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Title: Download these PowerPoint Slides


1
Download these PowerPoint Slides
2
Sex, gender, transsex, transgender
Talk presented to the class Human Sexuality and
its Problems November 26, 2013 McGill
University Montreal, Quebec
Olivia Jensen November 26, 2013
3
about Olivia
  • Born in the deep winter of 1943 in a farmhouse
    in Springbank, Alberta
  • Educated in the public schools of Calgary,
    Vancouver and at the University of BC
  • Joined McGills Faculty of Engineering in 1973
    and then Faculty of Science in 1984
  • Married 1975 son of 33, daughter of 31, both
    McGill graduates grandson 5, granddaughter 3
  • Divorced 1989
  • Transition 1989 with some following medical
    interventions

4
The Story ... the talk
  • Trans in the news
  • Many of us among you
  • One view of the transgendered and transsexuals...
    a political story
  • We still face some problems
  • Questions I'll answer almost any question that
    you have the courage to ask, honestly! I shall
    try to leave half the session for questions

5
The Atlantic -- online
6
Sun News Network
7
Some of us among you
  • Jamie a sex worker activist Vancouver
  • Lynn ex-VP University of Michigan
  • Aaron ex-Dean, University of Victoria
  • Vivian Professor, Principal Simone de Beauvoir
    Inst., Concordia
  • Nikki Member of Parliament, England
  • Cory Hockey player
  • Michelle Mountain bike champion
  • Laverne actress OITNB and activist
  • ... and some interesting recent news

8
The Verge -- online
9
Huffington Post 2012-01-04
10
The Parent Dish 2013-03-13
11
The Internationall Business Times (Daily Mail)
12
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders
13
Some terminology (OED)...
trans- (prefix) across, but also beyond gender
kind, sort (gram.) any of the three kinds,
masculine, feminine, and neuter, of nouns,
adjectives, and pronouns. XIV . OF. gendre
(mod. genre ) Rom. genero , f. L. gener-
GENUS . sex males or females collectively XIV
(rare before XVI ) condition in respect of being
male or female XVI . (O)F. sexe or L. sexus m.,
rel. to synon. secus n. man pl. men human being
adult male OE. vassal, manservant XII (dial.)
husband XIII . OE. man(n) , mon(n) , pl. menn (-
manniz ), also manna , monna , corr. to OS.,
OHG. man (Du. man G. mann ), ON. mar (g. manns
, pl. menn ), Goth. manna (g. Mans ... woman OE.
wfman(n) m., later fem., f. wf woman man(n) MAN
a formation peculiar to Eng. (not in the oldest
OE. records). Assim. of -fm- to -mm- is evident
in late OE. sp., and rounding of wim- to wum-,
wom- in XIII .
14
... a confusion of definitions
Words, words, words ...
Female
Turner's
Pansexual
Drag Queen
Sexualities
Woman
Girl
Bisexual
Gender Identity
Cisgender
Heterosexual
Lesbian
Transvestite
Sex
Transgender
Boy
Transsexual
Homosexual
Klienfelter's
Transman
Man
Drag King
Super male
Asexual
Male

15
Confusing sex with gender
  • Until 1700s gender ? sex
  • derivative of Greek humours (genders)
  • Biological definitions sex ? gender
  • reproductive possibility
  • morphology (penis or not?)
  • chromosomal (XX or XY or ????)
  • Cultural definitions
  • Why such simple bimodality in western culture?
    How recent is this enforced bimodality?
  • Colloquially now, sex ? gender
  • ...but No! Sex is not gender!

16
The world begins to agree...
I first started selling this political story in
the late 1980s. Then, it was iconoclastic but
now the world is coming onside...
17
The man who would be Queen?
  • I have not read the book, probably won't bother
    to... but not because I don't expect to agree
    with Bailey's model. I just don't bother to read
    much gender theory anymore. I have my theory
    of me and us and it satisfies me and many of us.
  • A lot of it makes perfect sense to me!

A precis of Bailey's model?
18
More careful definitions?
  • Technical/psychological definitions
  • Sex male or female among several common sexes...
    (of the physical) -- based in biology
  • Gender man or woman among several common
    genders... (of the spirit) source in biology?
  • A possible biological basis for gender?

19
Some of us just don't fit!
  • The common bimodal attachment of each sex to one
    of but two genders leads to identity conflict.
  • If we hold to this simplistic bimodality of sex
    and gender, not all of us will find a coherent
    place.
  • Apparent sex which gender?
  • Apparent gender which sex?
  • ... problems? ?????????

20
AIS
  • Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (perhaps as many
    as 1 in 13000 apparently female births)
  • XY chromosomes chromosomally male
  • morphologically female
  • procreatively neither
  • Olympic sex testing found XY women in
  • Barcelona 5 of 2406 competitors
  • Atlanta 8 of 3387
  • Sydney and following no further testing a
    formal policy for transsexual/XY-AIS athletes
    since 2004
  • Intersex Society of NA ... and now
    Accord Alliance

21
Ambiguous births...
  • The intersexed
  • Proportion of genitally abnormal babies born
  • 1 in 100
  • Number of surgically normalized babies
  • 1 to 2 in 1000
  • ...and almost always feminizing surgeries

22
Sexes
  • How to define sex
  • Sex is evermore (in legal and bio-medical
    domains) determined by the sex chromosomes.
  • If so, one cannot possibly change sex!
  • If sex is determined by chromosomes, then, what
    are the common sexes?
  • male (XY)
  • female (XX)
  • and many others?

Some of the others...
23
Sexes
  • Other sexes?
  • Turners (X0)
  • Klinefelters (XXY, XXXY and variants)
  • super-male (XYY)
  • mosaics (XXYXX,)
  • ... this can be legally problematical? ?

24
Littleton vs. Prange Texas 4th Court of Appeals
  • Christie Lee Littleton's wrongful death
    malpractice suit defendant Dr. Mark Prange
  • Littleton's husband died in surgery due to
    apparent malpractice
  • Court held Littleton's suit invalid as her
    marriage was invalid in Texas because she was
    legally male (XY chromosomes!)
  • Court held to chromosomal sex
  • ...then, what of AIS?

25
Chromosomal sex map
X chromosomes (1096 genes/X)
Y chromosomes (98 genes/Y)
26
Gender 101...
  • Julianne Imperato-McGinley discovers that gender
    is inherent

Her study of male pseudo-hermaphrodites in the
Dominican Republic showed that the strength of
the nature of gender overwhelms a nurtured
gender.
The 1974 article in Science
27
Gender 201...
David (Bruce) Reimer and his twin brother The
Story John Money, a then (1966) (in)famous
sexologist recommended an orchiectomy and
neovaginal construction for Bruce who had
suffered a major error in a circumcision. The
lives of Bruce as Brenda and his brother Brian
were both ruined in the transformation. David
committed suicide in 2004.
The Story continued
28
Genders
  • How to define gender?
  • A fundamental sense of self or identity probably
    already well established in utero.
  • Gender is expressed, especially, in the mode
    chosen for social interaction but it does not
    follow that ones gender is simply a social
    construct.
  • Mode or style is chosen to fit, best, in
    adaptation to ones essential sense of gender.
    Modes and styles are the social constructs.

29
Genders
  • Common genders?
  • Man (boy)
  • Woman (girl)
  • The plains Indians of North America describe as
    many as 7 possible and distinct genders.
  • That we live, now, in a simplistically bimodal
    society much complicates ones choice of mode for
    expression of ones gender.

30
Gender transposition field? Pillard Weinrich
(1987)
31
Gender transposition field? Pillard Weinrich
(1987)
32
Gender transposition field? Pillard Weinrich
(1987)
33
Transgender
  • Those who dont/cant conform to the gender that
    commonly accords with their sextransvestites,
    two-spirited, perhaps drag queens and kings, and
    transsexuals.
  • M-to-F transsexual an XY person (male) chooses
    to live with a social role more commonly
    appropriated to an XX person (female), with
    strong desire to be female
  • F-to-M XX lives with gender role normally
    appropriated to XY, with desire to be male
  • Our problem? An incoherent sex-gender accord?
  • An illness? A neuro-atypical disorder?
  • No! we simply face a lack of acceptable
  • social gender roles!

34
What gender models do we have?
  • Here is the major problem facing a transgendered
    individual and, perhaps, many intersexed as well.
  • How does one define ones place in and mode of
    interaction with the rest of a normalizing
    society?
  • If one only has a choice between man and woman,
    which should one choose?
  • Might each of us find or seek to create another
    more appropriate model for ourselves?

35
unfortunately, gender and sex matter...
  • Gender and sex and the confusion of gender with
    sex pervades our legal systems and our social
    organization...
  • We are only, now, unravelling the legalistic and
    social mess that has accumulated in the past few
    centuries...
  • Normally, here, I would introduce a series of
    exemplary problems faced by transgendered
    people... let's skip these detailed stories. If
    you download the PowerPoint slide set, you can
    turn on these stories.

36
Corbett vs. Corbett PROBATE, DIVORCE AND
ADMIRALTY DIVISION UK Court Justice J. Ormrod
(1970)
  • Arthur Cameron Corbett married April Ashley in
    Gibralter in 1963.
  • Arthur petitioned the courts to annul the
    marriage in November 1969.
  • Justice Ormrod held
  • Nullity Declaration Marriage void Wife a man!
    Justification Power of court to make bare
    declaratory order - RSC Ord 15.
  • This judgement had been the precedent cornerstone
    in UK exercise of Common Law until

37
Gerbil
  • Gerbil The Gender Recognition Act of the UK
    Parliament received Royal Assent on July 1, 2004.
  • Now transsexual people who fulfil certain
    conditions are legally regarded as having their
    chosen gender (still only man or woman) and have
    all the rights in detail that accrue according to
    that gender.
  • Transsexuals can legally marry someone whose
    legal gender (sex is immaterial) is opposite to
    their own.


38
Gardiner vs. Gardiner Kansas Supreme Court (2002)
  • J'Noel Ball Gardiner's rights to her deceased
    husband's property challenged by his son Joe
    (appellate).
  • Court held marriage was invalid in Kansas because
    J'Noel Gardiner had been born male even though
    her Wisconsin birth certificate had been legally
    changed to female.
  • US Supreme Court refused hearing.
  • Functional/morphological definition of sex.
  • ...what of the infant surgeries?
  • ..what of errors?

39
United States
  • Legal sex and birth certificates
  • 12 states allow amendments
  • 21 allow issue of replacement certificates (4 of
    those above)
  • 1 state prohibits change of certificate --
    Tennessee
  • Anti-discrimination provisions
  • 26 municipalities (incl. Boulder, Colorado if
    one limits ones gender changes to fewer than 4
    times in 18 months!)

40
Boston, February 5, 2004
  • The Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of
    Massachusetts upholds the lower court decision
    enabling same-sex marriage.
  • The court rejected civil unions as a remedy
    "Because the proposed law by its express terms
    forbids same-sex couples entry into civil
    marriage, it continues to relegate same-sex
    couples to a different status. ... The history of
    our nation has demonstrated that separate is
    seldom, if ever, equal."
  • Withstood reopening challenge June 14, 2007

41
Canada
Alberta not only can the birth certificate be
changed, but if the sex of the person is
registered outside Alberta (then the Director
shall) transmit to the officer in charge of the
registration of births and marriages in the
jurisdiction in which the person is registered, a
copy of the proof of the change of sex produced
to the Director (Revised Statutes Alberta, 1973
chap 384, s.21.1)
42
British Columbia On January 17, 2002, in Nixon
v. Vancouver Rape Relief Society, the B.C. Human
Rights Tribunal held that a women's shelter had
discriminated against a male-to-female
transsexual by denying her the opportunity to act
as a volunteer counsellor. The Tribunal
affirmed that transgendered people are protected
from discrimination by the ground "sex" in human
rights legislation. Note This judgement was
recently overturned
43
Quebec
CHANGE OF SEX DESIGNATION AND OF GIVEN NAME is
covered under the revised Quebec Civil
Code. Change of name and of other particulars
of civil status, Regulation respecting R.R.Q.
C-10,r.1
44
and now does it really matter???
  • The Ontario Court of Appeals decision of June
    10, 2003 legalized marriages, generally, between
    persons without reference to their gender (in
    the common sense) or to their sex.
  • 13 consecutive judicial decisions in Canada
    came to this very conclusion before the Civil
    Marriage Act was passed by Parliament on June 20,
    2005.

45
Spain beat us to the
  • An even more comprehensive "same-sex marriage
    law was passed by Spains Cortes and came into
    effect on July 3, 2005. The Spanish law allows
    for no distinguishing difference at all between
    same-sex and opposite-sex marriage and services
    of marriage.

46
Progress...
  • The Netherlands 2001
  • Belgium 2003
  • Spain 2005
  • Canada 2005 South Africa 2006
  • Massachusetts and Connecticut (2008)
  • Now 13 states accept same-sex marriages
  • Marriages performed in other jurisdictions are
    accepted as legal in Israel, Aruba, Netherlands
    Antilles, New York City, Buenos Aires,...

47
But thats only marriage!
  • Even though Canada is such an extremely tolerant
    society, we still await
  • anti-discrimination, anti-hate rulings
  • security of person rulings
  • freedom of choice rulings (i.e. surgical
    sex-changing at will or whim)
  • Access to status Perhaps the highest status
    (job) transsexual person in Canada, now, is Aaron
    Devor, Dean, Graduate Studies and Research,
    University of Victoria and thats not so very
    high!

48
Surprisingly elsewhere?
  • Saudi Arabian court ruling...
  • Kuwait!
  • Iran!
  • China!
  • Turkey!
  • Israel!
  • Pakistan!
  • India!

49
All this introduction now back to the story and
some personal politics
  • Many transgendered people choose to live in the
    other gender... another gender! They
    transition!
  • Many choose or desire medical, hormonal,
    psychotherapeutic and other procedures in
    establishing comfort in this other gender.
  • Very few of those who medicalize retreat to
    former gender Paulis estimate 1.6.
  • Many, perhaps most, establish successful
    post-transition lives See Lynn Conways website.

50
but,
  • Can we really find our place?
  • I dont think that either of the two genders is
    our place
  • I suggest that our gender is somewhere else,
    distinct from that of ordinary man or woman
  • I call myself a transsexual woman and the
    adjective is absolutely important... at least to
    me!

51
Discussion?
  • I am open to answering almost any question that
    you might have concerning transsexuality and
    gender
  • You should know, though, that what I offer as
    answer might be better received as just one
    transsexual womans opinion...
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