
  • Expansion of Trade
  • With overseas travel, merchants faced
    navigational issues
  • This led to research into new and improved tools
    (e.g., telescope)
  • Also, new plant and animal specimens provoked
    interest
  • Medieval Universities
  • Studies began with the ancient philosophers
  • Sparked interest in logical thought
  • Ockham's Razor Do not multiply entities more
    than necessary
  • University of Padua emerged as a preeminent
    school in Venice, a very free thinking city of
    the time

13
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
  • The Renaissance
  • Renewed interest in math, especially by da Vinci
  • Growth of Neo-Platonism Nature provided us with
    a greater understanding of God
  • Rise of humanism
  • Printing Press
  • Allowed for mass production of scientific texts
  • Made it easier for the masses to get access to
    such material
  • The Reformation
  • Already questioned the authority of the Church
  • Protestant countries provided safe havens

14
Revolution in Astronomy
  • The greatest changes took place in astronomy
  • The science did not fit with the observations
  • Stars were not where they were supposed
  • Did not explain the movement of Mars
  • Questioning Ptolemy
  • Started in the 14th century
  • Humanists went back to Ptolemys original works
  • Discovered that Ptolemys math was faulty
  • Revolution begins in 1543
  • Publication of De revolutionibus orbium
    coelestium (On the Revolution of Heavenly
    Spheres)

15
  • Nicolaus Copernicus
  • (1473-1543)

16
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Polish scientist
  • Was the first to seriously question the Ptolemaic
    System
  • Studied at the top universities of Europe
  • Studied medicine, canon and civil law, and
    astronomy
  • In 1503, he received a doctorate in canon law
    from the University of Padua
  • He was exposed to mathematicians and astronomers
  • Many of them believed that the Ptolemaic system
    was flawed
  • He agreed
  • How God could create such a messy system?

17
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres (1543)
  • Made numerous observations between 1514 and 1530
  • Did not publish until May 1543 out of fear of
    negative reactions
  • Explained his heliocentric view of the universe
  • Copernicus Heliocentric View
  • Based on mathematical calculations
  • The universe was made up of eight spheres with
    the sun at the center
  • The planets revolved around the sun
  • The Earth has three motions that explained the
    movement of the sun and stars (daily rotation,
    annual revolution, and annual tilting of its axis)

18
  • Copernicus Heliocentric View of the Universe

19
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • This was a huge breakthrough
  • He used math to invalidate Ptolemy
  • It was still conservative
  • He used conservative math, not observation
  • Kept the Aristotelian concept of circular orbits
  • Used it to explain the perfection of Gods design
  • One big problem
  • What he had designed went against the Bible
  • In both Psalms 931 and 9610 it said that the
    world is established, it cannot be moved

20
  • Tycho Brahe
  • (1546-1601)

21
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • He was a Danish nobleman
  • Best known for his astronomical observations
  • Studied law and astronomy at the University of
    Copenhagen
  • In 1572, he discovered a new star in Cassiopeia
  • If the universe was unchanging where did this
    star come from?
  • In 1577, he discovered a new comet
  • This challenged the concept of crystalline sphere
  • Built an observatory on the island of Hven
  • Equipped with superior instruments
  • Did not use a telescope

22
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Observations of the night sky
  • For 21 years, Brahe made observations of the
    heavens
  • He complied the most accurate maps of the sky at
    this time
  • Each year he went over his observations and
    corrected them
  • He rejected both Ptolemy and Copernicus
  • Instead he came up with his own model
  • Tychonian System
  • All planets, except for the Earth, revolved
    around the sun
  • This whole system then revolved around the Earth
  • He still accepted the Aristotelian concept of
    circular orbits

23
  • Tychonian System of the Universe

24
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • He also led a very interesting life
  • He was a heavy drinker
  • He lost part of his nose in a duel and wore a
    fake nose
  • He was in possession of a tamed moose
  • Even his death was interesting
  • The old belief was that he died due to a ruptured
    bladder
  • In 1996, his body was examined and there was a
    large amount of mercury in his hair and body
  • Death was either accidental or at the hands of
    his student Johannes Kepler

25
  • Johannes Kepler
  • (1571-1630)

26
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Born of very poor parents
  • His original plan was to become a Lutheran
    minister
  • Changed his major to mathematics and astronomy
    while at the University of Tübingen
  • Became Lecturer of Mathematics at the University
    of Graz
  • In 1600, Kepler became one of Brahes assistants
  • In 1601, he was appointed as the Imperial
    Mathematician for Emperor Rudolph II
  • Kepler took all of Brahes instruments and
    observations
  • When he tried to apply Brahes observations to
    Copernicus theory, it did not work out

27
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • Keplers Observations
  • Spent 25 years going over Brahes work to find
    the flaw
  • He discovered the flaw was with Copernicus
  • Testing numerous hypotheses, he came up with his
    laws
  • Keplers Three Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Each planet moves in an orbit that is elliptical
    the sun acts as one of the two foci of that
    ellipse
  • Planets nearer to the sun move faster than
    planets farther away
  • Planets with larger orbits revolve around the sun
    at a slower velocity than those with smaller
    orbits
  • These were published in Astronomia nova (A New
    Astronomy) in 1609

28
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
  • This destroyed the Aristotelian system
  • There were still problems with his laws
  • He did not understand the reason behind the
    ellipses
  • If the earth is moving so fast, why do we not
    move horizontally when we jump?
  • Magnetism
  • He believed that magnetism between the sun and
    the planets kept the latter in orbital motion
  • However was rejected as sounding too magical
  • He also improved on the telescope
  • He used two convex lenses to produce greater
    magnification (the Keplerian Telescope) in 1611

29
  • Galileo Galilei
  • (1564-1642)

30
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Born of a lesser noble Pisan family
  • Studied medicine then math at the University of
    Pisa
  • In 1589, he became the chair of mathematics at
    the University
  • In 1592, he began teaching math at the University
    of Padua
  • Contributions to astronomy
  • Improved the design of the original telescope by
    making a 20x telescope in 1609
  • Used his new telescope to observe the heavens
  • He discovered craters and mountains on the moon
  • He also discovered the Jupiter had four moons

31
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger) (1610)
  • Stated the moon was not the perfect or
    ethereal surface Aristotle predicted
  • Stated that the moons of Jupiter were actually
    orbiting around the planet
  • Letters on Sunspots (1613)
  • Galileo supported the heliocentric view of the
    universe
  • It also showed that the sun was also flawed
  • Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (1632)
  • Examined both the Ptolemaic and Copernican views
  • Most of the work focused on supporting the
    Copernican view
  • It had been cleared by Inquisition censors

32
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • Contributions to motion
  • Galileos Principle of Inertia - A body continues
    to move in a certain direction unless stopped
  • Based on experiments and observation
  • Was able to tie in motion of the earth to
    astronomy
  • Dropping objects from Leaning Tower of Pisa?
  • Discourses on Two New Sciences (1638)
  • It included the Law of Falling Bodies
  • All bodies, regardless of mass, fall at the same
    rate of speed
  • Planets also fall at the same rate of speed
  • Orbits vary not to the size of the planet but the
    size of the orbits
  • Challenged Aristotle on many grounds

33
  • Giordano Bruno
  • (1548-1600)

34
Reaction of the Catholic Church
  • Catholic Church would not accept any scientific
    ideas that threatened church beliefs
  • Jesuits believed these would weaken the Church
  • Dominicans supported Aristotelian beliefs
  • Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
  • Believed that stars were other suns and there was
    a plurality of worlds
  • Stated that the universe was infinite
  • Burned at the stake by the Inquisition on charges
    of heresy, blasphemy, and immoral conduct

35
Reaction of the Catholic Church
  • Church challenged the Copernican System after
    1600
  • Argued that the Copernican system was just not
    possible
  • It condemned Copernicanism
  • Galileo did not believe his work was heretical
  • Parts of the Bible should not be taken literally
  • Stated the Scripture cannot be wrong but man can
    misinterpret
  • Believed that the Bible should not be used to
    understand the heavens
  • In 1615, Galileo wrote a letter to the Grand
    Duchess of Tuscany
  • Argued for separation of theology and science
  • God endowed us with reason to understand the
    universe

36
Reaction of the Catholic Church
  • In 1616, Galileo asked the Church to not ban his
    ideas
  • Cardinal Robert Bellarmine told him to teach his
    system only as a hypothesis, to as fact
  • He agreed
  • This changed after publication of Dialogue (1632)
  • In 1633, Galileo was brought before the
    Inquisition
  • Charges were suspicion of heresy
  • He was forced to recant heliocentrism
  • He was placed under house arrest
  • Dialogues was banned
  • Pope Urban VIII issued a papal decree which
    stated it was heresy to believe in heliocentrism

37
Reaction of the Catholic Church
  • Catholic Church was most hostile to science in
    Catholic countries
  • Especially true in Italy (except in Venice) and
    Spain
  • In Venice, anti-clericalism was strongest
  • The University of Padua was located there
  • Number of key scientists studied there
  • In France, state authority trumped church
    authority
  • Allowed more freedom there
  • In Protestant countries, less state control meant
    less interference
  • Ironically, Protestants were hostile to
    Copernicanism for Biblical reasons

38
  • Sir Francis Bacon
  • (1561-1626)

39
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  • Development of Scientific Method
  • Wanted to find a proper way to examine the
    natural world
  • This meant trashing old ideas and coming up with
    new ones
  • Two main figures Bacon and Descartes
  • Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  • Attended Trinity College, Cambridge
  • Discovered Aristotelian methods were incorrect
    and led to the wrong conclusion
  • He was a judge and Lord Chancellor
  • Was interested in natural philosophy and the
    search for the truth

40
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  • Meditationes Sacrae (1597)
  • Most famous for the line scientia potentia est
    or knowledge is power
  • The Proficience and Advancement of Learning
    (1605)
  • Discredited the methods of the current natural
    philosophers
  • They were using ancient methods which were
    incorrect
  • Novum Organum (1620)
  • Scientists would never learn anything unless they
    changed their methods
  • Inductive reasoning - Use observations to draw
    general conclusions and then repeating
    experiments for verification
  • This became known as the scientific method

41
  • René Descartes
  • (1596-1650)

42
René Descartes (1596-1650)
  • René Descartes (1596-1650)
  • Born into a minor noble family in France
  • Attended a Jesuit school at the age of 11
  • Received a law degree from the University of
    Poitiers
  • Served under Maurice of Nassau during the Thirty
    Years War
  • Under tutelage from Isaac Beeckman, he became
    interested in math
  • Some of his ideas were similar to Bacon
  • Both believed that established knowledge should
    be questioned
  • Both believed that ideas should be valued on
    their usefulness
  • Descartes was more of a rationalist and believed
    in logic and mathematics

43
René Descartes (1596-1650)
  • Contributions to math
  • Linked algebra from Arab and Hindu math to
    geometry from Greek math
  • Key for future methods of science
  • Contributions to epistemology
  • Descartes had a dream in November 1619
  • In it, he came up with a new rational
    mathematical system to explaining the universe
  • He would spend the rest of his life working on
    this system

44
René Descartes (1596-1650)
  • Discourse on Method (1637)
  • Doubted everything including his own existence
  • Cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am)
  • From there was able to reestablish knowledge
    using deductive reasoning
  • Meditations on First Philosophy (1641)
  • Proved the existence of God
  • Dualism between the mind and the body
  • The mind cannot be doubted by the body and
    material world can, the two must be radically
    different
  • The universe is made up of two things thinking
    substance and extended substance

45
René Descartes (1596-1650)
  • All creatures were machines
  • Humans were different because they had rational
    minds
  • Allows them to find the path to knowledge
  • The universe was a machine with laws
  • Humans could use math to understand it
  • Descartes died on February 11, 1650
  • Attending the court of Queen Christina of Sweden
  • She was an early riser
  • He was not
  • Developed pneumonia and died ten days later

46
René Descartes (1596-1650)
  • In 1667, Descartes works were placed on the
    Catholic churchs Index of Prohibited Books
  • This was mainly due to his rejection of religious
    influence in his studies
  • Also, he condemned the Aristotelian method of
    science
  • Key impact on the scientific method
  • He emphasized deduction and mathematical logic
  • Complimented Bacons work of experiments and
    induction
  • Newton is going to take it to the next level
  • Used Bacons empiricism with Descartes
    rationalism
  • This led to the use of systematic observations
    and experiments

47
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • (1643-1727)

48
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
  • English mathematician and experimenter
  • One of the greatest scientific minds of western
    civilization
  • He was secretive, obsessive, vindictive, and
    petty
  • Went to Trinity College, Cambridge for math
  • Developing Calculus
  • Plague of 1666 forced him home for 18 months
  • Invented calculus and started working on his law
    of gravity
  • Work in Optics
  • From1670 to 1672, devoted himself to optics
  • Invented a reflecting telescope

49
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
  • Contributions to mechanics
  • In 1677, began working on the role of gravity
  • Worked on Galileos Theory of Inertia and
    Keplers Law of Planetary Motion
  • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
    (1687)
  • Better known as Principia
  • Defined his three laws of motion
  • For every action, there is always an equal and
    opposite reaction
  • Applied them to both planetary bodies and
    terrestrial objects
  • Law of Universal Gravity

50
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
  • What makes Newton so special?
  • Took the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
    and created one solid theory
  • The universe operated as one regulated and
    uniform machine
  • All of this was backed by observation,
    experience, and math
  • Calculus controversy
  • Did Newton really invent it?
  • Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) developed calculus
    later than Newton
  • However, published before Newton did
  • Most scholars agree that the two developed it
    independently of one another

51
  • Gottfried Leibniz
  • (1646-1716)

52
Advances in Medicine
  • Medieval medicine was strongly affected by the
    ancient Greeks
  • Galen of Pergamum (c.130-c.200 BCE)
  • Greek physician during Roman era
  • Primary anatomy studies were based on animal
    dissection
  • Against Roman law to dissect a human body
  • Many of his observations were inaccurate
  • Four humours blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and
    black bile
  • Disease was the result of an imbalance in these
    humours
  • Treatment involved purging, bleeding, or
    application of the opposites

53
  • Paracelsus
  • (1493-1541)

54
Paracelsus (1493-1541)
  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)
  • Born Philippus Aureolus von Hohenheim
  • Paracelsus meant greater than Celsus
  • Attended the Universities of Basel, Vienna, and
    Ferrara
  • No proof he obtained a medical degree
  • Humans are microcosms
  • Humans are a smaller version of the larger world
    (macrocosm)
  • All parts of the universe were reproduced in a
    human but on a smaller scale

55
Paracelsus (1493-1541)
  • Chemical reactions were replicated inside a human
    being
  • Believed disease was due to a chemical imbalance
  • Principle of like cures like
  • He often used poison to cure a disease
  • Known as the homicide physician
  • Significance
  • Forefather of modern medicine
  • Rejected Galens theories about disease and came
    up with his own
  • Like cures like is used in homeopathy and
    holistic medicine

56
  • Andreas Vesalius
  • (1514-1564)

57
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
  • Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
  • Born in the Spanish Netherlands
  • Received his medical degree from the University
    of Padua
  • Became professor of surgery there
  • Used revolutionary teaching techniques for
    surgery
  • Tabulae Anatomicae Sex (1538)
  • Collections of his human anatomy drawings
  • Very well received
  • Paduan judge gave him the bodies of executed
    criminals for dissection

58
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
  • On the Fabric of the Human Body (1543)
  • Seven volume set
  • Careful and detailed analysis of human anatomy
  • Contained highly detailed drawings
  • Most accurate illustrations at the time
  • Vesalius did disprove some of Galens errors
  • Was able to give accurate descriptions of the
    human body
  • Discovered that blood came from the heart not the
    liver
  • Became the Imperial Physician for HRE Charles V

59
  • Illustrations from On the Fabric of the Human Body

60
  • William Harvey
  • (1578-1657)

61
William Harvey (1578-1657)
  • William Harvey (1578-1657)
  • Born in Kent, England
  • He received his BA from Cambridge University
  • Receive his medical degree from the University of
    Padua
  • Was appointed as a physician to St. Bartholomew's
    Hospital
  • Became a fellow of the Royal College of
    Physicians
  • Physician to Kings James I and Charles I
  • On the Motion of the Heart and the Blood (1628)
  • Heart pumped blood throughout the body, not the
    liver
  • Stated that the blood system was one closed
    system, not two
  • Capillaries were not discovered until 1660s

62
  • Benedict de Spinoza
  • (1632-1677)

63
Science and Religion
  • Scientific Revolution caused many to question
    church beliefs
  • Believed there should be a line drawn between
    religion and nature
  • Is it necessary to spit religion and science?
  • Not everyone believed so
  • Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)
  • His family had fled Portugal to avoid the
    Inquisition and settled in Holland
  • Studied under Franciscus Van den Enden, ex-Jesuit
    and atheist
  • Was exposed to the works of Descartes and other
    natural philosophers

64
Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)
  • Writ of Censure
  • Received this in 1656 from an Amsterdam synagogue
  • Similar to excommunication
  • Was accused of abominable heresies and
    monstrous deeds
  • He spent the rest of his life working as an
    optician
  • He died from a work-related lung ailment
  • Pantheism
  • Believed that nature and God are one in the same
  • God is not the personal God with human-like
    emotions
  • To find God is to look around you since He is
    found everywhere

65
Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)
  • God is one, that is, only one substance can be
    granted in the universe
  • Believed mankind has many misconceptions about
    God and nature
  • Nature exists only for ones use
  • Anything that cannot be explained must be
    attributed to a creator-God who must be
    worshipped to gain their ends
  • When bad things happen, people claim the gods
    were angry at them, rather than realizing good
    and bad happen to all

66
  • The inside of a nautilus shell

67
  • Blaise Pascal
  • (1623-1662)

68
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • French mathematician, scientist, and religious
    philosopher
  • Was seen as a child math prodigy
  • By 13, he had already proven Euclids 32nd
    proposition
  • At 19, he invented a calculating machine, a
    Pascaline
  • Devoted himself to the study of science
  • Worked in hydrodynamics and hydrostatics
  • Invented a hydraulic press and the syringe
  • Tried to prove the existence of a vacuum
  • Suffered from dyspepsia and insomnia for most of
    his life
  • In 1647, he was bedridden with pain

69
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • In 1654, Pascal had a riding accident
  • While traveling over the Seine River, his horse
    broke free and jumped over the parapets
  • The carriage was left dangling off the bridge for
    a period of time
  • At this time he made a pledge to devote his life
    to religion
  • Defense of the Christian Religion
  • Devoted the last years of his life on this
  • Published after his death as Pensées, or Thoughts
  • Christianity was the only religion that could
    recognize a persons true state of being both
    vulnerable and great
  • Pascals Wagner
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