Progressive Era to the Age of Global Crisis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Progressive Era to the Age of Global Crisis

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Title: Progressive Era to the Age of Global Crisis


1
Progressive Era to the Age of Global Crisis
  • US History and Government
  • NY State Regents Exam Review

2
Agrarian Movement
  • Economic problems for farmers emerge
  • Overproduction, high costs, and debt
  • Farmers organize the Grange Movement
  • Blamed railroads for their difficulties
  • Interstate Commerce Act fixed rates
  • The Populist Party for farmers laborers
  • Felt industrialists and banks controlled
    government
  • Pushed for several reforms that were later
    enacted
  • Direct election of senators, presidential term
    limits, graduated income tax, immigration quotas,
    shorter work day

3
Progressive Movement
  • Early 1900s response to social problems in urban
    America
  • Muckrakers wrote about abuses by business and
    corruption in government
  • Social Reformers worked to better living
    conditions (poor, immigrants, women)
  • Government was reformed with new laws and
    electoral changes
  • T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson

4
Suffrage
  • 1848 Seneca Falls Convention proclaimed women are
    equal to men and focused on the right to vote
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Susan B. Anthony

5
Womens Role
  • 1870-1917, Industrialization brought changes
  • Women now attended school and held newly created
    jobs
  • New labor-saving devices allowed women more
    leisure time

6
Women in World War I
  • Women replaced men in factory jobs when men went
    to war
  • 19th Amendment was passed in 1920 as a result of
    their contribution during the war

7
War with Spain
  • 1898, Spanish-American War ushered in Imperialism
    for the United States
  • Causes of war
  • Humanitarian concerns (Cuba)
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Economic interests by the US in Cuba
  • De Lome Letter offended the US President
  • Sinking of the USS Maine in Havana (Spain blamed)
  • As a result of the war the US gained overseas
    territory formally held by Spain

8
American Empire
  • US involvement in Asia and LA increases
  • Philippines and Cuba gained from Spain
  • Hawaii annexed in 1898
  • China Open Door Policy
  • Commodore Perry opens trade in Japan
  • Panama Canal is built
  • Roosevelts Big Stick Policy in Latin America
    increases US role in affairs

9
World War I
  • Reasons for US involvement
  • German actions (Zimmermann/Submarines)
  • Allied propaganda and trade relations
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Wartime liberties were restricted
  • Selective Service Act (Draft)
  • Schenck v. US (1919) clear and present danger
  • Wilson introduced 14 Points for peace
  • League of Nations was created (without the US)
  • America returned to being isolationist

10
Roaring 20s
  • Relatively good times for America ()
  • Red Scare was a fear of Communism
  • Sacco and Vanzetti executions
  • Nativism pushed for Immigration Acts
  • Limited immigration from southern and eastern
    Europe
  • Republican Presidents laissez-faire policies
  • Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover

11
Factors to Prosperity
  • The rise of the automobile industry drove other
    industries creating new jobs
  • Assembly Line was applied to all industries
  • The Age of Mass Consumption
  • Americans bought more goods (credit)
  • Speculation boom as more and more people bought
    stocks on margin (borrowed money)

12
1920s Values
  • Women and African-Americans felt a new sense of
    power and freedom
  • Attempts to Preserve traditional values
  • Prohibition Eighteenth Amendment
  • Scopes Monkey Trial (science vs. religion)
  • New values emerged for groups
  • Women demonstrated independence
  • Desire and rejection for material wealth
  • Harlem Renaissance led to cultural awakening

13
Causes of the Depression
  • Depressions are bad times when businesses fail
    and unemployment rises
  • Causes for The Great Depression
  • Overproduction of goods
  • Uneven distribution of income
  • Speculation in the stock market real estate
  • Unsound and shaky banking practices

14
Depression Begins
  • New York Stock Exchange crashed 1929
  • Oct. 29, 1929
  • Businesses closed, farms went under, banks
    failed, and millions lost their jobs
  • Natural disasters and over farming led to the
    Dust Bowl on the Great Plains
  • President Hoover failed to act as the economy
    went into ruins

15
The New Deal
  • FDR believed government bears the responsibility
    for helping the economy
  • Passed legislation to slow the depression
  • Relief measures to give people jobs
  • CCC and WPA put people to work
  • Recovery measures to restore economy
  • NRA set wages AAA paid farmers
  • Reform measures to fix causes of depression
  • FDIC, SEC, NLRA, Social Security

16
Reactions to the New Deal
  • Roosevelt was elected President 4 times
  • 22nd Amendment limited President to two terms
    was passed in 1951
  • Supreme Court ruled some New Deal legislation as
    unconstitutional
  • Roosevelt attempted court packing scheme to get
    his laws through
  • Plan failed and seen as an overreach of power

17
Origins of World War II
  • Failure of the League of Nations to keep the
    peace and collective security
  • American isolationsim
  • Appeasement (giving in) failed to stop Hitlers
    aggression
  • 1939 Hitler (Nazi Germany) invaded Poland

18
American Neutrality Fails
  • Neutrality Acts prohibited Americans from selling
    arms to warring nations
  • United States started to prepare for war
  • Lend-Lease Act allowed the US to sell, lend, or
    lease war materials to allies
  • Atlantic Charter Four Freedoms
  • Pearl Harbor is attacked by Japan

19
Home Front
  • US mobilized rapidly for World War II
  • Draft was used to rapidly increase troops
  • Labor force was used to make materials for war
    (women and African-Americans)
  • War Bonds were sold to raise funds
  • Korematsu v. US (1944) Japanese-Americans were
    forced into internment camps for the duration of
    the war

20
War Against Germany and Japan
  • In Europe the allies were able to push back the
    Germans from the south, east, and west
  • Nazi Germany collapsed in April of 1945
  • US used island-hopping to turn back the
    Japanese
  • President Truman decided to use the Atomic Bomb
    on Japan to end the war quickly

21
Legacy of World War II
  • Nuremberg Trials (1945-1946) were used to try
    Nazis guilty of war crimes
  • Holocaust was the murder of 6 million Jews
  • US forces occupied and rebuilt Japan
  • Japan lost its empire
  • Military leaders were tried and punished
  • Renounced nuclear weapons and war
  • Democratic Constitution (1947)

22
Roots of the Cold War
  • After WWII the US and USSR emerged as the two
    superpowers in command
  • US (democracy) USSR (communism)
  • Europe was divided between two systems
  • West (dem.) and the East (com.)
  • Iron Curtain figuratively divided between the
    two ideologies

23
Containment
  • America would attempt to prevent to spread of
    communism to new areas
  • Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan provided
    aid to democratic nations
  • NATO and Warsaw Pact alliances formed
  • Berlin Airlift, China, and the Korean War all
    become struggles between democracy and communism

24
Nuclear Arms Race
  • Soviet Union developed an atomic bomb
  • US developed a hydrogen bomb, so then the USSR
    developed and exploded one
  • Nuclear Weapons acted as a deterrent from either
    side attacking the other
  • Soviet Union launched Sputnik (1957), starting a
    Space Race

25
Effects of the Cold War
  • Loyalty concerns in the US and Congressional
    hearings spark McCarthyism
  • Many were falsely accused of being communists or
    disloyal to America
  • Rosenberg trial in 1950, executed for treason
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