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SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.


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Title: SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.

SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the
economy and society of British North America
  • A. Explain the development of mercantilism and
    the trans-Atlantic trade.

Trans-Atlantic Trade
  • Characterized by competition between European
    nations as they sought to increase power and gain
    wealth through mercantilism
  • Involved colonies as locations that provided
  • Leads to trading of slaves and expansion of
    institution of slavery in America

Economic Development
  • Mercantilism economic principle followed by
    European nations during colonial era
  • Included concepts of
  • 1) acquire and maintain wealth to
  • increase power in world
  • 2) export more than imported
  • (favorable balance of trade)
  • 3) acquire colonies to provide resources
  • needed by mother country

  • Mercantilism also inspired Parliament to control
    transatlantic trade with its American colonies by
    passing the Navigation Acts in the 1660s.
  • All goods shipped to or from British North
    America had to travel in British ships, and any
    goods exported to Europe had to land first in
    Britain to pay British taxes.
  • Some goods could be exported to Britain only.
  • These restrictions were designed to keep the
    colonies from competing against Britain.
  • Some Americans responded by becoming smugglers.

  • Mercantilism inspired the British government to
    view its American colonies as sources of wealth
    that would make Britain wealthier stronger.
  • The more land the British could colonize in
    America, the less land in the New World there
    would be for France other European countries.
  • The more American goods the British could sell to
    other countries, the less money those countries
    would have for themselves.
  • Great Britain would get stronger, its European
    rivals would get weaker.

SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the
economy and society of British North America
  • B. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the
    African population, and African-American culture.

Middle Passage
  • Refers to trans-atlantic journey made by
    African slaves (16th-18th centuries)
  • One leg of the Triangular Trade that evolved
    across the Atlantic Ocean (Africa, Europe,

Triangular Trade routes in transatlantic trade
Pictures from Tom Feelings 1995 Book The
Middle Passage White Ships, Black Cargo
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Growth of the African Population
  • As tobacco farmers and other cash-crop farmers
    prospered, they greatly expanded the size of
    their farms.
  • There were never enough workers available to
    plant, grow, harvest the crops, so farmers
    turned to African slaves to do this work.
  • Many white colonists believed every black person
    was a savage who needed to be taken care of by
    white people.

Growth of the African Population
  • When the Virginia Company founded Jamestown in
    1607, there were no African slaves in British
    North America.
  • By 1700, however, there were thousands of African
    slaves throughout the British colonies.
  • The vast majority of these slaves were located in
    the southern colonies, where they supplied the
    labor required to support the regions
    agriculturally based economy.

Growth of the African population
  • By 1768, the English slave trade had a figure of
    53,000 slaves a year being shipped to the North
    American continent. Other slave traders included
    the French at 23,000, the Dutch at 11,000, and
    the Portuguese at 8,700 slaves being transported
    yearly from Africa. Estimates of up to 10 million
    slaves took the Middle Passage Voyage to reach
    the Americas.

The Middle Passage
  • The sea voyage that carried Africans to North
    America was called the Middle Passage because it
    was the middle portion of a three-way voyage made
    by the slave ships.
  • First, British ships loaded with rum, cloth, and
    other English goods sailed to Africa, where they
    were traded for Africans originally enslaved by
    other Africans.
  • Then, in the Middle Passage, the slaves would be
    transported to the New World.

The Middle Passage
  • The crew would buy tobacco and other American
    goods using profits they made from selling the
    slaves in the colonies, they would ship the
    tobacco and goods back to Britain.
  • This process was repeated for decades.
  • It was said that people in the colonial port
    cities could smell the slave ships arriving
    before they could see them.
  • The slaves were packed like bundles of firewood.
  • About two of every ten slaves died during the

African American Culture
  • In America, slaves attempted to make the best
    of their lives while living under the worst of
  • Slave communities were rich with music, dance,
    basket weaving, pottery making.
  • Enslaved Africans brought with them the arts
    crafts skills of their various tribes.
  • Indeed, there could be a hundred slaves working
    on one farm each slave might come from a
    different tribe a different part of Africa.

SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the
economy and society of British North America
  • C. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of
    social mobility and individualism.

Benjamin Franklin
  • Scientist
  • Inventor
  • American Statesman
  • Philosopher
  • Musician
  • Economist
  • Printer
  • Librarian
  • American Individual

  • Born January 17, 1706
  • Franklin died on April 17, 1790 at the age of 84.
    20,000 people attended the funeral

Benjamin Franklin An American Life - Benjamin
Franklin, writes journalist and biographer Walter
Isaacson, was that rare Founding Father. The
revolutionary leader represents a political
tradition that has been all but forgotten today,
one that prizes pragmatism over moralism,
religious tolerance over fundamentalist rigidity,
and social mobility over class privilege.
  • America Land of the Self-Made Man
  • Benjamin Franklin best exemplified and first
    publicized America as the land of the mobile
    society. "He is the prototype of the self-made
    man, and his life is the classic American success
    story the story of a man rising from the most
    obscure of origins to wealth and international
    preeminence," one of his many biographers, Gordon
    S. Wood, wrote in 2004.

Benjamin Franklin (2c)
  • Benjamin Franklin, along with George Washington,
    is the best known of Americas Founding Fathers.
  • Franklin was born into a poor Boston family in
  • At age 12, he became an apprentice to one of his
    brothers, who was a printer.
  • At age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia to
    start a life of his own choosing, independent
    from his family.
  • A few months later he sailed to London to gain
    more experience in the printing business.

Benjamin Franklin (2c)
  • He returned to Philadelphia in 1726 as an
    experienced printer, writer, and businessman.
  • These are just some examples of how, throughout
    his life, Franklin sought ways to improve himself
    (individualism) to rise in society (social
  • Over his 84- year life, Franklin succeeded in
    making himself one of the worlds leading
    authors, philosophers, scientists, inventors,

A penny saved is a penny earned.
Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man
healthy, wealthy and wise. -- Thoughts by
Benjamin Franklin from Poor Richard's Almanac.
Albany Plan of Union
SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the
economy and society of British North America
  • D. Explain the significance of the Great

The Great Awakening
  • Between 1720 and 1750 a widespread and intense
    revival of interest in religion occurred in the
    American colonies, a phenomenon that supporters
    called the Great Awakening.

George Whitefield
The most famous contributor to this contagious
religious response was the English itinerant
preacher George Whitefield.
The Great Awakening
  • Christian worship changed in the northeastern
    colonies in the 1730s 1740s.
  • Ministers said people would feel Gods love only
    if they admitted their sins.
  • People were told that each believer should seek
    his or her own personal emotional relationship
    with God, that doing this was more important
    than the Puritan idea of congregations gathering
    together to hear intellectual sermons.
  • These ministers attracted enormous audiences
    often traveled from colony to colony to preach to
    anyone who wanted to listen, regardless of what
    church he or she might belong to.

The Great Awakening
  • Christianity grew, although established churches
    lost members to the new way of Christian worship.
  • Some preachers said American society had become
    as corrupt as the English society the colonists
    ancestors had escaped.
  • As a result, some people started saying that
    America needed to cut its ties with Britain to
    keep its religion pure.
  • Jonathan Edwards George Whitefield were two of
    the most famous preachers of the Great Awakening.

Impact of the Great Awakening
  • A. New colleges to train
  • Brown, Rutgers
  • B. Divisions in denominations differences
    between those who
  • defined religion as a rational process
    (old lights) and those who
  • focused on experience (new lights).
  • C. Development of revivalism tradition in
    American religion. Future
  • outbreaks
  • 1) Second Great Awakening in first half of
    19th century--camp
  • meetings and frontier revivals
    featuring emotional appeals and
  • spontaneous religious expressions
  • 2) Charles G. Finney and Dwight Moody--19th
    century urban
  • revivalism with campaigns in many
  • 3) Billy Sunday, Billy Graham and mass
    meetings--20th century
  • revivalism

Geographic Regions Economies
  • New England lumber, fishing, merchants
  • Middle wheat, bread basket colonies
  • Southern Plantation system, tobacco, rice, indigo
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