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Gender PowerPoint Slides

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An Introduction Gender & Human Sexuality Lecture Overview Sex and Gender The Study of Human Sexuality Sexual Behavior Sexual Problems Sexually Transmitted Infections ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender PowerPoint Slides


1
An Introduction Gender Human Sexuality
2
Lecture Overview
  • Sex and Gender
  • The Study of Human Sexuality
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Problems
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections

3
Sex and Gender
  • Sex refers to the biological aspects of being
    male or female (and the physical acts of
    intercourse/masturbation)
  • Sex differences are physical differences
  • Gender refers to the psychological and
    sociocultural meanings added to biological sex
  • Gender differences result from peoples thinking
    about gender

4
Dimensions of Sex
Sex Dimensions Male Female
1. Chromosomes 2. Gonads 3. Hormones 4.
External genitalia 5. Internal accessory
organs 6. Secondary sex
characteristics 7. Sexual orientation
XY XX Testes Ovaries Androgens Estrogens Peni
s, scrotum Labia, clitoris, vaginal
opening Prostate, seminal Vagina,
uterus, vesicles, fallopian tubes, vas
deferens cervix Beard, low voice,
Breasts, sperm emission
menstruation Heterosexual, gay, Heterosexual, bise
xual lesbian, bisexual
5
Human Reproductive Structures
6
Gender Dimensions
7
Determinants of Gender Identity
  • Gender identity refers to the personal view of
    oneself as male or as female
  • Environmental factors were assumed to be central
    determinants of gender identity
  • Notion was that social-cultural influences shaped
    gender identity
  • The case of the castrated identical twin whose
    gender identity was reassigned following a
    botched circumcision was taken as important
    evidence for the role of environmental factors
  • Problem he later rejected the reassignment and
    took on a male gender identity (now this case
    supports a biological view of gender identity)

8
Gender Role Development
  • Gender roles are societal expectations for normal
    and appropriate female and male behavior
  • Social-learning theory argues that gender roles
    develop as children
  • receive rewards/punishments for gender role
    behaviors
  • watch and imitate the behaviors of others
  • Cognitive-developmental theory argues that
    children develop gender schemas

9
Gender Differences
  • Cognitive abilities
  • Females score higher on verbal skills
  • Males score higher on math, visual-spatial skills
  • Aggression
  • Males exhibit greater physical aggressiveness
  • Females are higher on relational aggression
  • E.g. spreading rumors about others, ignoring or
    excluding others

10
Androgyny
  • Androgyny combining characteristics considered
    typically male with characteristics considered
    typically female
  • Masculine and androgynous individuals generally
    have higher self-esteem and creativity, are more
    socially competent and motivated to achieve, and
    exhibit better overall mental health.

11
Scientific Study of Sexuality
  • Havelock Ellis was among the first physicians to
    initiate a scientific study of sexuality
  • His studies revealed that nocturnal emissions
    were not dangerous
  • Ellis later came to promote the dissemination of
    accurate information on human sexuality
  • Alfred Kinsey used surveys and interviews to
    study sexual practices and beliefs
  • Masters and Johnson brought the study of
    sexuality into the laboratory to study the sexual
    response cycle

12
Sexual Response Cycle
13
Sexual Activity
  • Men are thought to have greater sexual drive,
    interest and activity than do women. Why?
  • Evolutionary Perspective Men developed an
    interest in sex with multiple partners in order
    to maximize the likelihood of passing on their
    genes women seek a good provider
  • Social Role Approach Gender differences reflect
    cultural roles and division of labor
  • Women prefer resource-rich men, but only when
    they lived in cultures with little reproductive
    freedom/educational equality

14
Sexual Orientation
  • Homosexuality may reflect the impact of
    biological factors on sexual orientation
  • Biological factors are supported by twin studies
    that suggest genetic influence on sexual
    orientation
  • Homosexuality does not reflect
  • Poor parenting smothering mother, detached
    father
  • Arrested development or an immature personality
  • Childhood seduction by adults
  • Modeling of gay behaviors and views from others

15
Sexual Function
  • Sexual behavior in males and females involves
    arousal of the peripheral sex organs, the spinal
    cord, and the brain.
  • Factors that modulate activity within any of
    these regions can impair sexual function
  • Sexual arousal involves activity within the
    parasympathetic nervous system (allows for blood
    flow to the sex organs)
  • Sexual orgasm involves the activation of the
    sympathetic nervous system

16
Sexual Dysfunctions
  • Male sexual problems
  • Impotence (inability to maintain an erection)
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Male and Female
  • Dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
  • Inhibited desire
  • Sexual aversion
  • Female
  • Orgasmic dysfunction
  • Vaginismus (painful contraction of the vaginal
    muscles)

17
Sex Therapy Masters and Johnson
  • Therapy focuses on the relationship
  • Therapy integrates physiological and psychosocial
    factors
  • Therapy focuses on cognitive factors
  • Therapy focuses on specific behavioral techniques

18
Drug Actions on Sexuality
  • Alcohol Reduced testes size and suppressed
    hormone function
  • Cocaine Erectile disorder, inhibited orgasm,
    lowered sperm counts
  • Barbiturates Reduced desire, erectile disorder,
    delayed orgasm
  • Marijuana Reduced testosterone levels, reduced
    desire
  • Tobacco Decreases the frequency and duration of
    erections and of vaginal lubrication

19
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
20
AIDS
  • Although AIDS is transmitted only through sexual
    contact or exposure to infected bodily fluids,
    many people have irrational fears of contagion.
  • One million North Americans are HIV positive and
    therefore carriers
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