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Reflection on Instructional Practice


Reflection on Instructional Practice In a nutshell: Description describes WHAT you did, what happened. Analysis analyzes WHY you did it, why it happened. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reflection on Instructional Practice

Reflection on Instructional Practice
  • In a nutshell Description describes WHAT you
    did, what happened. Analysis analyzes WHY you did
    it, why it happened.
  • Reflection reflects on HOW it impacts student
    learning. DESCRIPTION asks the question WHAT?
    What is the setting? What is going on? What is
    the background? What does the viewer need to know
    to "see" the classroom (must be evidenced in
  • The richer the description the more there will
    be to analyze. If you dont have enough detail
    in your descriptive commentary, you will not be
    able to thoroughly analyze the teaching
    situation. When entries ask for rationale it
    is part analysis and part descriptive.

Reflection on Instructional Practice
  • ANALYSIS asks the question SO WHAT? So you had
    a class of students working on a math
    manipulative, small group session, finding the
    difference between perimeter and area. SO WHAT?
    So what do you see in the video, or what is seen
    in the student's work? What is significant???? RE
    FLECTION asks the question NOW WHAT? Now that
    you have analyzed your teaching, what are you
    going to do next? What worked well and will be
    continued as the class progresses? What did not
    work and, looking back on it, could have been
    different? (Knowing what did not work and how to
    improve that area is the sign of a reflective
    individual--no one is perfect.) What do you need
    to tweak? Who needs more assistance? Who has the
    information mastered and needs a next step? Why
    is it important to your teaching?

Reflection on Instructional Practice
    SUPPORT YOUR STATEMENTS. For instance, when you
    write about your teaching video, you need to
    provide specific (clearly seen) evidence (proof
    that what you say is there) to support your
    statements. A vague, unsupported statement is
    SKETCHBOOKS apply this model to all components
    of the ArtsAPS workshop by reflecting on your
    teaching, your creative process, your aesthetic

Reflection on Instructional Practice
  • Descriptive
  • What is the evidence?
  • What type of evidence (activity, lesson plan,
    work sample, assessment measure) we must be able
    to SEE it in videos
  • What happened?
  • What did I do
  • What was my role?
  • What is the context
  • When and where was it created
  • What was the setting
  • What were the circumstances
  • Context sets the scene for the practice, makes it
    come alive for the reader

Reflection on Instructional Practice
  • Analytical
  • Deals with reasons
  • Why did it happen?
  • How does this evidence illustrate the practice?
  • How does the evidence meet the rubric criteria?
  • Explains your reasons
  • How does this evidence address the practice?
  • How did the application of this evidence impact
    student learning?
  • Justify your rationale for the selected
    competencies and skills as related to this
    evidence and practice.

Reflection on Instructional Practice
  • Reflective
  • Personal reaction to experience
  • Reflection occurs after an experience or teaching
  • Is based on analysis
  • Reflection is a tool for assessing your own level
    of competence
  • What is important about what I have learned?
  • What did I learn about myself?
  • What did I learn about my students?
  • How will this action affect future instruction
  • How will you use what you have learned from
    experience to improve your instruction in he

Reflection on Instructional Practice
  • For example, The 3 girls at the back table work
    collaboratively as evident in the video. This is
    a statement and as such, does not have evidence
    from the video to back it up. This statement is
    stronger when accompanied with evidence cited
    directly from the video.
  • The 3 girls at the back table work
    collaboratively as evident in the video when the
    girl in the pink sweater asks the question about
    what to do when you add 1 to the equation. You
    will see that the girl with the blue shirt turns
    her graph around so the girl in pink can see it
    and shows the girl in pink the process. This
    last passage has a statement and then evidence to
    back it up as well as illustrate the candidates
    understanding of what was seen on the video.
  • Statement Evidence Stronger Statement
  • Think of supporting evidence for the following
  • I ensure equity and fairness in my classroom as
    seen _______________________
  • Students understood the concept by the end of
    the activity.
  • I set high expectations for my students.
  • Students were able to verbalize several reasons
    to support their thinking.
  • Statement Evidence ANALYSIS EVEN STRONGER!!!

Critical Criteria of Naturalism
  • Interpretive embroidery Describing a scene on a
    shield made by Hephaestus in the Illiad, Homer
    tells a whole story of claims and counter claims
  • But the men had flocked to the meeting place,
    where a case had come up between two
    litigantsthe defendant claimed the right to pay
    in full and was announcing his intention to the
    people but the other contested his claimboth
    parties then insisted that the issue should be
    settled by a referee

  • Ut Pictura Poesispoetry and painting are simply
    two ways of presenting a slice of reality in
    convincing imitationthis theme has dominated
    European thinking for centuries
  • From Leonardo to Lessing (1700s) favorite topic
    of debate to compare and contrast aspects of
    reality which would be most vividly represented
    by either painting or poetry (literature)
  • Commercial photography cut ground from under this
    kind of descriptive criticism.
  • WHY??

  • Compare this to literary criticism since the
    Renaissance it did not place as much emphasis on
    the exact imitation of reality as the visual arts
    and often retained an appreciation for style and
    structure not seen in art until the 20th century
    (ie literary criticism never saw literary work as
    transparent in the same sense as the visual arts
    were seen, and so did not disregard its formal
    and structural properties (think Shakespeare).
  • What rhetoric and literary criticism did do was
    emphasize the importance of bringing scenes
    vividly and convincingly before the imagination
    of the audiencethis is analogous to the quality
    of immediate presence in the visual arts, which
    is a quality highly prized in Chinese aesthetic
  • Immediate, vivid presence links with naturalism
    but is not identical to its critical criterion of
  • Speculate what is the difference between
    vividness and correctness?
  • This quality is present in Chardins work, but
    also the metaphysical compositions of De
    Chirico, Tanguy, and perhaps even Bosch. (Showing
    how vividness an convincingness are different
    from correctness).

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Naturalism vs. Chinese Aesthetics
  • One consequence of naturalistic
    interest/descriptive criticism a failure to
    develop terminology suitable for talking about
    the work of art as distinct from what the artwork
  • Became noticeable in the 20th century as critics
    concerned themselves with talking about the
    formal qualities of a work as opposed to its
    representational content.
  • Chinese aesthetics has talked about the artwork
    as a thing in its own right for centuriesthere
    is considerable difficulty accurately translating
    Chinese aesthetic terminology into Western
    linguistic equivalents as a result.

The Problem with Ugly
  • Why we should enjoy pictures of ugly subjects
    (such as a corpse) remained a fascinating problem
    for centuries. (Again, how many kids and parents
    think this way? Even parents of graduate students
    in painting want to know why their adult child
    leaves out things, distorts, uses unrealistic
    colorswe will see how there are developmental
    stages in aesthetic development when we look at
    Abigail Houssen and VTS in more depth)
  • The attempts to solve this problem are an
    important guide to aesthetic thinking throughout
    the history of naturalism in the western world
  • Edmond Burke, who gave voice to the Romantic
    Movement, echoed Aristotle in his solution When
    the subject of a painting is attractive, we
    disregard the artwork and take pleasure in the
    subject matter. When the subject is unpleasant,
    we admire its representation as a tour de force
    of imitational skill.

The Problem with Ugly
  • This is naive
  • Ignores the fact that artists tend to observe and
    represent the natural world in all of its forms,
    beautiful and ugly
  • The diversity of social situations, the
    grotesque, common place, vulgar, and banal have
    exercised an interest for representation and the
    high-minded and lofty themes have not survived
    outside the academies (Washington Crossing The

Real consequences of naturalism
  • This wasand ISan important issue given that we
    still confront parents, voters and policy makers
    who operate with a naturalistic aesthetic
  • Aesthetic theories have REAL WORLD implications
  • From the culture wars of the 90s over artists
    (Mapplethorpe etc) that resulted in elimination
    of funding for individual artists to debate over
    including the arts in the stimulus package

Aesthetics and Real World Consequences
  • These debates happen even though the arts
    generate as much revenue as sports
  • Art is an easy target
  • Nuance and sophisticated work can be easily
  • Tied to the cliché of the artist as an alienated
    outsider with a sour grapes, or playing on
    stereotypes of artists smearing excrement

Back to the Ugly
  • The problem of depicting the ugly was dissolved
    when the Romantic movement placed more emphasis
    on the characteristic over the beautiful and
    when theories of art as expression/communication
    came to the forerepudiations of naturalism that
    we will discuss later
  • Also, social realismDaumier, Courbet, Orozco (in
    literature Zola) gave a different twist to
    depiction of human misery because it was used to
    arouse peoples conscience and to better human
    conditionsbut these are extra-aesthetic

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MimesisThe Grand Theory
  • Mimesisroot of mimic
  • Mimesis was central to the discussion of the arts
    throughout antiquity and remains important up to
    the present.
  • Basically the word means imitation, but it has a
    broad range and we have no single English
    equivalent that captures all of its meanings.

  • Aristotle defined what we call the fine arts
    (minus architecturethe architect makes REAL
    buildings, not imitation buildings) as the
    mimetic artsbut we would find it strange to say
    music is a naturalistic art. Thus, they are not

Mimetic Music, Dance, Drama
  • But music was regarded as the most mimetic of all
    the arts because it imitates, in one view, the
    emotional dispositions and ethical attitudes of
    people (men), and in another imitates the
    mathematical harmony of the eternal realm of
    unchanging Forms or Truthbecause music is
    demonstrably mathematical in nature. Further, no
    clear distinction was made between music, drama,
    and dancethey were integral to each other. Music
    was not so much a thing as a quality.

MusicAn ambivalent view
  • Music was used as a tool of character
    educationwith the belief that each individual
    harmony would cultivate a certain kind of moral
    sentimentbut it was not valued for its sensuous
    sound in the way we do today, because it was also
    recognized that music could lead men away from
    the eternal verities and enchant them with the
    sensual worldso there was also suspicion
    regarding music.

  • QUESTION When was visual art education
    introduced on a broad scale, and what were the
    justifications for it?

Mimesis, NaturalismSplitting Hairs?
  • We talk of critical thinkingbut do we practice
  • The objective is not to make endless logical
    distinctionsbut to develop the ability to make
    refined conceptual distinctions that can then be
    related to the big picture
  • We have to know how to do this so we can teach
    our students to do it
  • This does not mean we need to teach ES students
    the difference between mimesis and naturalismbut
    we need to communicate how people in different
    times and cultures thought about art

Mimesis Origin of the Concept
  • The origin is most likely to be found in the
    rituals of the Dionysian cult in Ancient Greece,
    when mimesis was simply a term that referred to
    the actions performed by a cult priest. Far from
    imitating the outer world, mimesis designated the
    priest's expression, or the "reproduction," of
    the inner world, of the cults mythos, through
    dance, music, and singing.
  • It was in the sixth century B.C. that mimesis
    began to be used theoretically by Greek
    philosophers and started to mean the imitation of
    the external world.
  • Democritus mimesis was the imitation of
    processes found in nature, and was applied
    primarily to the utilitarian arts for instance,
    weaving imitated the spider spinning its Web,
    singing imitated the Nightingale, and building
    imitated the industrious swallow.

  • It was the philosophical triumvirate of Socrates,
    Plato, and Aristotle that articulated what was to
    become the predominant interpretation of mimesis.
    All three agreed that mimesis was the
    duplication of how things looked, but after that
    their interpretations parted company.
  • Socrates was interested in identifying the
    essential functions of paining and sculpture,
    concluding that their purpose was to copy the
    appearance of things. By paying attention to
    subtle details, an artist could imitate the
    soul when making figurative art Socrates
    thought that the artist imitates how things look,
    but in so doing must also express the workings
    of the mind," thus showing a person's inner
    character. (Again, a NEW PERSPECTIVE when
    compared to the Egyptians).

Mimesis Origin of the Concept
  • Plato, in his earlier work, actually flip-flopped
    between the Dionysian and Socratic meaning in his
    use of the term, sometimes applying it to music
    and dance, where it meant imitation as expression
    of an inner reality, and sometimes applying it
    the imitation of the external world in painting
    and sculpture. When it came to assigning a role
    for the arts in his Ideal society, Plato finally
    decided that mimesis meant the mentally passive,
    precise copying of nature as such, it was an
    inferior activity leading us away from the truth.

  • This made sense from Platos perspective because
    he thought the everyday, real world was already a
    pale reflection or copy of the truly real world
    of Eternal Ideas or Forms. This meant that the
    visual arts, which imitated nature, ended up
    being a copy of a copy, taking us even further
    away from the original world of truth than the
    senses do.

Mimesis Origin of the Concept
  • Aristotles theory of mimesis is more generous in
    its estimation of the arts, and stems from his
    view that mimicry is a basic urge children
    imitate behaviors of those around them in order
    to learn. When an artist imitates, Aristotle
    thought that they could portray real things
    either more or less beautiful than they really
    are, and could also present them as they ought to

And the Winners are
  • Aristotle Further, the visual arts shouldnt
    engage in a slavish copying of every single
    minute detail, but should imitate what is
    general, typical, and essential.
  • Eventually, the interpretation given to mimesis
    by Democritus, that of the imitation of natural
    processes, and the Dionysian usage were both
    supplanted by the views of Plato and Aristotle,
    with scholars in later centuries sometimes
    blurring the distinctions between the two.

Bottom Line
  • The idea of mimesis as a photographic, or
    exact, reproduction came from Classical Greece,
    and it is this sense of the term that came to
  • Although different concepts, we should see
    mimesis as the first and rather vague precursor
    to the emerging concept of naturalism, so they
    are closely linked.