Topic INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL

SCIENCES LAHORE

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Definition
- Statistics is a branch of science, in which we
- Collect
- Observed
- Analyze
- Interpret
- Numerical facts and figures.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Collect
- Observed

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Analyze
- Interpret

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Statistics is also defined as, it is a science of

collecting data, processing, organizing and

interpreting also taking more effective decisions

on the basis of sample information. - There are two categories of statistics
- Descriptive Statistics
- Inferential Statistics
- Descriptive statistics is that in which we

describe the characteristics of population like

mean, median, standard deviation etc. - Inferential statistics is that in which we draw

influence on the basis of sample information

about the population that is called inferential

statistics (inference statistical results).

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Population Total area under discussion is called

population. The number of observations in a

finite population is called size of the

population and is denoted by N.

Sample An enough and representative part of

population is called sample. The number of

observations in a sample is called size of the

sample and is denoted by n.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Functions of Statistics
- Statistics has the following major

functions(uses). - Statistics helps in collecting and presenting

data in a systematic and meaningful form i.e.,

summarizes the larger set of data into an easily

understand form. e.g., there is a lot of students

in a particular college does not give an exact

information as the statement that 480 students

studying in the college i.e., numerical facts

give more precise information than facts

expressed in general terms. - Statistics facilitates comparisons of data e.g,

the price indices of a given year easily compare

with the price indices of previous years.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Statistics assists in highlighting the important

features of data and studied relationships among

different facts - Statistics helps in prediction or forecasting.
- Statistics help in formulations of suitable

policies also sound and effective planning in any

field of inquiry. - Statistics helps in formulating and testing of

hypothesis through observed data.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Importance of Statistics in different fields
- State Management.
- ( Budget, Unemployment, Census etc)
- Pure Science.
- Mathematical Science.
- Psychology, Education and Sociology.
- Business.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Banks.
- Insurance Companies.
- Economic Economic Development Companies.
- Agriculture.
- Research.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- There are two types of population
- Finite population
- Infinite population
- Population which consists of countable or fixed

number of values is called finite population.

Examples? - whereas population which consists of infinite

number of values is called infinite population.

Examples?

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Parameter All numerical values calculated from

population is called parameter. And all these

values are denoted by Greek letters. e.g mean and

standard deviation are denoted by µ and s

respectively

Statistic All numerical values calculated from

sample is called statistic. And all these values

are denoted by small letters. e.g mean and

standard deviation are denoted by ? and s

respectively. If we study the total population of

fish in pond which is 100 then it is called as

parameter but if we study specific (20 fish) then

it is called as statistic.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Variable
- The characteristics which varies from individual

to individual is called variable e.g. height

variable, blood pressure level etc. - Types of variable
- Quantitative
- Qualitative
- A variable which can be measureable numerically

is called quantitative whereas a variable which

cannot be measured numerically only can be

described is called qualitative e.g. marital

status of man.

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Constant
- The characteristic which does not change is

called constant. - Examples?
- Data
- The information collect from the respondent is

called data. - Types of data
- Primary data
- Secondary data
- Primary data
- A collection of data at initial stage without

using statistical tool is called as primary data.

Examples?

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Sources of Primary Data
- Personal Investigation
- Through Investigators
- Through Local Sources
- Through Telephone
- Through Internet
- Through Questionnaire
- Secondary data
- It is an organized or compact form of data. It is

obtained from any organizations, institutions,

governments and semi-governments etc. The primary

data converted into secondary data after applying

some statistical tools. Examples?

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Sources of Secondary Data
- Government Organizations
- Semi-government Organizations
- Teaching and Research Organizations
- Research Journals and Newspapers

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Scales of Measurement
- Measurement Measurement refer to Assigning of

number to observations or objects. - Scaling Scaling is a process of measuring.
- Four Scales of Measurements
- Nominal Scale
- Ordinal Scale
- Interval Scale
- Ratio Scale

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Nominal Scale (Weakest form of

measurement) The classification or grouping of

the observations into mutually exclusive

qualitative categories or classes is said to

constitute a nominal scale. e.g. Sex , Race,

Religion, Country Rainfall may be classified as

Heavy, Moderate, Light Ordinal Scale (When

numbers are allocated in some order) It includes

the characteristics of nominal scale and in

addition has a property of ordering or ranking of

measurements. Attitude scale

Strongly agree, agree, disagree Social scale

Upper, middle, lower

Performance of players Excellent, good, fair,

poor

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Interval Scale It has separate categories, like

nominal scales and also has ordered categories

like ordinal scales. But the interval

measurements has no true zero point. Temperature

(80oF and 40oF is 26.7oC and4.4oC) Ratio

Scale In this scale the intervals are consistent

along the entire scale. The ratio measurements

has true zero point. Height of plant, weight

of students, volume, length,

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

- Questions
- Explain that the given statement follows which

types of data. - Sex of insect.
- Weights of plants.
- Major crops of Pakistan.
- Level of satisfaction.
- Teaching standards.
- Temperature measured in Fahrenheit.