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Total Lubricants USA Technical Training Series: Metalworking Coolants


Technical Training Series: Metalworking Coolants Coolants Water-containing fluids designed to: provide lubrication between tool and workpiece remove heat from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Total Lubricants USA Technical Training Series: Metalworking Coolants

Total Lubricants USATechnical Training
SeriesMetalworking Coolants
  • Water-containing fluids designed to
  • provide lubrication between tool and workpiece
  • remove heat from surfaces
  • flush away debris created during machining
  • Coolants are used in place of cutting oils
  • heat removal is about 2-3 times faster than oil
  • much thinner in composition which allows faster
    machining with closer tolerances
  • produce less misting than similar viscosity oils
  • typically are easier to dispose of

Coolant Use
  • Coolants are used to perform many different
    metalworking tasks including
  • turning
  • boring
  • drilling
  • sawing
  • honing
  • milling
  • grinding
  • broaching
  • gear hobbing, etc.

Metalworking Fluid Selection
  • Selection of a particular MWF depends on the
  • type of machine and operation
  • type of metal and speed of cut
  • machine lubrication requirements
  • MWFs must provide effective rust corrosion
    protection for the tool, workpiece, and machine
  • MWFs consist of 4 basic types
  • straight oils
  • emulsifiable (soluble) oils
  • synthetic fluids
  • semi-synthetic fluids

Types of Metalworking Fluids
Emulsifiable Oils
  • Known in the industry as Soluble Oils
  • Consist of about 75 - 90 oil
  • Usually formulated with naphthenic oils
  • Common additives include sulfur, chlorine, fats
  • Form oil-in-water emulsions
  • Provide good tool life, anti-weld properties, and
    rust corrosion properties
  • Typically provide the best lubricating properties

Synthetic Coolants
  • Contain large quantities of water but no oil
  • Form a clear or translucent solution when mixed
    with water
  • Have a higher pH than emulsifiable type oils
  • Provide benefits such as increased workpiece
    visibility, good wetting properties, stability,
    tramp oil rejection, and little rancidity
  • Formulated with rust corrosion inhibitors,
    extreme pressure enhancers, biocides,
    surfactants, anti-foam agents, more

Semi-Synthetic Coolants
  • Formulated much like a synthetic fluid but
    contain from 5 to 25 oil
  • Designed to combine the best features of both
    emulsifiable oils and synthetic fluids
  • Offer better lubricity than synthetic fluids and
    better visibility tramp oil rejection than
    emulsifiable oils
  • Provide a good finish on most non-ferrous metals
    and recommended where other fluids are not

Coolant Performance
  • Successful performance of any coolant depends
    primarily on proper
  • storage of the concentrate (neat coolant)
  • preparation of coolant dilutions for the initial
    charge and for daily makeup
  • maintenance of coolant dilutions including the
    use of good housekeeping techniques and
  • routine condition monitoring by a laboratory to
    detect and correct discrepancies before problems

Proper Storage
  • Storage methods are important to the success of
    the finished product
  • Improper handling can render a coolant useless or
    may lead to premature solution failure
  • Coolant concentrate should be stored inside
    between 50o and 100oF outside storage should be
  • Concentrate must be protected from moisture

Coolant Make-Up Water
  • Make-up water must be of suitable quality
  • The pH water hardness along with chlorides,
    sulfate, and iron content must be considered
  • Hard water can split emulsions and form scum
  • Chlorides can split emulsions and create rust
  • Sulfates may promote microorganism growth
  • Hard water discourages foam soft water provides
    the best emulsion stability

Coolant Dilutions
  • Coolant should be added at the point of maximum
  • Coolant mixtures should be prepared using
    dedicated mixing equipment and containers
  • To initially charge a system, it is necessary to
    know the sump capacity of a machine or system

Maintenance of Coolant
  • Coolant maintenance is absolutely essential to
    ensure consistent quality of manufactured parts
  • Daily checks are needed since coolant dilutions
    are constantly changing through carry-off on
    parts, water evaporation, oil leaks, etc.
  • Individual operators have the best ability to
    detect potential problems and maintain coolant
    solutions by performing simple daily checks

Maintenance of Coolant
  • Daily checks by operators should include
  • verifying coolant concentration
  • noting abnormal conditions such as excess tramp
    oil, solids, and/or foam, abnormal appearance or
    odor, etc.
  • Routine lab testing is performed by Total
    Lubricants to ensure satisfactory fluid
  • If a problem is detected from lab testing,
    corrective actions are implemented to ensure
    uninterrupted service from the coolant
  • Water vaporization from machine sumps usually
    makes it necessary to add makeup coolant at a
    reduced concentration level

Coolant Concentration
  • Concentration is the single most important factor
    to coolant success
  • concentration must be maintained as consistently
    as possible within an established range
  • rich concentrations may cause an increase in skin
    irritation, produce excessive foaming, reduce the
    coolants ability to remove heat, increase
  • lean concentrations can destroy tool life, create
    rust and corrosion problems, promote growth of
    microorganisms, and lead to rapid fluid failure

Concentration by Refractometer
  • A fast and easy method for checking coolant
    concentration is with a handheld refractometer.
  • A refractometer is an optical instrument that
    reads the amount of total solids by passing light
    through a sample of coolant.
  • Synthetic coolants produce the sharpest line on a
    refractometer soluble oils are often difficult
    to read accurately
  • Tramp oil or chemical contaminants may cause
    inaccurate readings

Routine Lab Testing
  • Coolant condition monitoring tests include
  • concentration
  • total alkalinity
  • total oil content (soluble/semi-synthetic)
  • pH
  • microbe activity (aerobic/anaerobic bacteria
  • solids
  • tramp oil
  • cation levels (Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Al)
  • conductivity
  • rust prevention properties

  • pH expresses the hydrogen ion concentration in a
  • pH scale ranges from 0-14 0-6.9 is acid 7.0 is
    neutral and, 7.1-14 is alkaline
  • pH is measured with pH paper or electronic meter
  • A high pH (8.5) promotes good protection from
    corrosion and microorganisms
  • A low pH is best for non-ferrous metals and is
    kinder to an operators skin.

Control of Microorganisms
  • Coolants provide an excellent environment for the
    growth and reproduction of microorganisms
  • Common microorganisms consist of bacteria and
    fungi (yeast and molds)
  • Microorganisms digest helpful ingredients and
    produce foul odors
  • Microorganism content is determined by growing
    cultures from coolant samples
  • Biocides may be added to fluid to combat growth

  • Some foam is good since it cleans machine
    surfaces and promotes good wetting properties
  • Excessive foam, however, is a safety hazard and
    may cause pump cavitation
  • Foaming is dependent on coolant concentration,
    water hardness, type of coolant, agitation, and
    severity of the operation
  • Foam may be effectively controlled with anti-foam

Tramp Oil
  • A layer which floats on the surface consists of
    split-out oil, carry-over oil, and/or process
  • Tramp oil causes incorrect refractometer
    readings, severe loading of grinding wheels, and
    a reduction in heat removal capacity and wetting
  • Failure to control tramp oil often leads to an
    increase in the growth of microorganisms
  • Effective control can usually be obtained by
    using oil skimmers and felt-covered wipers

Solid Contaminants
  • Solids are formed during the machining process
    and consist of fines, shavings, and dirt
  • Solids which are not effectively removed can
    scratch surfaces and interfere with close
  • Solids provide additional breeding ground for
    microorganisms and promote operator dermatitis
  • Most solid contaminants can be reduced or
    eliminated through the use of magnetic skimmers,
    filters, and chip separator devices

Operator Procedures
  • Prior to the beginning of the shift throughout
    the work day
  • observe the holding tank to detect any
    significant changes in tramp oil levels, dirt, or
    fungal growth (slime)
  • slime-type growth on walls should be reported as
    soon as observed so that an anti-fungal treatment
    can be added (line clogging can quickly become a
  • dirty sumps should be changed out as soon as
    production maintenance schedules permit
  • operators will obtain a feel for the general
    operating condition of their machine through
    daily inspections

  • Dermatitis is an irritation or inflammation to
    the skin
  • Coolants contain surfactants and wetting agents
    (soaps) which tend to dry skin
  • Alkaline cleaners, degreasers, solvents, and
    abrasive cleaners further irritate the skin
  • Common industrial irritants include kerosene,
    chlorinated solvents, acidic solutions, and
    metals including chromates, zinc, cadmium,

  • Factors external to the work environment which
    may cause dermatitis include
  • poison ivy, poison oak, ragweed, and sumac
  • white pine, Frazier fir, teak trees
  • lemons, oranges, onions
  • penicillin, sulfa-drugs, anti-histamines
  • dyes, bleaches, deodorants, nail polishes
  • wool, silk, nylon, leather, fur
  • detergents, polishes, waxes

  • Synthetic coolants tend to dry out skin the most
  • Dermatitis, by definition, is not caused by
    bacteria although bacteria may aggravate an
    existing case of dermatitis
  • Factors such as age, type of skin, previous
    exposure, duration of contact determine an
    individuals susceptibility level to dermatitis
  • Proper fluid maintenance and operator hygiene are
    key factors in preventing or reducing dermatitis