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Introduction%20to%20Biotechnology%20and%20Drug%20Development

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Biotechnology%20and%20Drug%20Development


1
Introduction to Biotechnology and Drug Development
  • BIO 37
  • Michael G. Walker

2
  • Ph.D. Stanford University
  • Medical Computer Science
  • Dissertation on DNA sequence analysis
  • Consultant for Pharma Biotech
  • Roche, Affymetrix, Incyte
  • Renovis, Expression Diagnostics, Genomic Health
  • Consulting Professor, Dept. of Medicine

3
  • 30 patents for disease-related genes and
    sequence analysis methods
  • 30 publications
  • New England Journal of Medicine
  • Lancet
  • Genome Research
  • Gene Function and Disease
  • 3 FDA-approved New Drug Applications

4
Syllabus
5
What are genes?
  • Genes are the instructions on how to build
    humans, worms, viruses, and all life.
  • They are the control program, like software that
    runs a robot.
  • Genes direct the synthesis of proteins.

6
What do genes do?
  • Make our eyes blue or brown
  • Make peas green or yellow, smooth or wrinkled
  • Determine if we have head, arms, wings, tail,
    legs, brains
  • Determine what we eat
  • To a large degree, determine how we learn,
    behave, how if we reproduce.

7
  • Every cell in our bodies contains the same genes
    as every other cell.
  • Only some of our genes are turned on (expressed)
    in any tissue (muscle, brain).
  • Every human has the same set of genes as every
    other human.
  • with a few exceptions

8
  • Each gene is slightly different between any two
    people.
  • These differences change the instructions on
    exactly how to make a particular protein.
  • with a few exceptions

9
What are proteins?
  • Some proteins are building blocks (structural
    components)
  • Some proteins catalyze or regulate the creation
    of other building blocks

10
Types of proteins
  • Structural proteins
  • Muscle, skin, cartilage
  • Regulatory proteins
  • Insulin, human growth hormone
  • Transport proteins
  • Hemoglobin, lung surfactants
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