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Title: The%20Stalemated%20Seventies


1
Chapter 39
  • The Stalemated Seventies
  • AP Notes

2
Objectives.
  • Describe Nixons policies toward the war in
    Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and Communist China
  • Examine the conflicts created by the secret
    bombing of Cambodia, the American withdrawal from
    Vietnam, and the new isolationism represented
    by the War Powers Act

3
The Nixon Presidency
4
Who was Richard M. Nixon?
  • Shy and remote
  • Born into poverty always felt an outsider
  • Often seemed stiff and lacking in humor and charm
  • Few close friends spent time with family at
    estates in Cal. and Fla. (lavishly redone at
    government expense)

5
Nixons Vice President?
  • Spiro T. Agnew
  • Treated dissent as treason
  • Called the media an effete corps of impudent
    snobs and nattering nabobs of negativism

6
The Democratic candidates?
  • Hubert H. Humphrey (LBJs Vice President)
  • Edmund Muskie the senator from Maine

7
American Independent Party?
  • George Wallace Alabama governor
  • Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow!
    Segregation forever!
  • Against school busing, antiwar demonstrations,
    urban uprisings
  • Running mate Curtis LeMay proposed nuclear
    weapons in Vietnam bomb the North Vietnamese
    back to the Stone Age

8
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The Election of 1968
  • Wallace won 13.5 of the vote
  • 5 southern states
  • middle-class white northerners tired of
    inner-city riots and anti-war protests (White
    backlash)
  • Humphrey took 42.7 of the vote
  • Richard Nixon won with 43.4

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11
Henry Kissinger
  • National Security Council Advisor 1969-1973
  • U.S. could not appear weak and retain global
    leadership
  • Shaped Nixons foreign policy

12
Vietnamization
  • 1968 Nixon said he had a plan to end the war
    but wouldnt explain
  • Remove Am. forces and replace with S. Vietnamese
  • 1968 543,000
  • 1972 39,000
  • Did not want to lose resumed bombing of N.
    Vietnam
  • Widened the war beyond Vietnam

13
Nixons Vietnamization
  • Nixon spoke of peace with honor while the US
    continued bombing campaigns into Laos and
    Cambodia to cut supply lines
  • Nixon appealed to the silent majority

14
My Lai Massacre
  • In Nov. 1969 Americans learned of the massacre of
    504 of S. Vietnamese civilians mostly women,
    children, and elderly
  • Lt. William Caley, Jr. was the leader of the
    platoon responsible
  • Caley was court-martialed and convicted of
    premeditated murder

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17
Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson saves civilians by
landing between US troops Vietnamese civilians
18
Extending the war beyond Vietnam
  • Cambodia communist camps from which the enemy
    was mounting attacks on South Vietnam
  • U.S. announced bombing of Cambodia in April, 1970
  • Fresh wave of protests on college campuses
  • Largest series of student demonstrations in U.S.
    history

19
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20
U.S. Bombing Points in Cambodia, 1965-73
21
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22
Cambodian children rolling an unexploded bomb to
a scrap metal dealer
23
Kent State University
  • May 2, 1970 student protesters burnt down the
    ROTC building
  • Gov. Rhodes sent Ohio National Guard to Kent
    State
  • May 4 classes were held guardsmen were on
    campus 200 students and protestors
  • After several confrontations guard opened fire
    on crowd

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26
Campus unrest
  • 4 students killed at Kent State 9 wounded
  • May 14 Jackson State University state
    troopers shot 2 students and wounded 12
  • 900 college campuses closed down after shootings
  • 37 college and University presidents signed a
    letter calling for wars end
  • 100,000 march on Washington

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28
Allison Krause-Protester-Shot in the chest
arm
29
Sandy Scheuer -Not protesting -Walking
to class -Shot in the throat
30
Jeffrey Miller-Not protesting-Shot in the
head
31
Bill Schroeder -Not protesting-Walking to
class - Shot in the back-Ironically an ROTC
student
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35
The Hardhats
  • Construction workers
  • Building and Trades Council
  • 100,000 members held rally supporting government
  • broke up an anti-war rally
  • Many Americans supported the National Guard and
    felt the students got what they deserved

36
The War Continued
  • 1971 Nixon directed S. Vietnamese to invade Laos
    to cut supplies defeated
  • 1972 Nixon ordered the mining of N. Vietnamese
    harbors and bombing of Cambodia and N. Vietnam
  • December, 1972, Kissinger met in Paris with Le
    Duc Tho
  • Cease-fire
  • Withdrawal of U.S. troops
  • Return of U.S. prisoners of war

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38
The war
  • Nixon unleashed the Christmas Bombings of Hanoi
    and Haiphong, 100,000 bombs over 11 days
  • Jan 27, 1973 an agreement was reached
  • On March 29, 1973 the last US troops left for
    home
  • February 12, 1973 - Operation Homecoming begins
    the release of 591 American POWs from Hanoi

39
April, 1973-The last soldiers arrive home from
Vietnam
40
Nixon and John McCain upon his return
41
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42
The Fall of Saigon
  • Within months of the US departure the cease fire
    was broken
  • In March 1975 North Vietnamese launched a full
    scale invasion
  • The US sent to South Vietnam but no troops
  • Pres. Ford did not want another nightmare
  • On April 30th, 1975 North Vietnamese tanks rolled
    into Saigon - renamed Ho Chi Minh City

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45
What was the Vietnam legacy?
  • No victory parades for Vietnam Vets
  • Many faced bitterness and hostility
  • Many had debilitating injuries and drug
    dependencies
  • 15 or 3.3 million soldiers developed post
    traumatic stress disorder
  • 58,000 US troops were killed
  • 150 billion

46
  • Millions of Vietnamese were killed -chemicals
    like agent orange have polluted the environment
    and caused birth defects and cancer, 400,000
    re-educated by the communists
  • The Communists forced 1.5 million people out of
    Vietnam - 50,000 boat people perished
  • Cambodias civil war in which Khmer Rouge led by
    Pol Pot killed 3 million Cambodians

47
  • The US abolished the draft
  • In Nov. 1973 Congress passed The War Powers Act
    in which the President must inform Congress
    within 48 hrs. of sending forces
  • Troops cannot remain longer than 90 days without
    authorization from Congress
  • In 1982 the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was
    unveiled in Washington DC

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49
Nixons Foreign Policy
  • Kissinger promoted the idea of the realpolitik
    - political realism (Foreign policy is based on
    consolidation of power)
  • US should confront and deal with the powerful
    nations (Negotiations/Militarily)
  • Nixon and Kissinger had a flexible approach in
    dealing with Comm.
  • Pushed for détente or a relaxing of Cold War
    tensions

50
Playing the China Card
  • Ping-pong diplomacy began in 1971
  • Take advantage of the rift between the China and
    the USSR
  • Feb., 1972 Nixon visited China -symbolic -
    opened up diplomatic and economic relations
  • Major shift in U.S. foreign policy
  • Both would cooperate and participate in
    scientific and cultural exchanges

51
Ping Pong DiplomacyJuly, 1971- The ice
breaker between China US
52
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53
Nixon and Premier Zhou En-lai
54
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56
Nixons Visit to the USSR
  • In May 1972, President to visit Moscow
  • Nixon met with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev
  • They signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
    (SALT I) - limited ICBMs and sub missiles to
    1972 levels
  • Nixon offered to sell 1 billion in wheat crop
    to the USSR
  • Détente

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59
Shuttle Diplomacy
  • Secretary of State Henry Kissinger traveled
    between Middle Eastern countries
  • In January 1974 Egypt and Israel signed a peace
    accord
  • In May Israel signed a cease fire with Syria

60
The Apollo 11 Launch July 16, 1969
61
Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins Buzz Aldrin
A P O L L O 11
62
Man Walks on the Moon!
63
Objectives
  • Analyze Nixons domestic policies, his appeal to
    the silent majority, his opposition to the
    Warren Court, his southern strategy, and his
    landslide victory against George McGovern in 1972

64
Nixon appealed to the silent majority
  • Appealed to hostility toward protestors and
    counterculture
  • Americans who worked, paid taxes, and did not
    protest
  • People who love their country
  • Restore law and order

65
Nixon promised
  • To appoint federal judges who would undercut
    liberal civil rights interpretations and be tough
    on crime
  • To role back the Great Society
  • Restore law and order

66
Southern Strategy?
  • Democrats alienated the South Civil Rights Act
    of 1964
  • Sunbelt retirement communities and rise of high
    tech industries ? growing pop.
  • Military bases, defense plants, and increasing
    influence of Protestant evangelism ? conservative
    region

67
Nixons New Conservatism
  • Nixon was determined to turn the US into a more
    conservative direction with a sense of order
  • The US was intensely divided over Nam
  • Nixon felt LBJs Great Society programs gave the
    federal gov. too much power

68
Two Sides to Nixons New Federalism
  • The Nixon Administration
  • increased Social Security, Medicaid, and
    Medicare
  • made food stamps more accessible
  • Subsidized housing for the poor
  • Oversaw creation of Environmental Protection
    Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration
  • Supported Family Assistance Plan (guaranteeing
    minimal income for the poor- defeated in the
    Senate)

69
And the other side.
  • Nixon tried to eliminate the Job Corps, and in
    1970 he denied funding for (HUD)
  • By 1973 Nixon had impounded more than 15 billion
    in funds for housing, health, and education
    (Courts overturned the impounding)
  • Nixon abolished the Office of Economic
    Opportunity

70
Law and Order Politics
  • He played to the silent majority
  • Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate
    American dissidents and political enemies
  • The IRS was used to audit anti-war and civil
    rights activists returns
  • Nixon had a enemies list of who to harass
  • VP Agnew attacked liberals, the media, and
    anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull)

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72
Ultraliberalism today translates into a
whimpering isolationism in foreign policy, a
mulish obstructionism in domestic policy, and a
pusillanimous pussyfooting on the critical issue
of law and order.
73
What was Stagflation?
  • Inflation..
  • Stagnant economy

74
What factors contributed to stagnation?
  • Presence of women and teenagers in job market.
  • Declining investment in new capital
  • Cost of government safety and health regulations
  • Shift manufacturing ? services
  • Vietnam War
  • International economic competition.

75
What factors contributed to inflation?
  • Vietnam War Great Society inflationary
    spending with no check (higher taxes) put money
    in peoples hands but fewer goods
  • Drastic increase in the price of oil

76
Oil problems?
  • OPEC raised the price of oil in 1960s
  • The Six Days War in 1967
  • The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt
    and Syria
  • The US military aid to Israel ? Arab OPEC nations
    cut oil sales to the US (Oil Embargo) By 1974
    price increased 4x
  • Major gas lines and shortages in the US early,
    mid 1970s

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80
Nixon Battles Stagflation
  • To reduce deficit - raised taxes and cut the
    budget (Congress opposed)
  • Tried to reduce the inflation by pushing for
    higher interest rates
  • Took the US off the gold standard
  • In 1971 froze wages, rents, fees and prices for
    90 days-it helped temporality but the recession
    continued

81
The Environment
  • Nixon supported the creation of the Environmental
    Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Improved the Clean Air Act of 1963
  • Supported the Water Quality Improvement Act of
    1970
  • In 1973 the Endangered Species Act was passed
  • Membership in the Sierra Club took off due to new
    concerns over the environment
  • On April 2d, 1970 the first Earth Day was held

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84
The 1972 Election
85
George McGovernDemocrat
86
George McGovernLiberal Democrat
  • Anti-war
  • Reduce in defense spending
  • 6,500 minimum income
  • ERA Amendment abortion
  • Amnesty for draft evaders

87
Dirty Tricks
88
Results of the 1968 Election
  • Elector/ Pop Vote
  • Nixon 520 60.7
  • McGovern 17 37.5

89
1972 Election
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91
Nixons Victory Salute
92
Objectives.
  • Discuss the Watergate scandals and Nixons
    resignation.

93
The Imperial Presidency
  • Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency with
    little thought of Constitutional Checks
  • Impoundment of funds for fed. programs
  • Invading Cambodia without the approval of
    Congress
  • Nixon felt the office of the Presidency was above
    the law

94
The Presidents Men
  • Fierce loyal advisors
  • H.R. Haldeman Chief of staff
  • John Ehrlichman Chief Domestic Advisor
  • John N Mitchell Attorney General
  • John W. Dean III White House Council

95
Nixons dirty tricks
  • Nixon used the FBI to gather info on political
    rivals
  • Manufactured, irrelevant, cruel incorrect
    rumors
  • Nixon laundered to accept illegal campaign
    contributions
  • CREEP The plumbers

96
Hunt and Liddy
97
Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP or CREEP)
  • A private group supporting RMN by using its money
    to pay for later cover up "dirty tricks

98
The Plumbers July, 1971
  • RMNs covert White House group
  • Established to stop info from leaking to the
    media
  • Employed by CREEP Responsible for Watergate

99
The Pentagon Papers
  • A secret study prepared by the D of D - Analysis
    summary of U.S. political military
    involvement in Vietnam
  • The PPs show that the gov. deceived the public

100
47 Volumes 7,000 pages
101
Daniel Ellsberg
  • D of D employee who releases the PPs to The NY
    Times

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The significance of the Pentagon Papers
  • Eroded public support for the war made it
    difficult for RMN to fight the war
  • As SC case it establishes the peoples right to
    privileged gov. info

104
Ellsberg dirty tricks
  • RMN orders the D of D to prosecute
  • The Plumbers break into Ellsbergs psychiatrist
    office seeking info. that will discredit him
  • CIA is given orders to incapacitate Ellsberg

105
Watergate
  • CREEP breaks into the DNC (Watergate Hotel) - 5
    arrested convicted
  • RMN denies knowledge

106
The Cover-Up
  • Documents were shredded in Haldemans office
  • The White House asked the CIA to urge the FBI to
    stop investigating the break-in
  • CREEP passed out 450,000 to the burglars to buy
    their silence
  • The burglary was of little interest to the public
    and the press

107
  • Washington Post Reporters (Woodward Bernstein)
    follow evidence back to the oval office Deep
    Throat

108
Watergate

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The Cover-Up Unravels
  • In Jan. 1973 McCord (burglar) sent a letter to
    Judge John Sirica (Presiding Judge)
  • He lied under oath, and hinted others were
    involved
  • On April 30th, Nixon fired John Dean and
    announced the resignations of Haldeman,
    Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard
    Kleindiest

111
  • Nixon went on TV to promote his new Attorney
    General Elliot Richardson and he suggested a
    Special Prosecutor be appointed to investigate
    Watergate

112
The Senate Investigation
  • Senator Sam Ervin began called Administration
    officials to give testimony
  • Dean admitted the President had been deeply
    involved in the cover-up (White House denial)

113
  • Presidential Aide Alex Butterfield revealed the
    tapes of Oval Office Conversations
  • A year long battle for the tapes began

114
The Saturday Night Massacre
  • The special prosecutor (Cox) demanded the tapes
    Nixon refused claiming executive privilege
  • Nixon ordered Attny. Gen. Richardson to fire Cox
  • Richardson refused and was fired

115
  • The Deputy Attny Gen refused to fire Cox
  • He was fired
  • Solicitor General (Robert Bork) fired Cox
  • Nixon apptd. new special prosecutor Jaworski

116
So what did Jaworski do?
  • He asked for the tapes
  • The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to turn the tapes
    over

117
The Fall of Nixon
  • March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted seven
    presidential aids on charges of conspiracy,
    obstruction of justice, and perjury
  • Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited transcripts
  • In July 1974 The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to
    give up the unedited tapes I am not a crook!

118
  • In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an 18.5
    min. gap (Rose Mary Woods accidentally erased the
    most crucial part)

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The Nixon tapes reveal
  • Anti-Semitic attitudes
  • Nixon ordering government agencies to harass
    private citizens
  • Nixon ordering the Watergate break-in cover-up

121
What? No Vice President?
  • 10 days before the Saturday Night Massacre
  • Spiro Agnew resigned accused of income tax
    evasion and taking bribes
  • Gerald Ford appointed Vice President under the
    25th Amendment

122
Impeachment or Resignation?
  • The House Judiciary Committee approved three
    articles of impeachment obstruction of justice,
    abuse of power, and contempt of Congress
  • On August 8th , 1974 Nixon announced his
    resignation
  • Nixon admitted no guilt, some judgments were
    wrong

123
  • Gerald Ford was sworn in as President
  • Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential pardon
  • 25 administration members served prison terms

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RMN Resigns August 9, 1974
The first President to resign.
126
Gerald Ford
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130
The Ford and Carter Years
  • 1974-1980

131
Fords Unusual Road to the Presidency
  • Never elected to the Vice-Presidency or
    Presidency
  • Only person to become President and
    Vice-President under the 25th Amendment
  • Nelson Rockefeller became Vice-President under
    the 25th Amendment

132
The Nixon Pardon
  • Ford gave Nixon a full pardon for Watergate
  • Covered crimes Nixon committed or may have
    committed as Pres.
  • Ford wanted to spare the country a trial
  • Some Americans were outraged
  • None of Nixons former employees were pardoned
    and nearly all served prison terms

133
1973 OPEC Oil Embargo
  • Inflation rose form 6 in 73 to 10 in 74
  • Ford started the WIN campaign, (Whip Inflation
    Now) It failed.
  • Ford urged Americans to cut back on use of oil
    and gas
  • He cut government spending, interests rates went
    up triggering the worst recession in 40 years

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Foreign Policy
  • Ford kept Kissinger as Sec. of State
  • Helsinki Accords 1975
  • Legitimized Soviet drawn borders in E. Europe
  • Agreement allowing for more open exchanges of
    people and information
  • Milestone
  • One-sided

136
Vietnam
  • Wanted to continue to give money to aid South
    Vietnam, Congress refused, the South fell in 1975
  • 140,000 Vietnamese left
  • Cost to U.S. - 118 billion
  • 56,000 Am. dead and 300,000 wounded
  • U.S. lost respect

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Feminism in the 1970s
  • Movement showed vitality
  • Title IX to the Education Amendments
  • ERA
  • Court cases Reed v. Reed and Frontiero v.
    Richardson
  • 1973 Roe v. Wade

140
First Womens March for Equality - 1970
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Anti-Feminism
  • Nixon vetoed nationwide public day-care
  • Phyllis Schlafly STOP ERA blamed for rising
    divorce rate

143
Civil Rights.
  • Courts Milliken v. Bradley 1974
  • Desegregation could not require across district
    bussing
  • Reinforced White Flight
  • Pitted poor whites and blacks against each other

144
Bakke v. Board of Regents
  • 1978 Allan Bakke denied admission to U. of Cal.
    Davis Medical School
  • Sued said his scores were better than the
    minorities who were accepted
  • Supreme Court preference for admission can not
    be given to any group
  • Racial factors may be used in overall admissions
    process
  • Bakke admitted reverse discrimination

145
Native Americans
  • Asserted status as separate semi-sovereign
    peoples
  • Seized Alcatraz 1972 Wounded Knee 1972
  • United States v. Wheeler 1978
  • Indian tribes possessed a unique and limited
    sovereignty
  • Subject to the will of Congress not the states

146
Alcatraz
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Carter in the White House
  • Former peanut farmer and Gov. of Georgia
  • Promised he would never lie to the American
    people
  • Carter and Ford squared off over energy,
    inflation, and unemployment
  • Carter won by a close margin
  • He talked to the American people through FDR like
    fire-side chats by radio and TV

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Newspape
             
 
                                                                                                                                              

151
How did the economy change in the 1970s?
  • Less manufacturing jobs
  • More jobs in communication, transportation, and
    retail
  • Greater overseas competition
  • U.S. iron and steel and clothing plant closings
    and lay-offs
  • OPEC raised oil prices

152
Carters Domestic Agenda
  • Carter urged Americans to cut back their
    consumption of oil and gas
  • The National Energy Act taxed gas guzzling
    cars, removed price controls on oil and gas
    produced in the US, and gave tax credits for
    development of alternative energy.

153
  • In 1979 inflation hit 11.3, 14 by 80.
  • Famous malaise speech - complained of a
    crisis of spirit in Americans.

154
Carter and Draft Evaders?
  • Wanted to end divisions in the country
  • Gave full pardons to draft evaders
  • No pardons for deserters
  • Few protested the pardons (put Vietnam behind us)

155
Three-Mile Island?
  • March 1979 nuclear power plant at Three Mile
    Island broke down ? at risk for nuclear meltdown
  • Caused widespread fear
  • Some Americans doubted nuclear energy was safe
  • Nuclear power plants were held to stricter safety
    standards

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Carter and Civil Rights?
  • Appointed more women and African Americans to his
    administration than any other previous
    administration
  • Appointed Andrew Young as US Ambassador to the UN

158
Carters Foreign Policy
  • Based upon human rights
  • Publicly criticized the Soviet Union and South
    Africa
  • Most countries that violated human rights no
    longer received U.S. foreign aid
  • Panama Canal Treaty gave canal back to Panama
    on December 31, 1999

159
Camp David Pace Accords
  • Carter invited Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem
    Begin (Israel) to Camp David
  • 13 days negotiation
  • Two agreements
  • Conditions for general peace talks
  • Conditions for peace between Egypt and Israel
  • 1979 peace treaty signed

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161
Carter and Soviet Union?
  • 1979 attempted to improve on SALT I by
    negotiating SALT II impose additional limits on
    certain nuclear weapons
  • Conservative Republicans and Democrats opposed
    SALT II died in the Senate

162
Carter and China?
  • Formally recognized the Peoples Republic of
    China as the sole legitimate government of China
  • 1979 trade and cultural contacts increased

163
Afghanistan?
  • Hotbed of Islamic fundamentalism
  • The government backed by S. U.
  • S. U. invaded to protect government against
    fundamentalists
  • Carter protested ? suspended grain and high-tech
    sales to Soviets
  • Boycotted 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow

164
Iranian Hostage Crisis?
  • Shah of Iran a strong ally of the U.S.
  • 1978 Shah was overthrown by Islamic
    fundamentalists Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Carter allowed the Shah to enter the U.S. for
    cancer treatment
  • Nov. 4, 1979 Khomeinis followers seized U.S.
    embassy in Tehran 52 hostages
  • Hostages released 444 days later January 20,
    1981

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Miracle at Lake Placid 1980
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