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Prokaryotic Cells

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Prokaryotic Cells Advanced Higher Biology Prokaryotic Cells pro before karyo nucleus Prokaryotes were probably the first forms of life on earth. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prokaryotic Cells


1
Prokaryotic Cells
  • Advanced Higher Biology

2
Prokaryotic Cellspro before karyo nucleus
  • Prokaryotes were probably the first forms of life
    on earth. Their heredity material (DNA) is not
    enclosed within a nuclear membrane. There are no
    membrane bound organelles within a prokaryotic
    cell.

3
Prokaryotic Cells
  • The absence of a true nucleus only occurs in 2
    groups.
  • Bacteria
  • Blue green algae (cyanobacteria)
  • Five structures, which are always present in a
    prokaryotic cell, are
  • cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome,
    circular DNA

4
Bacterial Cells
  • Hove no membrane bound organelles
  • Have a single circular molecule of DNA
  • naked DNA not associated with histones
  • Cell wall made of peptidoglycan

5
Prokaryotic cells Structure
Structure information
Capsule Glycogalyx firm or disorganised Adherence and protection
Nucleoid Region containing bacterial chromosome
Pili (fimbriae) Anchoring functions
Flagella Motility 3 parts basal body, hook and filament
Cell Wall Growth and division Peptidoglycan
Plasma membrane Phospholipids
Cell structures Cytosol fluid filled portion Ribosomes free or inner surface PM
Spores and cysts Survive unfavourable environmental conditions (metabolically inactive)
6
Structure of a bacterial cell
7
Activity
  • Copy and complete the following table
  • Include organelles, DNA, RNA and protein
    synthesis, ribosome, cell division, cell wall,
    cellular organisation.

prokaryotic Eukaryotic
organisms
Cell size
metabolism
8
Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
prokaryotic Eukaryotic
organisms Bacteria cyanobacteria Protista, fungi, plants, animals
Cell size 1 10 µm 10 100 µm
metabolism Anaerobic and aerobic Aerobic
organelles No membrane bound organelles Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, RER, SER
9
Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
prokaryotic Eukaryotic
DNA Circular DNA in cytoplasm DNA organised into chromosomes bounded by nuclear envelope
RNA and Protein Synthesis Synthesised in same compartment RNA synthesised and processed in nucleus Protein synthesis in cytoplasm
Ribosomes 70S Type 80S Type
Cell Division Binary fission Mitosis or meiosis
10
Essay 15 marks
  • List the similarities and differences between
    prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
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